Archives January 2020

The Role of Rituals and Society in Bereavement

TheRole of Rituals and Society in Bereavement

Q.1: The role of rituals and society in bereavement

Ritualsare collective affairs with staged events that follow some standardprotocol every time they are performed. They are social acts that arebased on humanity and serve as a means of communication. The primaryrole of rituals is to address the negative effects (including thedisruption of community networks and destruction of the familystructure) caused by death on the bereaved family and the society(Bourchier, 2001). In essence rituals have four major roles. First,they provide emotional stability to the bereaved persons by reducingtheir anxiety and keeping their emotions under control. Secondly,rituals help in validating the legacy of the dead by highlightingtheir valuable qualities that are worth imitating. Third, ritualsremind the society of what should be done or done in a different way.This is achieved by highlight on issues (such as injustices) thatmight have resulted in the death of the dead persons. Lastly, ritualsreassure the continuation of the family and the society by remindingpeople about the new roles they are expected to assume in order tofill the gap left by the dead.

Allpeople experience the sense of loss of loved ones, but the way thefeelings are expressed varies across cultures. This is becausedifferent communities have different beliefs, behaviors, values, andtraditions that affect the way they perceive death and conductthemselves in response to that death (Bourchier, 2001). Consequently,each community has its own practices and rituals that influence theway it expresses grief in a manner that is consistent with its valuesand beliefs. A family with people from different cultural backgroundswill likely have people who respond to grief in different ways. Thisimplies that the expression of grief acts as a reflection of culturalblend.

Q.2: Grieving and resilience

Theempirical and theoretical work of Bananno (2008) aimed at answeringthe question of how people cope with trauma, loss, and other forms ofadversity with a focus on resilience role of personality andemotional regulatory process. Bananno made a clear distinctionbetween resilience and delayed reactions and reported that thereality of delayed reaction has not even been proven in thelongitudinal studies. Until recent, theorists held that the absenceof psychopathology following an exposure to traumatizing situationsoccurred in people with special emotional strength. However, there issufficient evidence that resilience to traumatizing situations iscommonplace, and it does not indicate exceptional strength. Accordingto Bonanno &amp Mancini (2008) resilience can now be regarded as oneof the fundamental features of coping skills. In addition, recoveryand resilience can be clearly distinguished in cases of loss,potential trauma, or major illness.

Banannobelieves that human beings are designed to grieve and a good numberof them can be classified a resilient mourners. Resilient mournerstruggle with the loss for a moment (few days or weeks) and get backto their normal lives and functioning. This group of mourners may notresolve the underlying loss, but they have the ability to continuefunctioning (Bonanno &amp Mancini, 2008). Although it is generallyperceived that resilient mourners consider grief a process of lookingfor comfort, Bananno tries to ensure that this category of themourner is not punished inadvertently. He tries to suggest thatdifferent people express feelings in different ways and in varyinglevels. For example, some bereaved persons feel relieved after aloss, especially in cases when a long-term is the major cause ofdeath. In this case, a resilient mourner may perceive death as a wayof opening up new opportunities for them.

Q.3: The attachment theory

Asupportive relationship and the type of caring that people receiveduring childhood determine their ability to trust in themselves aswell as other and increase the level of efficacy. The attachmenttheory gives an explanation and a description of people interactswith each other from the biological and psychological points of view.From a biological point of view, the left part of the brain isresponsible for verbalizing internal feelings and thoughts, creatinglife stories, and autobiographical narratives (Schore, 2003). Theright side, on the other hand, is non-verbal and is responsible forhuman emotions and mediation of human emotional and physiologicalstate. People’s ability to verbalize feelings and experiences theyreceived from caregivers enables the right and the left sides of thebrain to work together and gives an individual the ability to makesense out of precedent occurrences. The ability to make sense out oftraumatic events affects resilience more than the trauma itself. Fromthe psychological point of view, the treatment that one receives fromcaregivers determines whether people will believe in themselves andfeel worthy or lovable. This eventually determines how peopleinterpret traumatic events in later life.

Traumaticexperiences are closely associated with one’s ability to establisha connection between the left and the right hemispheres of the brain.This reduces one’s ability to create a coherent story of theirlives. Healthy attachments provide an opportunity for people with ahistory of traumatic emotions to integrate the two hemispheresthrough the verbal expression. A successful integration of the twohemispheres enables the affected person to change internalizedperceptions, increased ability to regulate emotions, achieve selfawareness, and continuation of healthy development of the brain(Schore, 2003). This implies that a counselor or a friend workingwith a person who was insecurely attached should focus onestablishing the connectivity between the hemispheres in order tohelp the affected persons realizes themselves.

Q.4: Meaning making

Meaningmaking is a relational, complex, and an ongoing process that is basicto the conceptualization of grieving. This process involves anattempt by individuals to become proactive towards the reconstructionof a meaningful understanding of their world and their place in thatworld (Neimeyer, Burke, Mackay &amp Stringer, 2009). However, theability of individuals to constructive narratives of their place inthe world varies because the process of conceptualization isdetermined by some exclusive and a precise definition of meaning,which in turn provides a satisfactory response. This implies thatwhat constitutes a meaning differs from one person to the otherdepending on the person’s loss event and social-cultural history.This concept of constructivism is based on the proposition thatpeople are provoked to construct their meaningful self-narrative by acognitive behavioral structure that is responsible for theorganization of daily life into micro-narratives.

Theimpact of the process of constructing the meaning of life can bederived from narratives or self-stories people use in trying toexplain events that occur in their lives. Narratives provide aneffective way through which people learn about others’ perceptionof their traumatizing events. A loss of loved one or any othertraumatizing event can dislocate the stories that people tell aboutwho they think they are and how they understand the world (Neimeyer,Burke, Mackay &amp Stringer, 2009). Therefore, bereavement refers toa reflexive and a never-ending conversation with others and self. Theconversation between a bereaved person and a professional counseloraims at helping people shape the meanings that govern theirexperience and assist them in handling grief processes that occurnaturally. In essence, narratives are expressions of how people viewthemselves and the world.

Q.5: Elements of meaning making

Thekey elements of the process of meaning making (including sense makingand benefit finding) help in understanding of how different peoplemanage grief. Sense making involves the determination of how deathfits into human understanding of the world and activities that peopleneed to undertake in after a loss in order to change theirunderstanding of the world (Neimeyer, 2009). Benefit finding, on theother hand, involves finding the good that come from death andlessons (including valuing relationship, self-awareness, andenhancing life appreciation) learned from death. This implies thatthe ability of bereaved people to make sense out of loss and identifythe benefits of loss is positively associated with the rate ofrecovery. Consequently, lack of ability to make sense and identifythe benefits of loss slows down the process of recovering from grief.

Theresponse of the community towards the marathon bombing variesdepending on the ability of individual members of the community tomake sense out of the bombings and identify the benefits of bombing.People who have the ability to embrace the two elements of meaningmaking learned three major lessons from the bombing. These lessonsinclude the appreciation of the efforts applied by others in makingthem feel comfortable, understanding that mental therapy works, and arecognition of individuals’ commitment to keep peace (Ameen, 2014).Those who are unable to embrace the elements of meaning making, takea long time to recover and live to blame other people for the loss.


Ameen,E. (2014). Findingsilver linings after the Boston Marathon bombings.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Bonanno,A. &amp Mancini, D. (2008). The human capacity to thrive in the faceof potential trauma. Pediatrics,121 (2), 369-379.

Bourchier,C. (2001). Ritualsof mourning: Bereavement, grief, and mourning in the First World War.Calgary, AB: University of Calgary.

Neimeyer,A., Burke, A., Mackay, M., &amp Stringer, G. (2009). Grief therapyand the recognition of meaning: From principles to practice. Journalof Contemporary Psychotherapy,1, 1-11. DOI 10.1007/s10879-009-9135-3

Schore,N. (2003). Advancesin neuropsychoanalysis, attachment theory, and trauma research:Implications for self psychology.Oakland: University of California.

Plays as Film YOUR _

Plays asFilm YOUR _



Type your answers here and take asmuch space as you need.

  1. State and explain the premise of the play?

A: The premise is that Romeo and Juliet are two lovers who fight allodds to ensure that they end up together in marriage. There is muchhatred between the Capulet and Montague families over long termsfeuds that have been there for long. The two lovebirds struggle tokeep their love affairs from their families since they don’t wantany form of interference from them.

  1. Describe the exposition.

A: The film is concerned with showing the younger generation theimpacts that families’ relations have on love affairs. The filmteaches the audience that they can go beyond their limits to followtheir hearts and do what they believe is best for them. The story istold in a modern fashion where music, context, and costumearrangements are well documented.

  1. What is the inciting incident? Give the exact line or action.

A: The inciting incident is where Romeo meets Juliet for the firsttime and they end up kissing without even taking time to know eachother’s name.

  1. Why is this the inciting incident?

A: It is because the whole play has been centering on the lives andactivities of these two characters that happens to hail from familiesthat have a lot of hatred for each other. Their meeting andunexpected fall in love becomes a controversial event in the story.

  1. Describe the events of the rising action.

A:The rising action is portrayed by the events that happens betweenthe meeting of Romeo and Juliet and their secret weeding. The peoplethat facilitate this are the maiden nurse and Friar Lawrence whoconducts their activities in secrecy.

