Archives January 2020




June26, 2014.

Sociologyis a large field that is encompasses several sociological conceptsthat attempt to explain and understand human behavior in differentsocial contexts. As an empirical science, sociology uses variousconcepts as ‘social facts’ in seeking interpretation of socialactions, social aspects of different societies, individuals’behaviors and group dynamics. In this way a sociologist can explain,interpret and understand various issues that occur in the societyusing sociological perspectives and empirically researched concepts.This research paper seeks to explain different sociological conceptsand examples of their application in the society.


Inthe sociology, social stigma is associated with aspects of socialdisapproval or discontent directed towards a particular person orgroup of individuals based on their status that are presumed todiffer and deviate from the culturally accepted norms. In the literalsense, stigma is social labeling of certain individuals with uncalledcharacteristics due to their deviating difference from other membersof the society either in their character, physical form or mentalstatus. Stigma arises from wrong or positive perception about aperson’s condition (Macionis,1991).Ideally, social stigma is associated with people who have a certainkind of attributes that do not conform to a particular communitynormative expectation. These attributes may occur in the form ofmental or physical disability. In some cases, social stigma isdirected to individuals who have deviant sexual orientation gay,lesbian, pedophile, rapists, or intersect gender.

Furthermore,social stigma may be directed to individuals who suffer from certaindisease that are held in awe by the society AIDs, TB, cancer, STDsand leprosy. Other cases of social stigma may be attributed toindividuals on the basis of their ethnicity, race, education,religion, criminality or ideology. However, while there are differentforms of social stigma, their variations differ from region to regionbased on the sociopolitical and geographic context of that society(Landis,1989).According to sociologist, Irvan Goffman, social stigma occurs due toexternal attributes of a person (social or physical disability),deviations from normal traits (alcoholism or criminality) and ‘tribalstigmas’ (race, nationality or religion). Social stigma is akin tostereotyping, discrimination or labeling and has severe effects onthe behavior and general life of the stigmatized individuals(Giddens,2006).


Theunderlying basis of society is through social interactions. Every dayindividuals meet and interact with different members of the societyin different contexts. As such, individuals get socialized intovalues, ideas and way of life of individuals involved in theinteractions. Anticipatory socializations are when persons learnvalues and norms of another group that they wish to join or interactwith in order to make interactions easier during the actualinteractions (Landis,1989).As such, individuals change their behaviors, attitudes, train and‘groom’ themselves in anticipatory shift to the other group. Forinstance, in the African setup, initiates who wish to transit toadulthood, change their behaviors and attitudes in readiness to thenew role and adulthood association. In a different perspective, wouldbe drug addicts or criminals engages in anticipatory socializationbefore fully submerging into the gangs.


Ethnocentrismis a sociological concept that explains how individuals judge othermembers of different community based on their culture, values,customs, language, behaviors and religion. In this case, one grouptends to differentiate itself from the other based on a falseperception, beliefs, pride and vanity that their group is superior tothe other (Giddens,2006).Ideally, people are born and socialized in their own culture whichmakes them accustomed to the cultural values and norms as such, itbecomes difficult to appreciate and understand the behavior andcultural values of different community from their own. Theethnocentric spirit has been the root of many cultural and tribaldivisions in the world. Through ethnocentrism ethnic subdivisionsare created to define the ethnicity or cultural identity of anotherperson. In the modern world, ethnocentrism has been overtly used tocreate ethnic subdivisions (Landis,1989).

InKenya for instance, the society is laden with ethnocentric ideologiesthat have created tribal animosity. William Summer observed that,ethnocentrism makes a particular group feel more superior to theother, resulting in contempt of the other groups. In the contemporarysociety, this concept is evident from several social problemswitnessed for instance, it is recorded that the Rwandan genocideresulted from one tribe (Hutu) hating the other tribe (Tutsi) basedon their social, cultural and political differences. The decade-longwar in Somalia could be attributed to an extent, on ethnocentrismbetween clans the Somali society is a conglomeration of differentclans who engage in intergroup superiority contests in quest tocontrol the political and economics means of the country.


Areference group is that which individuals use as a standard measureof drawing comparison. In most cases, a reference group is that whichan individual aspires to evaluate, relate and determine one’sbehavior (Landis,1989).In short, a reference group is that which forms individuals’ frameof comparison in experience, understanding one’s perception, ideasand cognition. As such, a reference group forms an important basisthrough which individuals evaluate, reflect, and measure, compare andcontrast their performance and appearance in life (Macionis,1991).In this case, the reference group becomes the source of anindividual’s sense of identity, attitude and social ties. As RobertMerton, observed, individuals make reference group based on personswho hold social roles that are aspired by the society (Giddens,2006).For instance, a student uses his mentors, teachers, parents and othersuccessful individuals as a source of reference. In daily lives,friends and family members become reference group when evaluatingones circumstances, values, behaviors and achievements.


Lifein the society is characterized by shifting social positions througheducation, class, wealth and marriage among others. Individuals lifein families, community and the society is occasioned by upward ordownward social mobility movement or shifting social positions inthe society (Macionis,1991).For instance, an illiterate person who gets educated and earns adegree could be said to have undergone social mobility, a poor manwho becomes affluent could be said to have moved up the socialladder, likewise an unmarried person change their social status uponmarriage. As such social mobility is changing in social statusbetween groups, parents and families. Intergenerational mobility is asociological concept that denotes changes in social status fromprevious family generation. For instance, a poor farmer’s son whobecomes president, the son could be said to have undergoneintergenerational mobility.

Intergenerationalmobility occurs over one’s lifetime, through education, economicand political status among others. Individuals acquire new socialpositions different from that of their parents. Ideally,intergenerational mobility is measured in regard to wealth and incomemobility. Business ventures and education have been considered asimportant aspects that give individuals a head start tointergenerational mobility (Landis,1989).In the contemporary society, the nature of family life and inparticular at individual level has undergone great intergenerationalmobility. Most children of poor parents are now wealthy, holdimportant government offices and have amassed great wealth.


Thisis a sociological phrase associated with Robert Merton, who arguedthat, individuals have a self-prediction in which ‘falsesituations’ evokes behaviors that in turn makes original falsesituations come ‘true.’ In a broader sense, strong delusions orbeliefs that may be false may influence individuals engage inreactions that could fulfill the beliefs to reality. For instance, aman who is convinced that a lady might love him may use more effortin his wooing than when he is convinced otherwise. The expectationsone has through certain beliefs May reinforce actions needed toachieve such prophesy (Giddens,2006).In real life, people change their self -perception and attitudes inaccordance to what they profess. Self-fulfilling prophesy occurswhen an individual expects, aspire to get certain things in life,these expectations and beliefs in turn transform into behaviors thatlead to achieving the cherished things.


Povertyrefers to the general lack or a state of deprivation to basicmaterial possession. Extreme poverty, complete deprivation orscarcity of basic materials for human needs is abject poverty(Landis,1989).Relative poverty is a measure of individuals’ income in relation toa fixed proportion of income of another group. It is denoted as beingin a state of economic inequality when compared to other individuals.In this context, individuals are considered poor if their incomefalls behind that of other members of the community. However, theexact definition and connotation of ‘relative poverty’ variesfrom region to region.

Accordingto sociologist, relative poverty is when individual cannot affordresources, diets, amenities, living conditions or participating inactivities prevalent in a given society. As such, relative poverty isdefined in relation to the economic level of the society in question.For instance, the American worker who earns daily wages of $ 100 maybe considered relative poor in the American society. However, inKenya a person earning such amount of money a day is considered rich.Most people in third world countries living on $5 a day could beconsidered relative poor but not living in abject poverty.


Individualshave several roles to play in the society. The individual could be amother, bank manager, wife and student. In this context, the womenhave different and varying roles that she must fulfill. Often, theseroles have different demands and obligations associated with andeventually make individuals overwhelmed (Macionis,1991).In that case, individuals suffer from role conflict roles haveincompatible demands and meeting these demands leads to roleconflict. For instance, a woman who has the above mentioned roles mayfind it overwhelming, fulfilling job demands of being a manager,wife, mother and a student. If a child gets sick, there are meetingsto attend, exams in school and cooking for the family may pose greatrole conflict to the woman (Landis,1989).In this case, the woman would attend the sick child and maybe forfeitjob obligations or the School exams. Such conflict arises whenindividuals pursue diverging goals in their desire to achieve asuccessful life. Life in the modern society is characterized by roleconflict many individuals are juggling different roles and statusesin pursuit of successful lives (Giddens,2006).


Insociological terms, a fad is a collective behavior followed by manypeople enthusiastically in a given period (Landis,1989).Fads are ‘popular’ ‘trendy’ or ‘cool’ behaviors that‘catch on’ in a given time. However, they fade quickly as theyappear people keep on adopting new fads. Fads could be associatedwith language, food, music, walking style or any other novelty thatbecomes a popular trend (Giddens,2006).In the modern world, trends in fads are set through social Medias,celebrities and media programs. For instance, the classical pop danceby Madonna was an instant hit in the late 90s but with the onset ofnew millennia, classical rock became a new fad. In the present daysocieties, tattooing, shaggy hairstyles, piercing and revealingclothes have become a fad across the young generation.


Sexismis a social problem characterized by extreme obsession to prejudiceand discrimination towards particular individuals on the basis oftheir gender. This sexist attitude is attributed to traditionalsocial perception of one sex or gender being superior to the other.The person may be discriminated against in the job applicationprocess, salary and social treatment on the basis gender type(Macionis,1991).Sexism is depicted through sexual harassment, sexual violence, rapeand gender stereotyping. In most cases, individuals are judged inregard to their sex when assessing their capacity to lead (power),job functions, behaviors and the capacity to spearhead economicprogress. The overt nature of sexism is attributed to the varyinggender role expectations between men and women.

Therefore,women who occupy or play the role of man in the society is faced withsexism overtures from the other members of the society. Professionaldiscrimination on women remains one of the decade-long sexisms. Inmost societies, women continue to be discriminated at in differentsegments of the social, political and economic levels. For instance,when Hillary Clinton expressed her presidential bid and herappointment as secretary of State under Obama Administration, shefaced several instances of sexism from the media fraternity who werepessimist in her capacity to spearhead U.S foreign policy.


Insociological terms, informal structures refer to organizations madeof a group of individuals without formal or official set up. Thesestructures are formed by community members to address immediateproblems thereby saving time and making work easier. Informalorganizations consist of individuals who shares common norms,professional of personal relationships and have a common interest(Giddens,2006).Informal structures are characterized by fluidity, evolve constantly,collective decision making, all people are treated equally, and theyare responsive and dynamic. Such informal structures exist invillage groups, class groups, dorm residency groups among others.


Thisis a group of individuals within a major culture that differentiatesitself from the larger group by associating themselves with aparticular subculture. Some members of the larger culture may adopt adifferent mode of behavior that varies from that of the mainstreamculture. For instance, in the modern world, there exist numeroussubcultures that differentiate themselves from the rest in terms ofdressing code, music, ideology, religion, political inclination,geographic region, sexual orientation. Gay and lesbian movements havebecome common subcultures in the modern society(Landis, 1989).


Charismais a sociological term used to describe an individual who exhibits anexemplary character, virtue or personality. Individuals ascribed tosuch characters are deemed to have exceptional qualities and powersthat have divine origin. Leaders with these qualities command largeinfluence from the society through their charismatic authority(Macionis, 1991).Charismatic individuals become the centre of influence as the societyaccepted their authority as ethical and having divine powers(Giddens,2006).Therefore, charismatic authority becomes legitimate through theinspiration of obedience and loyalty on the part of followers. Suchleaders are rarely challenged, and their authority is defined throughthe relationship between the followers and the leader. In order toreplace such leaders, a new charismatic leader is selected throughsearching, revelation and designation from qualified staffs. Forinstance, Dalai Lama and Joseph Stalin were considered as havingexceptional charismatic authority.


Differentsociological concepts have various meanings and applications in thesociety. Through these concepts, one can understand and have a socialperspective on various issues that happen in the society. In theabove analysis of different sociological concepts, one can understandand interpret how these concepts are applies in the real world. Theanalyzed concepts were social stigma, anticipatorysocialization,informal structures, charismatic authority, subculture, sexism, fads,role conflict, self-fulfilling prophesy, ethnocentrism,intergenerational mobility and reference groups.


Giddens,Anthony.2006. Sociology(5th edition), Polity, Cambridge. ISBN0-7456-3378-1OCLC&nbsp63186308

Landis,Judson R (1989). Sociology:Concepts and Characteristics(7th ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth. ISBN&nbsp0-534-10158-5.

Macionis,John J (1991). Sociology(3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.ISBN&nbsp0-13-820358-X.&nbsp


Labor Grievance



June26, 2014.