  1. What is the climax? Give the exact line or action.

A: The plans by the nurse and Friar Lawrence to wed these twolovebirds in secret becomes the climax since the audience isconcerned with what will happen after the wedding that does notinvolve parents of the two lovers. It is clear that after thiswedding the search for a soul mate for both parties shall come to anend.

  1. Why is this the climax?

A: It is the climax because the audience expects the Romeo andJuliet to marry one another since they are so in love and are fond ofeach other. The marriage has to be the end of their searchingactivities since each seems to have found the right person.

  1. Describe the events of the falling action.

A: Falling action comes about when Romeo flees from the territoryafter killing a fellow country man. The audience is not sure if thetwo love birds will ever meet again after the letter sent by FriarLawrence to Romeo fails to be delivered as expected.

  1. Describe the denouement/resolution.

A: resolution comes about when Juliet is instructed by Friar Lawrenceto pretend to be dead to avoid marrying another man. Romeo comes backonly to find that Juliet is “dead” thus prompting him to killhimself. Juliet comes out of grave to find that Romeo is dead and shealso decides to take her own life.

  1. If you were to adapt this play to a film (or vice versa for lesson 11) what would you change or do differently and WHY?

A:Addition of music shall be critical in the sense that there arevarious scenes, which shall need background music to help in bringingout various tones and moods that shall help to boost both theunderstanding and participation of the audience.


Written Assignment 7

WrittenAssignment 7



WrittenAssignment 7


Q1.Epidermal cells play a major role in water conservation movements ofgrasses.

Q2.Cytokinins are groups of chemicals that stimulate cell division.

Q3.Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is an example of an auxin or auxin–like growthregulator.

Q4.Turgor movements can be caused by pulvini.

Q5.The suppression of axillary or lateral bud growth by the terminal budis called apical dominance.

Q6. Light causes auxins to produce a stronger response in plants as aneffect of light on auxins.

Q7. Lactifers cells twist a leaf petiole to keep it oriented towardthe sun throughout the day.

Q8. Trilene is apparently synthesized from carotenoid pigments inplastidsQ9. Acetyl CoA is a precursor to gibberellinsynthesis

Q10.A precursor is a simple molecule that produces a new molecule afterreacting with another molecule

B.True/False Questions

Q12.Florigen has not yet been proved to exist, and the theory thatflowering hormones exist has been discarded. True

Q13.An etiolated plant is spindly and pale. TrueQ14. Phototropicresponses can vary according to light intensity. TrueQ15.In dryweather, increased turgor causes grass leaves to roll up. True

Q16.Day–neutral plants do not need a specific period of light toflower. FalseQ17. The coiling of plant tendrils and the twiningof climbing plant stems are examples of gravitropism. FalseQ18.Abscisic acid promotes senescence. TrueQ19. A taxis is amovement usually found in flowering plants. TrueQ20. Ethylenegas is used to ripen bananas for the supermarket. TrueQ21.Herbaceous dicots are the least sensitive to auxins. True

.Discussion Questions

Q22.The Darwins` experiment on grass seedlings showed that the tip of thecoleoptile somehow influenced the bending toward light. The Darwinswere not sure whether the influence was chemical, electrical, orsomething else. How did Went`s experiment show that the influence waschemical?

Went’sexperiment proved a chemical change through the ireversable changesof the grass seedlings. The grass seedlings illustrated an effect ofa regulation in the absolute energy consumption. Went’s experimentshowed the difference in water exchange in the grass seedlings andthe resultant effect on gaseous exchange. Went’s experimentjustifies that plants respond different towards various lightintensities. This experiment explains the chemical change throughclose observations on coleoptile and the plant hormone behavior.

Q23.Explain the difference between climacteric and nonclimacteric fruitand discuss the commercial value of knowing the difference.

Aclimacteric fruit requires the ethylene for the process of ripeningwhile the nonclimacteric fruit ripens without the ethylene. Aclimacteric fruit example is the mango that requires the ethylene forthe ripening process. An orange is an example of a nonclimactericfruit since the orange ripens without the use of the ethylene. Thecommercial value of understanding the difference translates to largescale farming for timely profits.

Q24.Explain the difference between dormancy and quiescence and describetwo methods of artificially breaking dormancy in some seeds

Dormancyis a condition where the seed fails to germinate due to prevailingcondition. Dormancy is defined as a condition where the seed cannotgerminate until exposed to special events or triggered conditions.The conditions originate from effects from the absicsic acid restinga plant phase.Quiescence is a state where the seed is in a suspendedgrowth or development. During the quiescence, the seed may resumegrowth upon allocation of favorable growth conditions such as oxygen.In quiescence, the embryo is in a state of resting which isreversible upon provision of favorable conditions.Artificial methodsof breaking seed dormancy include scarification which entailsweakening the seed coat through chemicaltreatments. Other methodsinclude exposing the dormant seeds to the light through airing onrooftops or other open place in the sun.

Q25You want to enjoy your lettuce crop as long as possible. How wouldyou prevent it from bolting?

Plantinglettuce in shaded areas of the given garden help prevent the boltingresulting in successful harvests. The process entails soaking thelettuce before planting, planting behind tall plants in the gardenand providing sufficient water capacities during the hot weather. Theplanting soil should be moist before planting to avoid the lettucebolting. An extended procedure should include covering the lettucesoils with a layer of damp soil. This waters the lettuce regularlyover the hot season or period. Lettuce should be grown in the housewhere the light conditions can be regulated. This procedure requirestimely exposure of the lettuce to sun with raw covers as extraprovisions.

26.Discussthe ecological advantages of dormancy and quiescence to a plant. Anext germination process requires a dry condition to influence apositive ecological difference based on imbibition process.Advantageous processes revolve around complete embryonic procedure tocontribute to the general seed structure and formation. Seedlingestablishment is a defined advantage originating from completegermination.

Designan experiment to prove or disprove that plants react to soothingmusic. (Review experimental design study notes from unit 1.)

Acontrol experiment involves observational procedure of stimulireaction based on various environmental conditions ranging frommusical and heat earth reciprocatesmeasures. Resultant effectsformulate from common stimuli of a general germination process

Memo and Business Letter   


Memoand Business Letter


June14, 2014.

TO: Birdman Stevenson, Manager Director, Brooklyn, Inc.

FROM:Nickson Brown, Marketing/Sales Bretonwood, Corp.

July 14, 2014.

RE:Quoted Price error.

Weare grateful for the good business we have had with your company forlong. Thank you for the information you supplied us concerning delayin shipping your supplies. Breton woods agree that we are late inshipping due to the pricing error in the quoted price by oursalesman.

Bretonwoods also understand the inconvenience caused by failing to deliverthe supplies on time and your need to have in place the requiredmaterials for the purpose of production. There was a mistake in thequoted price by the salesman for the usual price than our usual $70per thousand pieces for&nbspthe widget. Our profits are 15 percentsat this price and the quoted price by the sales person was too closeto the real costs without even an allowance for changes in steelprices.

We,therefore, halted the shipping of the suppliers so that we couldnotify you on the slight problem.We wish to process the transaction at the usual price in order toavoid further inconveniences and recoup time wasted coping with theerror. However, we request you to notify us on any problems thatarise early so that we can be part of the investigative process.

Themajor cause of errors between our organizations is due to lack of adirect relationship in regard to our respective sales departments. Asyou know, Breton wood still uses several different salesmen withreference to the same Breton wood part numbers. In addition, many ofyour part requirements descriptions incorrectly adds to the salesprocess confusion.

Itis therefore, necessary that we clear this up to avoid futureconfusion between our sales departments with your company. Cleardescriptions on part needed should be emailed in documents and copiedto the sales manager to track down on the problem and avoid timewastage later. We accept any inconvenience fees related to thesetypes of errors in the future.

Ifour parts or the salesmen result in the necessity for this sort oferrors or re-work, we want to be notified in time so that we canaddress the problem effectively and timely.

Ifwe are at fault, we will accept responsibility and ensure Bretonwoodhas their salesmen trained and briefed on the correct pricing of thevarious parts they need at all times either through re-work or areplacement shipment, at our expense.&nbsp

Weassure your firm that we will be proactive in a true spirit ofpartnership with you as we pursue the reasons for such errors andaddress them in a timely manner.


Onceagain, thank you for your business.





NicksonBrown,9611-00300, Maryland, Amherst Avenue.Tel. No.+1-856-304-7400, Email: [email protected]15thJuly 2014.The Managing Director,Comcast CableCommunications, Inc,1800 Bishops Gate Blvd, Mt Laurel, NJ,08054, US


USA.DearMr. Johnston Barrister, RE:APPLICATION FOR DIRECT SALES REPRESENTATIVE JOBIenclose my application for the above mentioned post which appeared onMonster com website career page on Tuesday 15th July 2014. The postpresents me with an interesting opportunity to serve and apply myvast skills as a direct sales Representative with your firm in thesales and marketing department.

Asa direct sales representative at Brighton Cables Corporation and as amarketing sales agentat Curtis-Wright Cable Corporation, I&nbspacquired great deal of &nbspexperience in direct sales andmarketing of electronic items. This involved making customerprospectus plans, making sales appointment with new clients,preparing sales transactions for customers, venturing into newmarkets and making follow up on existing customers in regard tocompleted products queries.