Case:Non-Promotion of a Mechanic

Analyzingthe case

Thecompany reserved the right to make qualification judgment forpromotion based on sufficient evidence collected in regard to theemployees’ efficiency, ability, experience and other qualificationsin their records. Assessing the criteria applied by the company topromote staffs indicates that, seniority was not the onlydeterminant, other aspects were considered. In this case, althoughMr. Cox felt aggrieved by the company’s treatment despite his goodrecord, the company acted within its mandate. However, the companywas not justified in denying Mr. Cox promotion without giving him afair trial assessment (Budd,2010).

Thecompany betrayed the contractual agreement under article 6.8 in whichthe company could have given Mr. Cox an opportunity to prove anddemonstrate his competence. The article clearly states that anemployee deserved a 90- day trial period in which their performanceare assessed. If their performance does not satisfy the expected jobperformance requirement then the employees are restored to theirformer jobs after been given reasons why they did not qualify forpromotion. In this way, the company would have acted fairly on Mr.Cox given his seniority and years of excellent service as underarticle 6.1 and 6.5 of contractual language (Budd,2010).

Theargument by the Union that the last sentence on Article 6.5 wassufficient in considering Cox for promotion on the basis of seniorityis not true. Other factors were important in assessing thequalifications for promotion. The Union argument that Cox ought to becompensated for contractual violation does not hold much ground,while the company might have contravened certain sections of thecontractual agreement the company had applied most of thecontractual agreement in their choice of Mr. Bixby. Under Article 6.6of the contractual agreement, the company reserved every right tomake its judgment (Budd,2010).The company stated that, in the overall comparison Mr. Cox fell shortof the qualifications based on his inability to work under limitedsupervision and that despite his seniority, he was not as highlyskilled as Mr. Bixby.

Thecompany evaluation of Mr. Cox qualification indicates clearly that,its basis of choice on whom to promote was beyond seniorityqualification as espoused under Article 6.5. In other standards ofevaluation according to the company, Mr. Cox skills did not satisfythe threshold required by the company for the position of atechnician his skills were below average to that of Mr. Bixby and assuch, the company was right in denying him promotions. In addition,there were no provisions that the company should compensate Mr. Coxfor not been promoted contrary to the Union argument. If Mr. Cox hadbeen laid off involuntarily or retrenched that would have justifiedhis compensation, this case was different, and it was just a denialof promotion while Cox retained his old job. As such, he had nothingto lose or warrant compensation from the company.

However,based on the grievance raised by the union and the grievant on hisrecord of work and his seniority as espoused under Article 6.5, Mr.Cox deserved a 90 day promotion trial in order to give him a fairjudgment and reason for not being promoted. In this respect, the firmcould not have contravened any part of the contractual agreement. Thecommon ground for all parties in this case could have been giving Mr.Cox an opportunity to prove his worth as elaborated in Article 6.8 ofthe contractual agreement. Even if he had not satisfied the companyin his years of service, Mr. Cox had some sense of right underArticle 6.5 and 6.8 which could not be wished away (Budd,2010).

Thecompany made a biased judgment based on the tenets of these articles.If Mr. Cox performed well in his trial period in comparison to Mr.Bixby, then he would have rightly deserved the promotion. Mr. Bixbyhad little to grieve about based on his seniority level in comparisonto Mr. Cox. While one can acknowledge that the company did its bestto apply the tenets of contractual agreement, underneath its judgmentlies bias this could only be rectified by changing certain tenets ofthe contractual agreement to eliminate confusion about promotingstaffs based on seniority level(Budd, 2010).


JohnW. Budd (2010) LabourRelations: Striking a Balance,3rd ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin).

Capital Punishment Research, Policy, and Ethics – Defining Murder and


CapitalPunishment Research, Policy, and Ethics – Defining Murder and PlacingMurderers

CapitalPunishment Research, Policy, and Ethics – Defining Murder and PlacingMurderers

Murderinvolves illegal killing of another human, through premeditatedtactics. Murder causes grief in the society, especially, personsclose to the deceased. This implies that it can destabilize thesociety in case people decide to revenge the slain person. Thefrequency at which murder occurs varies significantly, as the rate ofviolence differs from one country to another. Persons convicted ofmurder are sentenced to life imprisonment, or the death penalty incountries that still uphold the sentence.

Interms of race, the frequency of the killers in the US, in descendingorder, include blacks, White (non-Hispanic), Hispanic Asian / PacificIslander, and American Indian. Similarly, the frequency of the targetvictims vary in the same frequency listed above (Barry et al., 2014).

Accordingto the Wall Street Journal, 126,164 males, 13,770 females, and 49,439unknown persons conducted murders in the US between 2000 and 2010.The data compiled information from all the states, except Florida(Barry et al., 2014).

Whitesoften kill the black persons. Similarly, African Americans do killeach other just as they may kill white persons. The penalty formurder for both the whites and the African Americans. However, theAfrican Americans are more likely to rennet in death penalty formurder crimes than the white offenders are. This is caused by thefact that equality is less important than justice is (Barry et al.,2014).

Someof the human factors that may motivate individuals into committingmurder include unemployment, social inequalities, rampant alcoholabuse, availability of firearms, and culture of masculinity. In arecent study, 88% of the renowned criminologists in the US claimedthat death penalty is not an efficient deterrent measure for murdercases (Barry et al., 2014). However, oppositionist argues that it ishard to calculate the adequacy of banning the death penalty onreducing homicides. Besides, they contend that sparing the murderer’slife would be valuing the life of murder than that of the victim.Nonetheless, if even ONE innocent life is spared, it is worth it(Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2013).

Thetaxpayers experience the burden of excessive appeals process thatconvicted murders use when attempting to regain freedom. On the otherhand, the cost of lifetime imprisonment also afflicts the taxpayers.The society bears the cost of losing humanity and the contribution ofthe grieving persons. Although the death sentence aims at vindicatingthe law justice, revenge justice may lead to excess degradation.However, if a person volunteers are receiving a death penalty, a juryof peers can correct the sentence (Federal Bureau of Investigation,2013).


Barry,R., Farbman, M., Keegan, J. &amp Kumanan, P. (2014). Murder inAmerica. TheWall Street Journal.

FederalBureau of Investigation. (2013). FBI Releases 2012 Crime Statistics.NationalPress Releases. Web.retrieved on 27 June, 2014 from

Poverty in America

Povertyin America

Povertyin America

Povertyrefers to the condition or state of having little or no food,shelter, money, or means of support. Pandrey, Sinha, &amp Parkash(2013) findings indicate that about 14 percent of Americans live inpoverty

Causes of poverty in AmericaDruguseSomepeople spend most of their time abusing drugs hence, they are unableto carry out activities that can help them earn an income. In fact,drug addict spend huge amounts of money in buying drugs and in otherleisure activities associated with drug abuse. Drug abuse is mostprevalent among individuals living in the lower class since it iseasy to obtain various forms of drugs in their environment (Pandreyet al., 2013). As a result, most people belonging to the lower classend up living below the poverty level. Indeed, use of drugs can drivea family into poverty or homelessness. PooreconomyPoorand dwindling economy increases the number of individuals losingtheir jobs in America. It also forces companies to cut down theirlabor force or even close their businesses completely. Othercompanies have chosen to hire foreign workers at much lower pay.Hence, many workers are left without any form of employment thus,most of these workers languish in poverty and they can hardly sustaintheir families.MedicalexpensesSuddenillnesses force individuals to stay for long period of time inhospitals, purchase expensive drugs, or cater for expensivetreatments. This forces such individuals and their families to spendhuge amounts of money in clearing hospitals bills and purchasingdrugs (Pandrey et al., 2013). These bills have a high likelihood ofbring an individual from low or middle class straight into poverty.Lackof educationManyindividuals in America, especially those from the lower class, canhardly afford to pay college fees. Hence, they find it hard to securea decent job since a high school diploma can hardly help somebodyqualify for certain jobs. As a result, these individuals are forcedto take low paying jobs that have little or no benefits. Therefore,they are forced to sustain both their needs and those of theirfamilies with the little salary that they earn. Consequently, theseindividuals are driven into poverty in a gradual manner.ViolenceViolencein families, like elder and child abuse have a high likelihood ofcausing poverty. Middle class families experience lower levels ofstress than poor families. Violence bring along families break upthat may force some members of such families, who have no job, tostruggle to earn a living or end up in living in poverty.List of peer-reviewed articleson poverty in AmericaBudge,Kathleen. 2006. Rural Leaders, Rural Places: Problem, Privilege, andPossibility.Journal of Research in Rural Education,21(13), 45-78.Erwin,C.P. (2008). : How Public Health Practice Can Makea Difference.AmJ Public Health,98(9),1570–1572.Doi:&nbsp10.2105/AJPH.2007.127787.Greene,C.W. (2011). Contentmentin Poverty. TheNorth American Review,214 (792), 648-654. Hetling,A &amp Postmus,J. (2014).Financial Literacy and Economic Empowerment of Survivors of IntimatePartner Violence: Examining the Differences between Public AssistanceRecipients and Nonrecipients,Journal of Poverty,3 (45),130-149.Martin,K.D &ampHill, R.P. (2012). LifeSatisfaction, Self-Determination, and Consumption Adequacy at theBottom of the Pyramid. Journalof Consumer Research,38(6), 1155-1168. Munsterberg,E. (2006). TheProblem of Poverty. AmericanJournal of Sociology,10(3), 335-353.RollS &amp EastJ.(2014). Financially Vulnerable Families and the Child Care CliffEffect. Journalof Financial Poverty,18 (2), 169-187.


Pandrey,J., Sinha, Y., Parkash, A. (2013). Right-Left Political Ideologiesand Attribution of the Causes of Poverty. Journalof Social Psychology,12, 327-331.

Legal Issues Question 1




Therewas no contract between Jane Kurzyniec and Firestorm. An employmentcontract commences immediately an employee begins working for anemployer. Although sometimes a contract may be automatic when aperson accepts an offer for employment, there is need for a writtenstatement to prove the claims. In the case of Jane, there was nocontract because he had not begun her job yet. Even though shereceived a letter to attend the medical exam before she could starther job, the contract was not legally signed.


Thecontract between Troy Blackford was valid before he was banned fromthe casino when he smashed a slot machine. However, after his ban,the contract was termed null and void because he could not access thecasino. He had no right to ask for payment from the casino as he wasalready banned from using it. Casino has the rights to exclude anyonefrom using its property when it deems it fit. Therefore, as long asthe ban existed, there was no valid contract between the casino andBlackford.


Dorothywas not bound to the residency agreement as she was mentallyincompetent. She signed the arbitration clause in that state when shewas admitted at the nursing facility. The law excludes mentallyincompetent persons from submitting arbitration. Therefore, thearbitration that Dorothy signed was invalid because she was mentallyincompetent when she signed it.


PEMShas the rights to collect the commission from Temp-Air regardless ofwhether PEMS has license or not. Although it is essential to have alicense for brokerage, statute defines brokers as any person whodeals with the sale of a business. Therefore, since PEMS wasresponsible for the sale of the business, it qualifies to be a brokereven though it acted without a license. It is worth noting thatstatute’s definition of a broker does not include license.


Thelandlord is correct. The lease agreement stated clearly that thelease cannot be assigned to anyone else without the landlords’approval. Hence, Aron was wrong to assign his lease to a close friendwithout the landlord’s consent as stated in the lease agreement.


Themeasure of the damage is the value difference of the house with andwithout the described report. Additionally, another measure of damagewould be replacing what the buyers of the property expected if theywere to follow GIS’s report.


DouglasSingletary suffered the loss because he had already bought the houseeven if it burnt the night before he moved it to his property. Thesale agreement stated that the buyer bought the house where it was.Once Douglas signed the sale agreement and paid the full amount, thehouse automatically belonged to him. At the time the house burntdown, it was already Douglas’s property.


Thedealership had no rights to inspect and reject the goods once theywere delivered. A buyer can only reject non conforming goods. In thiscase, the goods were conforming as the seller brought exactly whatthey agreed on.


Thecourt should rule in favor of Alan Vitt. Apple Company breached theimplied warranty, which refers to the assurance that goods mustreasonably conform to the expectations of a buyer. The productsshould be what a company says they are. This means that if Appleclaimed that the laptop was to last for several years, then it shouldhave at least served the customer for a lengthy period of time.


Englercan recover under the fair and debt collection practices act. The actprotects all debt holders from abusive debt collection practices.Atlantic violated this act causing Engler’s distress. Engler hasthe right to file a law suit against Atlantic, which would help himin recovering against the debt collector. Atlantic violated the debtcollection practices act by calling Englar to threaten him ratherthan to negotiate.