Inaddition, I maintained excellent customer databases and forwardedcustomerqueries to the firms’ sales engineer. I exceeded myexpectations by meeting weekly and monthly sales targets. Inparticular, while working at Brighton Cables Corporation, I solditems worth $50 million to clients both locally and abroad. In theseplacements, I acquired a great deal of customers’ relation skills,price negotiation, persuasiveness and excellent marketing. All thesemake me, make me feel more competent for the above mentioned post.

IKnow Comcast Cable Communication, Inc. for its excellent products,excellent service to clients and its wide market share. I got to knowthis information from clients who requested to know if I was dealingwith their products. Therefore, I look forward to being part of yourexcellent sales and marketing team in this company as the companywidens its sales output and marketing the firm’s brandname.Additionally, I have a strong academic background inSales and Marketing from studies at Boston University and SalesAdministration from Wisconsin University. In the same note, I amproficient in the sales process, communication and proficientcomputer skills which I believe arevaluable assets to yourfirm.In regard to my vast previous experience in salesand marketing, I believe I am competent, and look forward to meet youfor more discussion on my merit. I am readily available upon contactanytime.

Findthe attached detailed resume and other documents for yourperusal.Onceagain, thank you for your consideration.YoursFaithfully, NicksonBrown,Tel. No. +1-856-304-7400,Maryland, Amherst Avenue.

Time Voyage Report London 1918 Influenza


TimeVoyage Report: London 1918 Influenza

TimeVoyage Report: London 1918 Influenza

Thetrip to London was done through a time machine and involved two mainelements, the time spent and the achievement of the mission for thetrip. The trip took a total of two weeks to London and back. Themission of the trip was to explore the health situation at the timeof the influenza attack of the 1918 and 1919. The exploration of theattack of the two places will give the description of the healthsituation face by the Europeans during the 1918-1919 influenza attackin the continent. This report will provide the preparation, the tripto the two countries and the findings of the trip based on the CHEAPperspectives.


Thefirst step of the preparation was to constitute the team that wasinvolved in the most interesting health trip of our department. Theteam consisted of ten people. Two experts on public health from theHoward Hughes Medical Institute in Indiana two faculty members, twostudents, three crew members of the time machine and me, as theleader. The financing of the trip to the two European countries wassponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, who also providedthe expertise to join the team as a way of enriching our knowledgewith their experience. The crew members are experts in the timemachine and carried enough batteries as a cautious measure of anyeventuality that may lead to the extension of the trip.

Thereason for the taking London as the only destination is because theinfluenza attack was more severe in Britain than in other states ofthe European continent. The final preparation was three days ofbriefing that involved training, for the trip and the mission. Thetraining involved the epidemiological facts of the influenza diseaseand the review of all the literature related to the epidemic. Inaddition, a lot of knowledge was learnt from the two experts thatHoward Hughes Medical Institute provided for the trip. The facultymembers also provided very rich information on the pandemic and theexpected safety measures we need for the voyage.


Onthe day, we made the final ten-minute briefing as a review of themission and left for London and the trip aboard the fully-functionalprototype time machine. We arrived in London in December of 1918,safely with out any eventuality of an attack by the British World War1 enemy. The next day, we engaged in an interrogative interactionwith the regional health officer in the city of London, Mr. Charles.Charles gave us the briefing on the health situation and the effectthe attack is affecting all the sectors of the country. Mr. Charlesnoted that “The influenza pandemic has persisted for the lastseveral months and was depleting the health human resources as wellas the financial resources of the country” (Charles, PersonalInterview, 1918).


Theclinical Perspective

Theage epidemiology for the influenza attack involving all the agessince influenza attacked all people. However, one of the attendantsat a local hospital, we interviewed, Madam Kelly noted that“Influenza affected children and women more than the men” (Kelly,Personal Interview, 1918). Kelly took us to the patient wards wherewe observed the symptoms as we were allowed to interrogate somepatients. The symptoms of the influenza includeheadacheat the central part,SystematicFever, which was highand muscular Tiredness Experiencedas general tiredness. In additionthe Jointsof victims ached regularlywith regularlyrunning noses, and sore throats. Moreover, patients had respiratorySymptoms like coughing as well as vomiting. According to

Mr.Charles Personal Interview (1918) described that the government hasacquired enough vaccines to prevent further infections. He statedthat, “we are using flu short and naval spray as the main methodsof vaccination. The treatment for the disease included seclusion onthe infected members in addition to medical provision to patients. Atthe hospital, Kelly explained the “We are usingzanamivir&nbspand&nbsposeltamiviras the neuraminidaseinhibitors.


Afterthe hospital visit and laboratory tests, we established that theinfluenza attack was caused by the H1N1 subtype of Influenza A virus.To know the origin of the virus sought the help of Mr. Charles totake us to the British health records center where we could examinethe public health officer in charge. The next day he introduced us toMr. George, who allowed us to have an examination of the records andinterview him. We established that the influenza virus was certainlythe avian. This conclusion was consistent with the assertion that thevirus was the H1N1 Influenza A (Johnson,2006).

Accordingto the experts, the perceptions of people in the beginning were notappreciating the danger of the attack and regularly ignored healthwarnings (Mr.George, Personal Interview, 1918). George explained that “thesituation could be contained if people had adhered to the initialpreventive warnings and measures.” The evolution of treatment wasstill in progress because the health department had not adopted thefinal treatment dosage.


Themain gainers were the hospitals and medical practitioners who earnconsistent income from the patients. Other gainers of the attack werethe British opponents in the World War 1 that were in progress asthey used less economic resources than the British who had to treatthe soldiers. The main losers were patients as they succumb to theinfluenza infection due to health weakness or late treatment. Thegovernment lost economically viable workforce and soldiers in theFirst World War. In addition, the British Government spent a lot ofdirect a lot of national income to combat the influenza pandemic, atthe expense of other important sectors of the economy such aseducation.

Accordingto Charles (1918), the pandemic led to limited traveling andmigration of people since the government introduced restrictivemeasures to contain the situation. Even if at this time the infectionrates were still high, the restrictive movement had helped to reducethe rates of the spread of the virus from region to region.


Wesought the help of the Mr. George to introduce us to the nationalarchives and creative center. We discovered a drawing by one of thelocal artists showing the might of the influenza virus over thepolice (Picture A).

Catherine,a student sought to know why the artist drew this picture

Catherine:What inspired the artist to draw this?

GalleryAttendant: The artist realized that the pandemic was stronger thanany military force or arms in killing

Catherine:why did the artist draw the influenza as a human being looking like adevil?

GalleryAttendant: This is because the pandemic is within the people and iskilling people. But, notice the wings included on the devil, to showthe pandemic is connected to the birds.

Catherine:Thank You

Thisshows how the artists interpreted the situation on the ground and thevulnerability of the people in the pandemic.

PublicHealth Perspectives

Thegovernment introduces regulations to try and combat the spread of thevirus. The most rapid response was the closure of elementary schoolsdue to the prevalence and to prevent fatal attacks (Charles, PersonalInterview, 1918). In addition, the government limited the gatheringssuch as the reduction of music hall performances to just three.

Accordingto Charles, the authorities also adopted public health education,which was significant in creating awareness of the pandemic. Inaddition, we learn that both the national British government as wellas the local authorities in Britain implemented consistent laws incollaboration with the public health authorities (Craddock &ampVernick, 2010). While the vaccination became mandatory, the healthauthorities started programs that helped the vaccination andtreatment of the virus.


Aftertwo weeks in London, we concluded our operations and held a briefmeeting with Mr. Charles on the day of departure. We arrived backsafely, aboard the time machine. The information gathered on theinfluenza pandemic in London pointed out as the H1N1 influenza Avirus whose prevalence was not only in Europe but in the entireEurope. The government took viable measures to combat the pandemicthat had cost its economy and was on the brink of halting itsmilitary plans in the First World War. However, the vaccination,treatment and public educational and health programs helped thecountry to reduce the rate of the spread of the deadly disease. Thistrip was not only educative but helped us to experience the line realexperience of the situation caused by the 1918/1919 influenzapandemic.


Charles,Steven. Personal Interview, 1918.

Craddock,S., &amp Vernick, T. G. (2010). Influenzaand Public Health: Learning from Past Pandemics.London: Earthscan

George,Pius. Personal Interview, 1918.

Johnson,N. (2006). Britainand the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic:ADark Epilogue.New York: Routledge

Kelly,Johanes. Personal Interview, 1918.

Air Handling Unit Project


AirHandling Unit Project

AirHandling Unit Project

Thereis increasing need to examine the most effective Roof Top Unit forthe application within an organization. The essence of installing thenew system ranges from the need to conserve the environment, based onUnited States statistics the primary energy is mainly consumed on ayearly basis for cooling, ventilating, and heating commercial space(Criscione, 2011). Going by the 2003 Energy Consumption Survey onCommercial Buildings, the study of 2003 estimated that rooftop unitshandle 2.7 billion square feet of mercantile floor space or packagedair conditioning. Installing a new effective 4 Ton Roof Top Unit in asmall office, provides an average of HVAC Energy Saving of 35percent. It also reflects an average annual dollar savings of $1,500, as well (Criscione 2011). In order for the projects to run asplanned, some aspects must be determined in prior before the projectkicks off.

1to 8 Ton Roof Top Unit

PackagedAir Conditioner (PAC) Roof Top Unit system

Itis one of the major approved systems that align with the stipulatedbenefits applicable to a small office offering an average of HVACenergy saving of 35 percent and also annual dollar savings of $ 1,500(Chisholm, 2010). It is a device, which has undergone various testsby different independently third-party organizations indicating theeffectiveness and efficiency of the system. This positions thesystems as one of the most effective systems that can be installedinto an organization to meet the set standards and offer efficientservices.

Operationof the Unit and Installation set up

Throughintegrating other significant devices attached to rooftop systemdevices, the system operates efficiently highly reducing energy basedon the retrofit measure conducted in relation to the system. Thesystem enables a high percentage on whole building energy saving,normalized annual electricity saving, average electricity savings,based on rate cases, and also average electricity savings undervariable speed cases (Criscione, 2011). The system can regulateheating energy that increases in all climate created due to the lessfan energy imparted to the supply airstream during the hearing season(Duke, 2011). It can save the average energy hence saving onretailer’s electricity while increasing natural gas. The Unitcomponent can be used aligns with the required cooling capacitywithin the small office.


Toensure the effectiveness of the Rooftop Unit, it is essential toidentify and address some of the efficiency issues attached. Some ofthe issues frequently attached to such units ranges from inherentequipment configuration, maintenance issues, and design (Chisholm,2010). Addressing these issues in relation the equipment sizing,prevalence of constant speed fans plus the lack of regularmaintenance can affect the system. Some of the issues to identify andregulate especially under equipment sizing is based on not regulatinghumidity control, fluctuating the room temperature, compressor shortcycling, noisy interior conditions for the office occupants and highenergy demanded and consumption. This stipulates the essence ofensuring continuous support where the respective attached issues areregulated (Criscione, 2011). This can be achieved through part loadoperation and excessive short cycling hence reducing the equipmentefficiency.

TheUnit is also likely to develop different complications emerging fromprevalence of constant speed fans. This may make it difficult toreduce the ventilation rate during hours. This can also lower energyconsumption. Embracing HVAC systems based specifications can mainlyaid to reduce the cost. The HVAC systems provide organizations withthe essence of regular maintenance. To improve the effectiveness ofthe Unit while also ensuring that the desired functionality areachieved on services, the recommended rooftop unit can be alignedwith the preceding incentives to increase performance and reducecost. Some of these incentives include installing VFDs, Technicalassistance for HVAC retro commissioning, purchasing new energyefficient rooftop units, and embracing custom HVAC measures(Chisholm, 2010). Such HVAC measures that can be applied to thesystem include control upgrades, water side and air sideeconomizers, constant volume to variable water or air distribution,exhaust heat recovery equipment, and ventilation controls based onthe demand based approaches (Duke, 2011). The system aims at ensuringthat quality is maintained at the air systems, the Roof Top Unit isused to maintain the quality of air that is run in the aircirculation systems

Auxiliaryequipment required

Theselected unit offers diverse benefits to an organization ifadequately maintained. To enhance effectiveness and efficiency of theunit installing VFDs, and smart saver can aid to facilitate the newsystem introduced into the small organization adequately embraceenergy management system specification among other significantentities (Criscione, 2011). Combining VFDs and some of the energysaving control strategies into the newly installed system can alsoenable the organization reduces the inefficiencies in the rooftopoperation. It will be accessed through a ladder to minimize wastageof space in the area. The ladder will be movable to make work easierfor anyone to access the storage room. The Roof Top Unit system isnot left unattended to, and it is because the management is used inensuring that quality is controlled, and systems run with no problems(Chisholm, 2010).


Installingthe recommended type of 4 Ton RTU (Roof Top Unit) system and theattached devices offers marginal benefits to the organization on thesmall office. Some of the control strategies connected to therecommended system not only increases energy conservation but alsolower cost on the implementation and servicing the new system (Duke,2011). Aligning the system with the proffered devices while alsoincensing maintenance allows the organization to minimize on thecost. Similarly, it will also be benefiting from different strategiessuch as demand control ventilation (in case the group expands theoffice). In the same manner, it would ensure advanced economizercontrol (systems with sensors comparing outside and return airtemperatures hence offering an optimum environment). The webinterface (where outline platform to access and modulate the rooftopcontrol system is offered), and fault detection and diagnosis(Chisholm, 2010). It allows the new system to monitor the essentialrooftop unit function such as the airflow, discharge air temperatureand compressor operation among others. There are various complicatedtasks that are expected to occur in the process of pursuing theinstallation of the air handling unit project. These challenges willinclude finances, time, physical and emotional challenges amongothers. However, these challenges will act as an eye open to prepareme for greater things in the office that can help ensure that thearea becomes a better place to work from in the future. Theimplementation of the recommended system provides a unique entitywhere the organization can align the set standards on energymanagement. It is also essential towards offering a favorable workingenvironment within the organization.


Chisholm,H., (2010). Ensuring Safety at the Workplace. (4thEd.).New York, Cambridge University Press

Criscione,P. (2011). A Dramatic Boost for Existing RTUs. Boulder: Consortiumfor Energy Efficiency.

Duke,E. (2011). Smart $aver® Incentive Program.Retrieved December 9,2012, from Duke Energy:

“Pioneers! O Pioneers!”


&quotPioneers!O Pioneers!&quot

&quotPioneers!O Pioneers!&quot

Thepoem by Whitman was dedicated to the pioneers who had searched andexplore a more fulfilling lifestyle and settled in the American West.The poem presents a literary piece that includes the audience as partof the title, he calls pioneers. Published in 1865, the poem waswritten at the time the United States had experienced the westwardexpansion. This event involved expansion of the united states towardsthe west, making the boundaries include the western states of thefederation. In most of the poem, Whitman pays a great homage to thesepioneers and invokes the audience to take the feeling of the authorfor the pioneers. The poem also reflects the time of the Californiagold rush of the19th century.

Thepoem praises the pioneers for they succeeded to turn the wildernessof the westward into a civilization. By recognizing the efforts takenby the pioneers, Whitman identifies his body and soul with thepioneers in the pursuit of progress. The progress being portrayed byWhitman, is the transformation that pioneers establish in the westernstates, which indicates their prophetic leadership style of that isvindicated by their work. Moreover, Whitman recognizes the sacrificestaken by the pioneers in their pursuit for victory as some died fromthe hardships they faced. According to Whitman (1865), some droopedand died in their pursuit of the successful journey.

Topresent the poem and the message, Whitman uses allegory and imageryto conceal the message and make sense of the circumstances. In thepoem, Whitman uses the words “western youths” to refer to theyoung nature of the United States, as the country was developing itshistory and territories (Edward &amp Fletcher, 1947). Whitman alsorefers to the European countries by using the words “elder races”and also calls them the “shrouded bards of other lands” thatexplored the American west. In addition, Whitman uses the firstperson as a way of involving the audience in reflecting on theenthusiasm and the perseverance of the pioneers.

Relationto Other Poems

Justlike his other poems, “Pioneers! O Pioneers!” was written at thesame time period that reflected similar context of the Americanhistory. The context of these poems relates to the aspect of Americanwestward expansion. For instance, the poem &quotSong of the BroadAxe&quot talks of the experiences and the achievements made byAmerica during the expansion to the west (Mirsky, 1995). In addition,O Captain! My Captain also deals with the same context of theAmerican history at the time when the country was mourning the deathof the inspirational leader, Abraham Lincoln (Frank,2009).Most of his other poems relate to the American history, throughoutthe progression of the country to shape its political and economicscene.

Inaddition, the poem also relates to other poems in terms of the styleused in presenting the title of the poems. The poem “Pioneers! OPioneers!” repeats the word “pioneers” as a way of setting thetone of the content of the poem, as a praise of their enthusiasm andperseverance (Mirsky, 1995). Similarly, the poem O Captain! MyCaptain! Repeats the title word “Captain” as a way of setting thesame pace of the content presented by the poem (Lambert,etal, 2010).The poem portrays consistency of his style, content and context ofhis literary works as seen in other poems.

WhatWhitman’s Presented in the Poem

Thepoem intends to present several themes that relate to the context ofthe American history. The first main intention of the author is toshow his admiration of the pioneers in the work they did in theexploration and settling in the American west. Whitman expresses themarvels of the settling and consequently invokes the audience toadmire and appreciate the sacrifice of the pioneers (Edward &ampFletcher, 1947). Whitman (1865) states that he admires the pioneersby saying, “O I mourn and yet exult, I am rapt with love for all.”This invokes the feeling of pride in the efforts of the pioneers.

Inaddition, Whitman shows the love for the country and the loyaltyvision of America. This is shown by the lines that Whitman uses inthe poem that tries to urge the reader to love the country. Theauthor uses loyal words and lines like “We debouch upon a newermightier world” (Whitman, 1865). This shows the extent of the lovethat the country and the author have for the new found land. Thistends to invoke the readers to share in the sentiments that Americais a great country, and the new land is also great.