Itis difficult to discharge the loan unless there is undue hardship,which happens in rare cases. Debt holders are given an option ofreducing or delaying the monthly bill during the entire bankruptcylife until chapter 13 bankruptcy is over. However, in the case ofCathy, she can complain that she was facing undue hardships becauseshe was laid off. Her source of income was cut off hence, she wasfacing undue hardships. The court may consider discharging Cathy’sdebt or give her a chance to get another job where she could resumeher payment.


Jonathanwas an independent contractor. He was given the work of loading thetruck, but was not told how to do. In case of an independentcontraction, the company has no right to control what and how theworker does his or her job (Fishman, 2011). Therefore, it is vividthat Jonathan was an independent contractor as the company did notcontrol how his work.


Thedress code on women was sex discriminatory. The idea that women werenot supposed to attire in business attire while their mencounterparts wore business attire is gender discriminative. It showsthat women have a lesser professional status as compared to theirmale counterparts, which by all means is discrimination. The reasonfor wearing contrasting attires is not justifiable. In any case, itfacilitates gender discrimination because the company claimed that itwas meant for customers to differentiate between male and femaleworkers.


Lican claim a wrongful discharge. There was no material evidence forthe discharge of Li. The company that Li was working for had no rightto discharge off her duties for exercising his freedom of speech. Lidid nothing wrong by identifying himself as an employee of thecompetitor. Further, his free expression did not affect his jobperformance and thus, it did not justify his discharge.


TheAirgas shareholders have the rights to reject the tender since theyare the components of the company and have the rights to contributeto the decisions of the company. The director can resolve the issueby explaining the need for accepting the tender. He/should teach theshareholders about the adequacy of the offer and the consequences ofpushing the bid higher. This means that it is crucial for the boardof directors to cooperate with the shareholders as a means ofresolving the issue.


Agift is a tax on property transfers by one person to another withoutreceiving anything. One makes a gift by giving property or use incomefrom a property without expecting to receive something of equal valuein return. The donor is responsible for the payment of the gift tax.In the case of Christine, the farming equipment was a gift becauseMarcella expected nothing in return.

Iwould rule in favor of Christine. She had made the transaction beforeMarcella died. Further, if Marcella refused the check, it means thatshe had given it as a gift to Christine. In this case, Christine wasthe sole owner of the property, as she had bought it on her own eventhough with the help of her mother.


Ethically,the broker is responsible for Sutton’s predicament. However, Suttonshould have read and understood the statement before signing. Heshould not have believed the broker without reading and understandingwhat was in the document. It is paramount for one to read andunderstand everything before writing down a signature.

Suttonhad to pay the broker the fee. He signed the agreement thus, he wasentitled to pay him. If it is true the broker mislead him, he shouldbe able to prove that.

Thecountrywide should have monitored the activities of the broker. Itsintervention would have saved Sutton from the predicament, because itwould have explained everything to Sutton before he could sign theagreement with the broker. The broker would not have misled Sutton ifcountrywide had intervened.


Asa judge, I would rule in favor of the Clines. The Berg’s camerasand lights interfered with the privacy of the Clines. The Cline’sfence was meant to create some privacy in their properties. TheBerg’s should not have directed their cameras towards the Cline’sproperty as it interfered with their privacy and freedom. The fenceerected by the Cline’s did not in any way interfere with the Berg’sfreedom since it was erected in the boundaries of the two homes. Bergshould redirect the camera lights towards his home and enjoy hisproperty.


Fishman,S. (2011). Consultant&amp independent contractor agreements.Berkeley, Calif: Nolo.

Criminal Law Today Chapters 10-11-12 Summaries Chapter 10

CriminalLaw Today Chapters 10-11-12 Summaries


Thechapter analyzes crimes against public safety and order and crimesagainst administration of the government and justice. Both crimes areclassified as social order crimes. Public order offenses areclassified as those that invade or disturb society’s tranquilityand peace. Some examples include vagrancy, public intoxication,fighting, affray among others. Laws criminalizing against publicorder offenses assume public order to be innately valuable and shouldbe sustained (Schmalleger, Hall &amp Dolatowski, 2010). Weaponcarrying is a good example of public order offenses. The finalcategory of social offense is the crimes against government’sadministration, which include treason, rebellion, sedition, briberyamong others.


Thechapter analyzes the crimes against illegal trafficking of drugs,firearms and migrant smuggling. The crimes are classified asorganized crimes, illicit trafficking and terrorism. The crimescommonly happen along the borders of the country. Some migrants crossthe border of the country illegally, which is also considered as acrime (Schmalleger, Hall &amp Dolatowski, 2010). Border control isthe main measure that has been prioritized most to counter theincreasing of terrorism, migrant smuggling and human trafficking.


Thechapter analyzes the third type of crimes against public morality anddecency as categorized in the social order offence. The crimesassociated with public morality and decency includes drug use,prostitution, gambling, pornography, adultery, fornication amongothers. The crimes are termed as victimless crimes because theyinvolve willing partakers. Pornography usually depicts sexualbehaviors that excite the viewers sexually (Schmalleger, Hall &ampDolatowski, 2010). The emerging concern against pornography is put oneffort by lawmakers to restrict on accessing such materials from theinternet. Crime against nature is the sexual intercourse contrary tothe way of nature such as bestiality. Drug abuse and use areclassified as psychoactive and bioactive substances, which can becontrolled. Laws amending public morality are criticized tocontribute crisis of over-criminalization.


Schmalleger,F., Hall, D. E. &amp Dolatowski, J. J. (2010).Criminal law today (4th ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Learning.

Religious Experience in The River Why


ReligiousExperience in The River Why

Religionis the aspect of life that is tasked with providing answers andexplanations for life phenomenon that human beings find mysterious.For most human beings, religion is taken as the ultimate solution toall the problems and experiences that people face on the day to daylife. The experience of religion is different depending on the socialand economic viewpoints of people and the experiences they face. Thedifferent perception of religion introduces different definitions ofGod depending on the experiences of different people. Taking theanalogy of God as a “fisherbeing” to define Him, this paper willexplore the experiences of the main character, Gus in the novel “TheRiver Why.”

Gus’Religious Experience

Religiousexperiences of Gus as presented in the novel are based on his lifeevents and his narration. Through the experience of the metaphors,parables and stories presented in his narration as well as hispersonal events, Gus illustrates the religious experiences that guidehis beliefs. His first experience with religion comes when hedescribes how he learns from the parents. He learns religion andreligious issues through from the beliefs and experiences of hisparents. Having been brought up in a fishing family, his firstelements of religious experiences are reflected by his learning offishing from his parents. This means that most of the religiousexperiences that Gus learns in his life, comes through fishing.

Gusexperiences his first religious encounter through the reading of thebook he called the “family Bible” at his young age. The book, TheCompleat Angler,forms the bases through which he starts a philosophical perspectiveof his life on religion. The book frustrates him as he tries tofigure out the aspects of the “God of Nature” as portrayed by thecontent of his family bible (Duncan, 1983). Therefore, as a way offinding happiness, he decides to indulge himself into doing what heis obsessed with, fishing. Through fishing, he finds another activitythat is meant to soothe his unexplained religious philosophy.However, fishing takes him to another level of religious experiencesas he seeks to blend the differences of his parents in terms offishing.

Gusbegins by bringing to the attention of the reader the differentviewpoints he faces in his life as he narrates his parents’ fishingstyles. The difference in the viewpoints of the parents reflectstheir character and personalities as well as the influence ofreligion on their personality. According to Gus, the mother isconservative to the bait fishing as she feels it is the best way tofish (Duncan, 1983). This presents her tender character and believesthat the best way to approach life is through soft ways. On the otherhand, his father believes on the fly fishing, which reflects hispersonality as well as his character as influenced by religion. Thispresents a need for personal believe by Gus, who decided to formulatehis own life based on his experience.

Anotherreligious experience that Gus encounters from his parents relates tothe complex issue of life, death and mortality. According to hisfather’s wisdom on the issue, life and death were abstractions tobe perceived in a scientific light (Duncan, 1983). However, Gusexplores more information on the topic when he spends time with Titusas he recovers from the river incident that left him spiritually,emotionally and physiologically ill. The learning of religiousaspects leaves him asking for more information from Titus, as heappreciates the river, asking the question “why” (Duncan, 21983).

Anothermain element of gus’s early religious experience is the reflectionof his name. His name is a short form of Augustine, an earlyChristian leader and a theologian. This inspires his religiousbeliefs and perspectives as seen in his character’s parallelaspects with St. Augustine. For instance, Gus has a very strongmemory as he remembers all the experiences he has on the water mass,such as all the fish he catches. In addition, just like St.Augustine, Gus portrays a lot of religious philosophy or questioningexperiences from a religious perspective. For instance, when he loseshis friend, pet fish, he engages in a lengthy inquisitive moments.

Furtherreligious experiences of Gus are brought up when he portrays hisphilosophical questioning of God after the death of Alfred, his pet.The events of the confessions after the death of Alfred match thehistorical experience of st. Augustine. Just like St. Augustine, hislife is turned around by the death of his friend (Duncan, 1983).According to the initial understanding of goals, god behaves like asfisherbeing who fishes his best friend, Alfred. Through hisinquisitive nature, Gus reveals the mystery of death from thereligious perspective by seeking to understand why it had to happenthat way. His meditation on the events presents his desire toestablish more information on the God that he learns through suchliterature.

Thedepiction of a god as the fisherbeing illustrates the best waythrough which Gus establishes to explore through fishing. Even thoughhe does not know that his fishing will lead him to further religiousexperiences, Gus takes on fishing as a way of finding happiness inhis obsession. Through his fishing, Gus experiences the aspects ofgod in his fishing. By finding the differences of life in terms offishing styles, Gus explores the two styles of fishing in differentways. Instead of choosing one, Gus ensures that he fishes using eachof the methods as a way of blending the religious tenderness offishing with the cruelty of death (Duncan, 1983).

Accordingto him, there is no reason for killing a fish for no reason. This isdepicted when he laments the death of his friend Alfred as his pet.The philosophy that matches with this thinking is that of hismother’s style of bait fishing. This style is based on the thoughtthat fish should be caught for food and not at a sporting event. Flyfishing is presented as a cruel way of fishing, especially by thefather who does it as a sport and to enjoy the artistry aspect of thestyle (Snyder, 2007). Therefore, fly fishing is not an experience ofthe religious nature as described (Snyder, 2007). However, Gus opensup to a new world of appreciating natural happens as he finds a newlove after the death of his friend.

Afterthe death of his friend Alfred, Gus is not just concerned with thedeath of his loved pet, but also the death and suffering of his otherfriends. Taking the aspect of the god as the “fisherbeing,” Gusunderstands that fishing is godly, but the bad way of fishing is whatagainst the religious perspectives. It is through such perspectivesthat gus looks back at the problems he has caused to the fish that hehas been killing. According to Duncan (1983), Gus sees all the timethat he has spent fishing at the time of killing. He considers thesituation that would arise if all the fish that he has killed wouldreturn to haunt him. In a religious way, Gus views this eventualityin a different way by meditating the suffering of the fish andrelating it to that of people.

Afterrealizing the extents of the suffering done to fish and extending itto reflect the people, Gus retreats to find a new way of comfortinghimself in wine. He drinks port wine in significant amounts wine totry and forget, but finds even more questions when he sets out tofish the next morning. He experiences the reality of death when heencounters the dead Abe while on the river fishing, which leaves himin near death situation. As he recovers alongside Titus, he learns alot of the religious aspects of life from the religious philosopher.Through his learning of immortality and related religious concerns,Gus discovers knowledge that makes what his parents knew to be“witless” instead of witness” (Duncan, 1983).


TakingGod as a “fisherbeing” presents a religion as relational aspectof life. Therefore, it is right to conclude that Gus’ experiencesare based on his relationship with nature through fishing. Gusexperiences, religious aspects at different times and with differentperspectives. While he was young, he learns from his parents variedways of viewing the things that matter to him depending on theirviewpoint. However, as he experiences life for himself, he not onlylearns different religious aspects, but also discovers ways ofdefining his life phenomenon.


Duncan,D. J. (1983). TheRiver Why?(San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books

Snyder,S. (2007). “New Streams of Consciousness: Fly Fishing as a LivedReligion of Nature,”Journal of the American Academy of Religion75, no. 4 (2007): 896-922

Greetings from Bury Park

Greetingsfrom Bury Park

Inhis 2007 memoir, “Greetingsfrom Bury Park,”Sarfraz Manzoor, a British journalist, presents an account of aMuslim growing in a community full of cultural and religious valueconflict. The memoir gives an account of how Manzoor comes to live inBritain and how the beliefs of his father make him regularly tornbetween incongruity of his personal ambition and his heritage.According to the author, it is not until he listens to BruceSpringsteen rock music that he is inspired and attainsself-affirmation in an environment that offers neither. The author’sfather contributes much of the cultural conflict in that he isconstantly indoctrinating him to tenets of Muslim faith and heritagein a multicultural environment. As with other children in the familyand other immigrants, Manzoor is seen as constantly fighting toreconcile being a Muslim and a British at the same time and to fitwithin the existing cultural environment. In this memoir, Manzoorrecalls the experiences he undergoes together with his familyconcerning adjusting to the multicultural society and finally beingassimilated.