Bywriting the poem, Whitman presents a reason why Americans shouldhonor and respect the pioneers of the land. Taking the American westas an example, Whitman gives not only an account of the experiencesof the pioneers but also the need to take the mass heroes (Frank,2009).By using the line “O I mourn and yet exult, I am rapt with love forall,” Whitman expresses his admiration and the feelings for thefounding fathers. It is this feeling Whitman wants the readers totake and hold towards the pioneers.

Whitmanachieves this intention by including the audience as part of thenarration, which takes the poem to first person account. Through theuse of the audience, Whitman makes the reader part of the narrationthat gives an account of the experiences of the pioneers. This makesthe poem not only a realistic piece of literature, but a rhetoricthat invokes the emotions of the reader (Wiget,2013).Consequently, the reader gets involved in the sentiments of theauthor an aspect that makes Whitman achieves his intention ofgetting the audience to adore the pioneers.

Whitmanalso promotes loyalty to the nation through the use of the poem aswell as the linkage of the poem to the pioneers. He does not onlyshow the love for the pioneers but also the love for the country. Inaddition to his other literature, this poem represents his largerintention for his literature the intention of promoting loyalty.Consequently, the poem makes the audience adore both the country andthe pioneers in equal measure.


Thepoem “Pioneers! O Pioneers!” presents a case of a praisededicated to the pioneers who explored and settled in the Americanwest. The context of the poem is the achievements of the pioneers intransforming the wilderness, into a civilization that joined America.Whitman uses allegory and imagery in the novel and adopts repetitionof words to set the tone of the message. Like his other poems,“Pioneers! O Pioneers!” present a literary work based on thecontexts of the American history.


Edward,G. &amp Fletcher, E. G. (1947). &quotPioneers!O Pioneers!&quot AmericanLiterature Vol. 19, No. 3 (November , 1947), pp. 259-261

Lambert,L. M. et al. (2010). OCaptain! My Captain! NewYork: VDM Publishing

Frank,L. T. (2009). CivilWar: People and Perspectives.New York: ABC-CLIO Publishers

Mirsky,D. S. (1995). WaltWhitman and the World.Lowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995. PoetryCriticism.Vol. 91. p320-333.Rpt.

Whitman,W. (1865). ThePoems of Walt Whitman: Patriotic Poems.Sudbury, MA:

Wiget,A. (2013). Handbookof Native American Literature.New York: Routledge

NRS-441V Capstone Project

Professional Research Project1

Exemplar of Evidence-BasedPractice


Professional ResearchProject

(Student Name)(Grand Canyon University

(NRS 441V:Professional Capstone)



According to documented researches, type 2-diabetes prevalence amongyouths aged between 12-18 years has been on the rise. Most studiesindicate an increase of types 2 diabetes by 25 percent in the lasttwo decades this is due to increase of obesity which result from anincrease in body mass index and abdominal accumulation of adiposetissue. Preventing diabetes among the youth is important becausethere is no specific known treatment for an ailment. Thus, theimportant thing to do for the ailment is to follow all preventivemeasures as advised by the medics. This paper has described themeasure that can be taken to control this ailment. Most schools incollaboration with parent come together to formulate a plan to helpthem put control on diabetes. Example, of measures taken after themeeting, included encouraging exercises and placing control on thetype of food children were allowed to consume.

Keywords: type 2-diabetes, picot, body mass index and obesity

(Problem Statement- Module 1)

Professional Research Project

Type 2-diabetes has over the years increased among children andteenagers, recent epidemiological review claims that at least 8-45%cases of diabetes are type 2. The rise in type diabetes in teenagershas increased in parallel to the alarming increase in number ofteenagers becoming obese. Obesity is considered as a major cause oftype 2 diabetes. In the last 20 years the number of childrensuffering from type 2-diabetes have increased with little being doneto cub the disease.

(Support fromLiterature Review- Module 2)


In his book, Chiha noted that the menace surrounding patients withdiabetes mellitus is an increase of the coronary heart disease bythrice while compared to that of persons not suffering from diabetesmellitus. Furthermore, hypertension was signaled out as increasingthe diseases of the coronary and the renal ailment. On the otherhand, chubbiness which is associated with causing diabetes mellituswas perceived as due to lack of physical exercises. According toBurns and Grove, the medical standards and requirements of patientsmust be considered and adhered to. By this, the number of youthssuffering from persistent ailments and diabetes would be managed.

Also, change of the lifestyle was advised by the two as itcounteracts the disadvantages of diabetes. According to anobservation made, physical exercises of approximately thirty minutesa day lowers the lipid level and elevate glucose ingestion thus onehaving a good cardiovascular health. With this, it was observed thatphysical exercises reduce obesity and the diabetes ailment especiallythe type 2 diabetes. The report also showed that the inactive form oflife and the excessive intake of food have been a contributing factorto obesity. In return, the obesity has been fueling rates ofmetabolic disorder and the diabetes mellitus.

When one is not involved in physical exercises so much, the visceralrapids get concentrated and in return cause oxidative strain,discharge of fatty acids and, amplified rate of metabolic syndromeand irritation which cause an insulin confrontation and the diabetesmellitus.

On the other hand, Garnett undertook a research in the year 2010 andnamed it randomized control trial where he studied the efficiency oftwo controversial lifestyles basing his research on diet intake onthe insulin sensitivity. On another study carried out, it was foundout that the obese youths have an insulin resistance. The OGTT wasused rather than a fasting glucose, and it was found out that itcould be used to detect damaged glucose tolerance in the overweightyouths. After the test, a conclusion was reached upon that this typeof study was efficient as an earlier detection of the disease can beundertaken so as to avert metabolic impediment and cardiovascularailments in patients of diabetes mellitus.

Recent studies shows thatchildren are more prone to type 2-diabetes than the adults especiallychildren from Asian, African and Hispanic descent. The studiesindicated that in every 100, 000 children at least two or one of thechildren suffers from type2 diabetes.

Adolescents between the ages12-18 have been diagnosed with type 2-diabetes, and this has beenproved in a group paper that specializes in EBNP (Evidence-basednursing practice). The aim of the paper is to find the prevention ofdiabetic 11 through decrease in BMI, which has small effects on typeto 2-diabetes. The topic dealing with diabetes type 2 which affectsadolescent, has been discussed in several articles, and review on thesame topic has been carried out in the completed nursing research.


PICOT Question

Out of picot statement, whichtalks about how literature highlight about adolescent ages 12-18years have been affected with type 2 diabetes, a complex question hasbeen formulated. Using elements in the PICO format, importantclinical question are formulated as shown below

 P which representsadolescents between ages 12-18 years old diagnosed with type 11diabetes

 I which represent reductionbody mass index to regulate fasting blood sugar

 C which stand for comparepreventative intervention which is due to the reduction of body massindex in adolescents and ratio between the number of adolescents withincreased body mass index to adolescent diagnosed with type 11diabetes.

 shows how reduction in bodymass index is directly correlated to a reduction of fasting bloodsugar

 T in the PICOT represents thesix months

Articles Used For Review

The group members gatheredseveral articles, and fifteen articles were used for the literaturereview because they were relevant to the research been carried in theproject. According to Burn and Grove important literature, entailssources that are pertinent in providing information needed to study ahighlighted problem in details. The selections of the articles werebased on the quality information related to the PICO question.


According to the research done,there is an indication that there has been an increase in theincidence of T2DM in children and adolescents as opposed in the pastwhere the disease affected adult and old age. The increase of types 2diabetes by 25 percent in the last two decades is due to increase ofobesity which result from an increase in body mass index andabdominal accumulation of adipose tissue.

Out of the data collected by theNational Institute of Health more than two-thirds of men and womenailing from type 2 diabetes in the United States has body mass indexof more than 27 kg/m2. Logically, the risk of diabetes is directlyrelated to the body mass index. Research done by Nurses’ Healthindicates that when body mass index exceeds 22-kg / m2, developmentof diabetes start to increase in women with normal weight. Theincrease in diabetes is due to increase in intra abdomen fat mass,circumference of the waist and the ratio of the circumference of thewaist to the circumference of the hip. Also, there is an indicationthat increases in weight in the young age increases the risk ofailing from diabetes. Men and women, who are aged between 18-20years, and increased weight from 5 to 10 kg are likely to developdiabetes 3 times higher at the age 35 – 60 years compared to thosewho have weight varying between 2kg.

Study indicates that an increasein body mass index between age 18-20 years is an important riskfactor for diseases related to obesity, for example diabetes.Clinical attributes of insulin resistance and prediabetes have beennoticed in most of the adolescents, and this has been indicated inone of the expiration articles. According to Garnett, clinicalinsulin resistance and prediabetes in the pediatric populationexperiencing clinical issues with conclusion from genuine wellbeing.Through proper administration, clinical insulin resistance andprediabetes are reversible or in any situation their spread could bestopped (Garnett, et al. 2010),

Research is done by Tirosh in2011 on healthy men who were young examined and evaluated themwhether they were ailing from diabetes and heart diseases. Theconclusion made from the research was that diabetes result from bothbody mass index and obesity-related diseases. The research showedthat an increase in body mass index between ages 18 – 20 yearsentails an essential risk for obesity-related disorders in midlife.The conclusion from the study shows that the body mass index betweenages 18 – 20 years can be related to type 2-diabetes.