Asthe name suggests, a memoir, full of recollections, Manzoor undergoesoff-putting and diverse experiences that seem so scintillating. Theassessment of Manzoor father’s spur to the author provides the mostcontextual and variant aspect that one can realize in a memoir. Here,or rather throughout the memoir, Manzoor comes to terms with theimmigrant upbringing and love that he so much experiences. However,the immigrant upbringing comes with frustration as Manzoor tries totranscend race, but with such perceptive adjustment, that one feelsaligned to the memories of Manzoor. As far as the recollections ofManzoor’s experiences inspires idealism, Manzoor’s struggle forcultural identity and escape from the confinements of extraneousaspects provides the much needed contextual ideals for understandingthe role of the author’s father and Bruce Springsteen.

Inthe accounts of the book, the author’s father, though extremelyambitious to provide his children with the best life opportunities isalso afraid that their values and heritage will be eroded by thevalues practiced in the new country. He views many things in Britainas immoral and goes ahead to deny his family even the chance to watchtelevision and movies. By sending his children to a school where moststudents are white, the author’s father unconsciously contradictshis own fears that their Muslim values would be eroded by the newculture. Manzoorasserts ‘…I was barely on speaking terms my father and most of myconversation with…mother were about how I hardly to my father”(2).This is a clear indication of how the author though from a Muslimheritage considers primal his dreams and aspirations. Aspirations anddreams that his heritage and Bruce Springsteen shapes, though weakassimilation and cognitive learning would also seem to shapeManzoor’s experiences. Clearly, the author is torn between his owncultural background values and the values that his father preaches.As such, Manzoor asserts,

[Idefined myself in opposition to my father. All that he believed, thevalues he upheld, the ambitions he cherished I rejected asembarrassing and outdated. When he said he was Pakistani, I declaredI was British…] (6)

Suchassertions that Manzoor cultivates define the conflicting role thathis father plays in his aspirations and achievement. Thiscontradiction shapes the memoir to such an extent that Manzoor feelsaligned to values that his father discredits. As aforementioned, theessences of assimilation play a critical role in the conflictingcircumstances that shape Manzoor’s relationship with his father.Following through the memoirs, one understands that Manzoor dislikeshis father’s principles and despot dictation thus, tries tocultivate a cultural identity that provides happiness and contentmentrather than incorporating ideas that seem so awkward to his ideals.After travelling to Manchester, Manzoor’s desire to be assimilatedin the new culture and to shake off his father’s dominance andinsistence on living the Muslim becomes apparent. Besides going out,listening to the music he wishes and wearing any kind of cloths helikes, Manzoor seems apparently happy to be away from his dictatingfather. He recalls,

InManchester, I was free, I could stay out late, play music as loud asI wished, wear black leather trousers and red velvet shirts and shakemy dreadlocks to Lenny Kravitz.” (2)

Asthe memoir transits to the climax, it is apparent that the author isakin to changes that will have a positive effect on his life thus,embarks on a journey that seeks to cultivate the espousal of Muslimheritage. While his later life is marked with the desire tore-embrace Muslim heritage, it is clear that the author’s firstdays are marked by cultural value conflict and need to be assimilatedin the mainstream society/culture i.e. he tries to redefine hiscultural identity to the Muslim he is, as he suggests later.

Iwas confused he believed in family, I championed the individual…Iconvinced

myselfthat we were so different, the notion that I might have inheritedanything

fromhim appalled me.] (6)

Thesame cultural conflict seems to be apparent to some extent withManzoor’s father. Though Mohammed likes money, much of this is sentback home. However, in contrast to his Muslim heritage, he is asmoker. Manzoorwrites that his father “…was not frittering his wages. His onlyvice was smoking…” (15).

Thebook mirrors the life that Manzoor lives first rebellious, followedby a reflective life and finally the desire to reconcile with hisroots and heritage. This is also reflected in how he interprets thelife of his iconic rock star, Springsteen. To him, the iconicmusician is a representative of all westernized things including butnot limited to freedom, hard work and play. Inhis interview with Wurtzel, Manzoor concludes, “…long held theorythat anyone who likes Bruce Springsteen is by definition a niceperson.” (5). Coupledwith the opening quotes at the start of each sentence, this amicablyindicates that Manzoor himself is a great fun of the iconic star andoften considers their lives alike. For him, however, thereconciliation stage comes too late as his father is on the dying bedand does not manages to witness his son’s success.

Undoubtedly,Manzoor’s memoir is a classic example of how value conflict occursin a multicultural society. For Manzoor, the need to learn and beassimilated in the dominant society first leads to conflicts with hisfather who is adamant that his children stick to Muslim heritage andculture. Before he can actually shake his desire for independence andself-rule, the 9/11 terrorist-attack hits America shaking the authordesire and making him yearn to re-embrace his cultural heritage andmake peace with his past.


Manzoor,Sarfraz. Greetingsfrom Bury Park: race, religion and rock`n`roll.London: Bloomsbury, 2007. Print.



Ethnology:Americans in a Restaurant

TheNorth American society is among the most diverse in the world interms of ethnic backgrounds. Americans originated from various partsof the world that uphold different cultural values. However, thecosmopolitan society has evolved to set common values that aregenerally acceptable to the majority of the population. This paperattempts to explain various behavioral aspects of the Americansociety in a restaurant setting. The study involves two visits to arestaurant the first instance being non-participative while thesecond visit involves direct participation. As the researcher, myintent is to capture various behavioral components and analyze themto explain why the Americans behave in the way they do.


Firstvisit (Non-participant)

Inthe first visit, I entered a restaurant and identified an isolatedtable which I sought favorable for my observation of the rest of therestaurant space. I ordered a fruit drink to facilitate theconcealing of my intentions by anyone around as I played the role ofa normal customer. The restaurant was approximately half full ofcustomers who sat round tables in small and large groups as well.

AsI waited for to be served, my attention was specifically drawn to acouple who were seated adjacent to me on my right. I was keen toobserve how they first conversed between themselves before decidingto place the order. They then waited for a waiter, who had beenserving another table to turn and invited him with a smile. Ioverheard their conversation as they sought to modify the menu bykeenly advising the waiter on their preferences.