The only demerit about thearticles reviewed was the lack of evidence to show that decrease inbody mass index in adolescents decreases fasting blood sugar. Ideaswere brought up that when a person maintains health and wellness canlead to a reduction of the progress of type 2 diabetes. While theresearch carried out try to show interventions to be used to slow theprogress of type 2-diabetes, the study doesn’t show specificallywhich interventions to use, especially in a reduction of body massindex. Many parents and health providers do not recognize obesity inchildren, and this fact is one of the limitations found in thereviewed articles

The following are the highlightof the information found in the fifteen articles used for the reviewon diabetes among adolescent.

Article 1

The authors of this article areBurns and Grove, and they try to establish a relationship betweentheir body mass index and type to diabetes in the adolescents betweenthe ages 18 – 20 years. The article specializes on determining onreduction of the body mass index can minimize the chances of diabetestype 2 diagnosis. The role and need for carrying out of research innursing and other related fields are defined in this article.Defining in this article, entails a scientific process that canimprove as well as authenticate the available information and to comeup with new ideas that will affects the entire field of nursing. Dueto change in circumstances in the field of nursing, there is a needfor continued research and development of both new and alreadyexisting information and the article has contributed in thisinformation (Burns &amp Grove, 2011).

Article 2

The author of this article isChiha, and his aim is to establish a relationship between type2-diabetes and various cardiovascular diseases. According to theresearch done in this article, coronary arteries which result due tothe formation of waxy substances in the coronary artery may causetypes 2-diabetes, and the waxy substance further lead to clotting ofthe blood in the arteries which lead to blocking in the flow of bloodChiha, et al. 2012). Heart failure can also cause diabetes and theseresults from heart failing to pump enough blood which supposed tomeet all the metabolic processes being carried out in the body.

The article highlights that thedestruction of the internal components of the heart causes diabeticcardiomyopathy which is observed mostly among diabetic type 2patients. This article can be used in the effectively in the field ofnursing. The article has highlighted the way in which type 2 diabetescan cause other health diseases condition, for example, thoseaffecting the heart.

Article 3

In this article, the authorspecializes on the way through which diabetes type 2 could mitigate.One of the ways they recommend is the need for physical exercise asaway of controlling diabetes type 2 (Colberg, et al. 2010). Weightloss can be achieved through physical exercise, and as the researchindicates overweight increases the chance of developing diabetes type2. According to the article, those who have obesity have a highprobability of developing diabetic type 2 condition compared to thosewho do not have. The article encourages people to engage in bothphysical exercise and regulation of diet, for example, reduction ofintake of red meat and increase of intake of grains which are easilyprocessed in the body thus offering the best form of carbohydrates.The research in this article was carried in Minneapolis- St Paulhospital, and this make the information in this article to becredible.

Article 4

According to this articlediabetes type 2 patients suffer from both the antioxidant andanti-inflammatory condition which can be improved through physicalexercise.The article emphasize that one of the factors that promotediabetes type 2 is the inactivity of the body. The article highlightthe important of physical exercise as a mean through which bodymuscles can both use insulin and absorb sugar leading to reducedstrain on the cells that manufacture insulin. The information in thearticle about how the rising of developing type 2 diabetes can beminimize by 30 percent through taking a walk every day for half anhour was borrowed from Nurses’ Health Study and healthprofessional.

Research indicates that passiveactivities, for example, watching television can lead to thedevelopment of type 2 diabetes by 20-% and severe heart condition by15 %. The passive activities, for example, watching television, quickmean of transport and poor eating habit characterizes unhealthypatterns, and can increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes.

Article 5

The authors of this articlehighlight the use of trial in the research of diabetes type 2 that israndomized. This trial requires people to be allocated randomly sothat they can get clinical intervention study as a mean of bothmeasuring and comparisons of various results from the participantemphasizing on the fact the approach is quantitative. The informationis advantageous to nurse who is in training still because its enablethem to handle cases of the diseases.

Article 6

The author of this articlediscusses how diabetes type 2 affects children at various stages oftheir development. According to the article, the number of childrenwith obesity has increased in the recent past, and this leads toincrease in a number of children with type 2 diabetes. The largenumbers of children found with obesity are between ages 4 – 18years, and the obesity is directly related impaired glucosetolerance. The article recommends that children suffering fromobesity should be given earlier diagnosis to prevent the developmentof type 2 diabetes. The information in this article is important fora person studying medical profession so as to help him or her toreduce the number of children suffering from type 2 diabetes.

Article 7

The authors of this article talkabout talks about the parents as a key contributor to obesity oftheir children at the early stage of their development. Parentbelieves that overweight as a sign of good health in children whoneed to be maintained. The article recommends parents to adaptfeeding habit which reduce the increase of obesity among children.

Article 8

The authors of this article areBialy and Haw, and this article highlights the important of propernutrition and dietetics in controlling the development of diabetestype 2. The nutrient that people observe in the body contains highlevels of glycemic which according to the article it is harmful tothe body if taken excess. According to the article drinks whichcontain high-sugar level lead to chronic inflammation, hightriglycerides and increased insulin resistance. The best drinks tohave instead of sugary drinks are water, tea and coffee.

Article 9

The article states that theoverweight among children relates to their daily lives which may leadto the development of diabetes type 2. The article advocates the useof WAVE screener tool which can determine the level of effects ofdiabetes type 2 among students. The procedure enables the medicalstudents have the ability to relate the various aspects of life tothe development of type 2 diabetes, for example, body weight, dailyactivities and various excesses in life.

Article 10

The authors of this articlediscuss the impact of body mass index on type 2 diabetes. Accordingto the research in this article, people with body mass index above 25percent are likely to fall ill compare to people below the level. Thestatistics collected all over the world differs according to variousraces, for example, a person from Asia with body mass index of 27scores is at a risk of ailing from diabetes type 2.

Article 11

This article highlights the waysin which a diabetic patient can be taken can. The article show hownurses can take care of the diabetic patient through various ways,for example, weight control measures, proper weight and physicalexercises. The other ways of taking care of the diabetic patient areinsulin injection for a patient with high-blood sugar level, andregular blood tests through HbA1c test.

Article 12

The article aims at finding asolution to persons who have developed diabetes. This condition takeslong to manifest itself and occurs when living cells fail, and bodymuscles do not respond to insulin. The article enables students toexperience reality of type 2-diabetes and its impact among people.

Article 13

The authors of the articlehighlight the preventive measures to be used among children andadolescents suffer from the condition, for example, proper diet andweight watching.

Article 14

This article specializes onmitigation of diabetes among pregnant women who have the likelihoodof transferring the disease to the unborn children. The article showshow nurses can take care of pregnant women at their pre – natal andpost – natal phases.

Article 15

This article talks about the wayimproper eating causes diabetes type 2, for example consumption ofjunk foods which have a high level of cholesterol which causesblockage and blood vessels. In the long-run, the blockage inhibitsthe flow of blood thus leading to the development of types 2diabetes.

To sumup on the articles, the research on diabetes type 2 was carried outon patient ages 12 – 18 years. The main intervention, theresearchers, concentrated on is the reduction of body mass index.From the study, both the parents and the nurses should take care ofthe health of young children in order to prevent the development ofdiabetes type 2.

Implementation (From Module 3 Plan)

Controlling Diabetes among Adolescent

Health matters are becoming a worldwide concern where some ailmentsare perceived to as having greater impact on the patient. One of theailments listed in the group of hazardous ailments is Diabetes.Diabetes Mellitus or the type 2 ailment is among the most dreaded.The ailment over the time has been on the rise and posing a difficulttask of dealing with to medics. This is because it requires moreattention for its prevention as there is no specific known treatmentfor an ailment (Henley, et al. 2012). Thus, the important thing to dofor the ailment is to follow all preventive measures as advised bythe medics. One of the preventive measures among the youths in theUnited States of America was coming up with an execution scheme.Those who feel in the category were those of age 12-18 years. Thepurpose of the plan was to lay down all the strategies of dealingwith the disease so as to avoid its spread and contraction in thefuture. Also, this was a step which would avoid the snag caused bythe disease if it is not controlled and in the later stages.

Account of the Predicament

According to rankings done in the United States in the year 2012,Diabetes occupied position seven. According to the report, thepopulation of 9.3% of the American people was diagnosed with thedisease in that year. Also, the report showed that people of age20years and over were only two million. The diabetes ailment wasperceived to be on the rise as in the year 2007 only $174 billion wasused to treat the ailment but in the year 2012 the government used$245 billion. On calculations, the rise in the ailment is perceivedas 41% rise (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2014).The percentage was given a good concern as it was perceived aselevating the number of never ending and the non-communicableailments.

Theoretical Part of Diabetes

In the United States, there was an increase in concern about thedisease as the largest population affected was that between 12-18years. One of the suspected reasons as to why the ailment was on therise was the genetics of the youths. Some other reasons of thedisease spreading were viewed as the insufficient physical exercisesamong the youths and the inactive behavior which has exposed theyouths to vulnerability of contracting the ailment (Kriska, et al.2013).

The findings were obtained from 699-youths who were suffering fromthe disease and tested 2 years earlier for diabetes mellitus. Also,the youths were found to having a BMI, which was more than 85percent. The study carried out showed that a large number of themodern youth is very inactive thus being venerable of contracting thetype 2 diabetes. The obese youths were advised to be involvingthemselves in more vigorous activities so as to control diabetesmellitus or the type two ailments.


Evaluation (From Module4 Plan)

Coming Up With an Execution Scheme


The scheme of controlling the diabetes was to be put in place afterpermission was granted by several bodies including the parents, theschools and health centers. The plan was to put in place physicalexercises which would be walking for two and a half hours per week.Nutrition also will do a great deal in controlling the situation.After the research, the ailing person will be monitored for acontinuous half a year.

Anticipated Resolution

So as to come up with the good health of youths ailing from diabetesmellitus, physical exercises and enlightening line up were importantso as to elevate production of the youths and reducing further spreadof the ailment. The ailments scheme was to center on the modificationof lifestyles. Some of the ways to control the ailment were listed asdietary therapies, heaviness loses policies, controlling thelifestyle among others. Also, an educational campaign to the youthstelling them the purpose of weight loss was another strategy.

Underlying Principle

A number of researches carried out pointed out the importance ofpolicy allied to the lifestyle outline and physical exercises whichhave indicated elevation of the BMI and weight reduction among theyouths ailing from diabetes mellitus. It was observed that it wasimportant to educate the youth about way of life adjustment.


In the field, there were three ways pointed out for controlling thedisease. The first was pre-design evaluation, design scheme and theaccomplishment. The plan was to be controlled to the finish of itall. Also, it was considered of importance taking into account theculture of the organization and that of the healthcare giver.


For the purpose of laying out a plan, the scheme calls for the humanand machine resources. The human part involves the medics.

Forming an Assessment Scheme

Designing a scheme after execution is very vital as it assist ingauging the results and their effectiveness to the targeted aim. Anevaluation scheme is termed as an article containing all theinformation of the scheme, the control of the scheme and theassessment tactics which are later used to make the appropriateresolution. Evaluation being considered an expensive process and timeconsuming includes processes as the setting up, execution, collectionof information and examination as well as reporting and distribution.

Methods of Evaluation

Some of the ways of evaluation includes outcome and presentationtrials, indicators and the sources of information so as to assist inconvincing information for the assessment scheme. So as to evaluatethe type 2-diabetes deterrence scheme, a survey among the specificgroup should be carried out. This survey should be done with the aimof looking at the alterations in the lifestyles which in return canbe used to avert the diabetes mellitus.

Therefore, the survey is always advisable to be conducted after thepersons carrying it out acquire permission from the institutes,parents and the research partakers. Before the main survey is carriedout, a pre-survey is always advisable to be carried out so as to getthe complete information of the sick people. After this, the ailingperson will regularly be checked for quarter a year so as to indicatean improvement in the health of the patient. On a weekly basis, thehealth of the patient is entitled to be checked.

After the three months of regular checks, the main survey is carriedout where the outcomes are analyzed. The results are then comparedwith those of the pre-survey so as to detect any improvement inhealth and to give some alterations that could be associated to thechanges in health. The alterations are then linked to the targetedaim of the prevention scheme of the diabetes.


Health pointers of the ailing person, evaluation of facts and theattitude concerning the ailment, the ways of averting and treatingthe ailment are the learning variables. These variables are laterbroken into some groups:

Socio-Demographic Distinctiveness

This will cater for the ailing persons’ education, number of years,sex, and ethnicity among others.

Fitness Status

Information contained in this document is the patient’s lab testresults which include the weight, BMI among others. The purpose ofthis is to indicate any important improvement in the patients health.

Routine Pattern and Activities

The information contained in this document include the activeness ofthe patient in physical exercises, food preference, alcohol andtobacco consumption.


To evaluate the patient’s knowledge, the medics pose questions tothe patients concerning the indication of the ailment, ways ofevasion and some obesity allied impediment.


Feelings towards the ailment can be known be asking of questions andpertaining the avoidance and treatment of the ailment.

Educational Tools

After the assessment of the scheme, it is always advisable to teachall the participants who are the ailing persons, the medics and thekey persons in the mission. Results gotten from the assessment arecrucial as they can be used to alter and improve the scheme.

Furthermore, the findings can be used to improve future course ofaction. The ailing person participating in the scheme is alwayspre-educated concerning the ailments and its prevention and cure.Later, an appearance meeting is carried out in the institution withthe aim of enlightening other learners about the merits of heavinessadministration for the rationale of averting diabetes mellitus andchubbiness. Methods which can be used to spread the findings can bethe mass media including the magazines, news papers, the social mediaand usage of emails.

Evaluation gear

So as for the avoidance scheme to be effective, there is a need forappropriate gears to be developed. Among the many gears is thequestionnaire which will be used to carry out the research. Thisdocument is later used as an evaluation gear and can be used to getinformation before or after the survey.

Information on the questionnaires is later used on the patient tofind more from the patient concerning the way of life. Some of thedetails included in the pre-survey can include the patients point ofview of the inactive form of life, improvements due to participationin physical exercises and many other questions. Therefore, all theinformation from the patient concerning diabetes mellitus can becompared with that of the real survey to and the implementationdocument.

Distributing Proof

After the survey has been conducted it’s always advisable todistribute the gained information gotten from the activity. Some ofthe most important things to distribute are the results and thewrapping up of the report. This is perceived as crucial as it willgive a loophole for interventions from other sources and thus fuelingup action from all concerned parties.

With the evident results, it becomes easier to disperse theinformation to the society and the administration thus the healthsystem will use the capital to put off and heal the ailment.

Research findings are later evaluated, and they give the importanceand aims of the diabetes deterrence scheme. Also, the methods used tocarry out the research are written down, and the learning propose andthe precautionary measures. After this, the findings can be inprinted in the journals and the mass media for the purpose ofspreading the details.

Importance to the Nursing Field

It is always advisable to have a team work between the researchersand the medical team as this will give the two parties a platform forpartnership. With this partnership, the perfect practices and ethicsare practiced enhancing the improvement of the patient`s needs. Thisin return place nurses in a better position to build on their work tothe community and far from the centered health system.

Promotional activities of the health team are entirely tied toevidences thus making it crucial in giving out the appropriateinformation and make it accessible to everybody. Furthermore, itassists in scheming for the results and making them meaningful. Muchattention should be based on the conclusions and not only to theanalysis given to the result.


Brownson, R., Ballew, P., Brown, K., Elliott, M., Haire-Joshu, D., &ampHeath, G. et al. (2007). The effect of disseminating evidence-basedinterventions that promotes physical activity to health departments.American Journal of Public Health, 97(10), 1900. Dataretrieved from,on 4th of July, 2014.

Chiha,Maguy.,Njein, Mario., Chedrawy, Edgar G. (2012). Diabetes andCoronary Heart Disease: A Risk Factor for the GlobalEpidemic.&nbspInternationalJournalof Hypertension, 2012(1),1-7, doi: 10.1155/2012/697240.

Colberg,S.R., Sigal, R.J., Fernhall, B., Regensteiner, J.G., Blissmer, B.J.,Rubin, R.R., Chasan-Taber, L., Albright, A.L., &amp Braun, B.(2010).Exercise and type 2 diabetes.DiabetesCare,33(12), e147-e167. doi: 10.2337/dc10-9990

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014, June 13). CDC- National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014 – Publications – DiabetesDDT. Data retrieved from, on 3rdof July, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), &amp Centers forDisease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). National diabetes factsheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes andpre-diabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: USDepartment of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Controland Prevention, 201. Data retrieved on 3rd ofJuly, 2014.

DeLemos, E.T., Oliveira, J., Pinheiro, J. P., &amp Reis, F.,(2012).Regular physical exercise as a strategy to improve antioxidantand anti-inflammatory status: Benefits in type 2 diabetesmellitus,&nbspOxidativeMedicine and Cellular Longevity,&nbspdoi:10.1155/2012/741545.

Developing an Effective Evaluation Plan. Atlanta, Georgia: Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for ChronicDisease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking andHealth Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, 2011.Data retrieved from,on 4th of July, 2014.

Garnett, S. P., Baur, L. A., Noakes, M., Steinbeck, K., Woodhead, H.J., Burrell, S., &amp Chisholm, K. (2010, September 24). Researchingeffective strategies to improve insulin sensitivity in children andteenagers-RESIST. a randomized control trial investigating theeffects of two different diets on insulin sensitivity. BMC PublicHealth, 10(575). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-575

Goodell, S.L., Pierce, M.B., Bravo, C., Ferris,A., (2008). Parental Perceptions of OverweightDuring Early Childhood.Qualitative Health Research,18(11),1548-1555. doi:10.1177/1049732308325537. Retrieved from

Henley, S., Toburen, A., &ampHowsden, L. (2012). Evidence BasedAdolescent Type 2 Diabetes Prevention. Data retrieved from,on 3rd of July, 2014.

Kramer, M., McWilliams, J., Chen, H., &amp Siminerio, L. (2011). ACommunity-Based Diabetes Prevention Program Evaluation of the GroupLifestyle Balance Program Delivered by Diabetes Educators. TheDiabetes Educator, 37(5), 659–668. Data retrieved from, on 4th ofJuly, 2014.

Kriska, A., Delahanty, L., Edelstein, S., Amodei, N., Chadwick, J., &ampCopeland, K. et al. (2013). Sedentary behavior and physical activityin youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes. Pediatrics,131(3), 850–856. Data retrieved from,on 3rd of July, 2014.

Makrilakis, K., Liatis, S., Grammatikou, S., Perrea, D.,&ampKatsilambros, N. (2010). Implementation and effectiveness of thefirst community lifestyle intervention programme to prevent Type 2diabetes in Greece. The DE-PLAN study. Diabetic Medicine,27(4), 459–465. Data retrieved from,on 3rd of July, 2014.

Planning and Implementing A Logistics System Design Activity (2009).U.S. Agency for International Development. USAID | DELIVERPROJECT. Data retrieved from,on 3rd of July, 2014.

Teixeira de Lemos, E., Oliveira, J., P`ascoaPinheiro, J., &ampReis, F. (2012). Regular physical exercise as a strategy to improveantioxidant and anti-inflammatory status: benefits in type 2 diabetesmellitus. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012.Data retrieved from, on3rd of July, 2014.

Wing, R., Lang, W., Wadden, T., Safford, M., Knowler, W., &ampBertoni,A. et al. (2011). Benefits of modest weight loss in improvingcardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals withtype 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34(7), 1481–1486. Dateretrieved from, on 3rdof July, 2014.

WHO, (2014). Choosing evaluation methods. World HealthOrganization (WHO). Data retrieved from,on 4th of July, 2014.


UpAgainst Wal-Mart

Thearguments put forward by Olsson are that the Wal-Mart firm underpayand overwork their employees. The United Food and CommercialWorkers&nbspInternational Union (UFCW) have on numerous occasionsasked to help workers form a union in order to fight for theirrights. The firm is also intimidating its employees if they aredeemed to be unionizing (Olsson1). While responding to these criticisms, Sebastian refutes the claimthat Wal-Mart is bad for poor Americans. He observes that, the giantretail firm saves billion of shillings through discounting foods andother products for the welfare of the poor Americans and as such thecomplaints on low wages are trivial.

Inaddition, he argues that, the firm has been able to create more jobsto the poor Americans and that not everyone believes that the firmpay and benefits are bad. He says that, the amount purported to belost by underpaying workers cannot be compared to with over $50billion dollars poor consumers save on low-price food offered byWal-Mart(Mallaby 1).In the same note, he points out that, the purported wage suppressionfrom the victims is insignificant compared to the purchasing poweroffered by the same company and, therefore, the workers save in equalmeasure as the firm does. He further states that, there are noreports indicating that Wal-Mart suppresses its wages in poorcountries(Mallaby 1).

Thefirm is not as parasitic on tax payer’s money as critics put it inregard to Medicaid since the average contribution for such firms isonly 4 percent. In addition, he observes that all companies are notrun by good people and the complaints of oppression by workers arenot justified. The worker status is, as a result, of technologicaland economic factors occurring due to globalization which haveincreased inequality. Sebastian also adds that, it is the poorAmericans who gain more from the firm and, therefore, the criticscould only be derailing the firm from assisting more poor families.

Although,Sebastian arguments are valid, there is evidence that the firm doesnot adapt to the labor laws policy and respect for human dignity.Workers of any firm are entitled to form a union for addressing theirconcerns. Sebastian arguments are not justified on his generalizationthat the firm discounted products benefit the workers. Olsson wouldnot agree with Sebastian arguments the firm needs to address theworkers concern and not justify its suppressive policy by statingthat it provides discounted prices for products. Contrary toSebastian arguments, Wal-Mart as a law abiding corporate firm thatwants good corporate image through its social responsibility programsshould start by treating its employees well and creating an enablingenvironment for workers(Olsson1).


MallabySebastian, “Progressive Wal-Mart. Really,” November 28, 2005.Retrieved on 2014-07-11, from

OlssonKaren, “Up against Wal-Mart,” 2003. Retrieved on 2014-07-11,from

Psychological Treatments

Student Name’s

Mental disorders can as well be called psychological disorders. Totruly understand what evidence-based practice and practice-basedevidence is all about, researchers, psychotherapists and medicalpractitioners need to know about the origin of a mental disorder inpsychological treatment. They need to understand the root cause ofthe disorder as well as learn various techniques that will help thepatients to control these disorders. I vehemently hold my opinion forthe fact that psychological disorders are a serious concern. Variouschallenges as well as opportunities have emerged in the psychologicalresearch which investigates effective treatments for psychologicaldisorders among psychotherapists. The main objective of this paper isto discuss the concept of evidence-based practice and practice-basedevidence as well as to identify the controversies that are associatedwith these two concepts. Further, I will explain the methodologicalissues and challenges, as well as efficacy of psychologicaltreatments. As simple as it may sound or seem to many, this topic isa sensitive one especially to psychotherapists and researchers. Amhoping to drive a point at home and help many practitioners choosethe appropriate treatment for psychological disorders.

Efficacy, Methodological Issues and Challenges of PsychologicalTreatments

Variouspsychological disorders require various psychological treatments(Beck &amp Dozois, 2011). There are a number of psychologicaldisorders. Some of them are mood disorders, bipolar disorder, panicdisorder, social psychology, social psychiatry among others. Thereare a number of methodological issues and challenges that are uniqueto psychological research in treating psychological disorders. One ofthe issue and challenge that arises is basically the concern oftreatment rather than study by many practitioners as well asresearchers. For instance, in the case of psychiatry and socialpsychology, in most cases psychiatry is so much into treatment and itoverlooks study, and there are no therapeutic practices in socialpsychology. This is a very big controversy in these two psychologicaldisorders (Ernest K, 1938). There is as well, the challenge of thegap between practitioners and scientists. Most of the practitionersand therapists do not make use of treatments that are stronglysupported by scientists. Despite the fact that quite a good number ofpsychologists utilize the research and treatment of scientists in anevidence-based way, there is evidence that shows that there is a gapbetween scientists and practitioners (Lilienfeld, 2010). According toLilienfeld, just a handful of patients who have panic disorders anddepression get treatments that are supported in a scientific manner.There is considerable evidence that a good number of practitionersare still in the dark over important research since they believe thatthe research is of no use to their practices. These practitioners endup overlooking the consequences in their clinical practices (Parish &ampRubin, 2011).

Inthe concept of evidence-based practice, there is a huge perceptionthat evidence-based practice (EBP) makes psychology to be acomplicated science. This eventually parallelizes its humanity(Pagoto et al., 2007). According to Steward and Chambless, clinicalevidence is far much of more value as compared to scientificevidence. Most practitioners concurred that clinical experienceslargely affects their treatment decisions whereas just a few of themagreed that treatment consequences are characterized by scientificresearch. This is a very complicated as well as extraordinary issuebetween practitioners and scientific research (Dozois, 2012).

Anothercontroversy surrounding the concepts of evidence-based practice andpractice-based evidence is criticism of scientific research.Practitioners argue that scientific research may not necessarily leadto clinical or medical practice. This shows that there is a hugedifference effectiveness and efficacy thus creating a controversybetween medical practitioners and scientific researchers. This makesmost practitioners and clinicians not rely on scientific literatureand research. As mentioned earlier in this paper, there is a huge gapbetween social psychology and psychiatry. This is marjorly based onthe fact that practice-based evidence and evidence-based practice donot have a common ground. Primarily, psychiatry is characterized bytreatment rather than study. On the other hand, social psychologydoes not practice the art of therapy.


Insummary, it will be a wrong approach to say that there is a concreteconclusion or solution to these controversies. All in all, there hasto be a common ground between practitioners and scientificresearchers. This will help to solve numerous controversies thatemerge in the treatment of psychological disorders. There is a greatneed to fill the gap between practitioners and scientificresearchers. They both need each other to come up with a concisetreatment for the number of psychological disorders. As Nathan andGorman reports, scientific research is needed so that there would notbe opinion (Nathan &amp Gorman, 1998). At some point, human memoryas well as judgement becomes fallible. So we need science as much aswe need practice. These two must co-exist. Science is needed inpractice in order for psychologists to reason in evidence-based way,at the same time practice is needed in science in order forresearchers to think in practice-based evidence.


Ernst T. Krueger. Some Methodological Problems of Social Psychologyand Social

Psychiatry. Social Forces, 17 (1938): 41- 47.

Lilienfeld, S. O. (2010). Can psychology become a science?Personality

and Individual Differences, 49, 281–288.doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.01


Nathan, P. E., &amp Gorman, J. M., (Eds.) (1998). A guide totreatments that

work. London, UK: Oxford University Press.

Pagoto, S. L., Spring, B., Coups, E. J., Mulvaney, S., Contu, M., &amp

Ozakinci, G. (2007). Barriers and facilitators of evidence-basedpractice

perceived by behavioral science health professionals. Journal ofClinical

Psychology, 63, 695–705. doi:10.1002/jclp.20376

Parrish, D. E., &amp Rubin, A. (2011). An effective model forcontinuing

education training in evidence-based practice. Research on SocialWork

Practice, 21, 77– 87. doi:10.1177/1049731509359187