Ithen shifted my attention to a family of four who were seated rightahead of where I was seated. They had been served and were happilyenjoying their meal. However, there were silence lapses. Throughcontinued observation, I noted that it was not in their norms tospeak while eating especially with food in the mouth, and chewing.When the family chatted, it was not loud to disrupt the attention ofthe other people in the restaurant, even though it was characterizedwith laughs. In addition, they used a formal way of using cutlery.There was uniformity in the way they held and used their forks,spoons and knives.

Ageneral look at the dressing code showed that most of the Americansin the restaurant were dressed casually but neatly. There were onlya few people who were dressed officially, probably owing to theplaces they were from, or where they were headed before deciding todrop by. The colors of the clothes worn were attractive adding to therestaurants décor.

Anotherimportant observation was that after having their meals, thecustomers only spent very little time and then left. None exceededten additional minutes after having settled their bills. I almostfelt as an outcast and had to request for a refill of my glass to buymore time for my study.

Thewaiters were welcoming and respectful. I received a welcomingstatement from a waitress we met as I entered. I was ushered to mytable and I had not felt any comfortable before. I also keenly notedthat the waiters were well tipped. I had to follow suit. No one leftwithout tipping their waiters.

SecondVisit (Participant)

Inthe subsequent visit, I altered the hour of visit from the lunchtimeto breakfast. This time I did not seat in an isolated place. Iidentified a table where a group of three was seated. The table hadspace for an additional customer and I made myself comfortable there.I was able to confirm most of what I had observed in the previousvisits as a true reflection of the American code of behavior withinthe restaurant environment. A majority of people were casuallydressed, including several who were from exercising in the morning.The waiters were handled respectfully and they reciprocated the same.There were no instances of anyone shouting to the waiters to placetheir orders. Instead, the customers were keen to let the waiterstake orders from others customers until they got to them. The samesystem of the use of cutlery was employed. I was `impressed by howwell almost everyone had mastered the trick.

Iwas keen to make a new observation: the people kept quite somedistance between them while sitting round the tables. They must havewanted to maintain their personal spaces. There was not much ofconversation with strangers but rather with acquaintances. Those whohad come in alone sought to read papers and magazine that wereavailed by the restaurant’s management.


Fromthe study, it is evident that the American people present themselveswith respect in the restaurants. They respect their space, the peoplewho serve them and the others customers in the same restaurants(Stradley, 2014). They also eat with dignity and have a formality ofdoing that. They also respect the fact that they do not have to takeup all the space for a very long time, and hence exist soon afterthey are through. This is a positive aspect of their norms as itavoids conflicts and facilitates order.

Itis also arguable that the Americans are thankful and they know how toappreciate the services they receive (Stradley, 2014). This isevinced by the fact that it is very common to give tips to thewaiters who serve them.


Stradley,L. (2014). EtiquetteGuide – United States Dining Etiquette Guide.Retrieved from June 26, 2014).

Trauma and Development

Traumaand Development

Effectsof trauma on development

Achild’s brain can be altered if he or she is exposed to prolongedand chronic traumatic experiences during his or her early life(Perry, 2010). This, in turn, may adversely affect several areas,like physical health and cognitive ability, of such a child. As aresult, such a child suffers from impaired long-term intellectualability as well as cognitive development. Functional organization andcritical structural of the brain take place during the earlydevelopment of a child. According to Perry (2010), the brain reachesapproximately 90 percent of adult size as a child attain the age ofthree year. Therefore, if a child is exposed to trauma during his orher early development then the brain will adapt or reflect to thattrauma by altering the development of neural systems, which areinvolved in fear ad stress response. Perry (2010) findings show thatareas of the brain affected or altered by trauma can be healed byintroducing a child to therapeutic interventions.

Counterof spiritual development on trauma

Severalspiritual resources can help counter the effects of trauma. Forinstance, prayers, reaching out to a member of the clergy, or goingto church can help some people overcome their traumatic experiences.Others turn to reading spiritual materials like affirmations as wellas to meditating in order to overcome their traumatic experiencesBernal &amp Saez-Santiago (2009). Meditating and praying plays a keyrole in helping a victim of trauma find a new perspective on life aswell as accept his or her present moment. Rubin &amp Crocker (2011)findings show that spiritual resources hasten the recovery processfrom trauma since it help people find meaning as well as connect to acommunity that support and engage them in various activities.

Factorsaccelerating development delays in a traumatized child

Geneticfactorsplay quite a significant role in delayed development of a child.These factors include but not limited to diagnoses like musculardystrophy and Down syndrome. These diagnoses cause multiple delaysthat have an immense influence on social, communication, and physicaldevelopment of a child (Bernal et al., 2006).

Againbiological factors, like lead poisoning, head injuries, and visionloss, may affect a child’s development. Prolonged hearing loss mayresult to life-long issues regarding the ability to communicate. Headinjuries may also cause developmental delays that may be reversedthrough occupational or physical therapy.

Additionally,environmental factors, like neglect, lack of immunizations abuse,parental depression, and malnutrition, may cause developmentaldelays. Cognitive, social, motor, and language developmental delaysmay also be caused by issues prevalent in a child environment.

Pregnancyfactors also cause developmental delay. Difficulties experiencedduring labor and deliver may cause developmental delays. This isbecause a child may experience head injuries or lack enough oxygen ifa mother experience prolonged or difficult labor (Perry, 2010).

Prevalenceof various forms of trauma and their varying in different cultures

Severaltypes of trauma exists and they include community violence, sexualabuse, traumatic loss, exposure to domestic violence, complex trauma,impaired caregiver, emotional abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, andphysical abuse.

Accordingto Bernal (2009), Latinos/Hispanic children are exposed to highincidence of community violence, impaired caregiver, domesticviolence and a lower level of neglect and sexual abuse as compared toCaucasian children. Bernal et al (2009) findings show 50.2 percent ofchildren that were reported to be mistreated was white, 14. 5 percentwere Latino/Hispanic, while 25 percent were African American. Povertyis one of the risk factors that have been associated with the highincidence of trauma exposed to Latino children


Bernal,G., &amp Saez-Santiago, E. (2009). Culturally Centered PsychosocialInterventions. Journalof Community Psychology,34 (2), 121-132.

Perry,B.D. (2010). Traumatizedchildren: How childhood trauma influences brain development.TheJournal of the California Alliance for the Mentally Ill, 11(1),48-51.

Rubin,L &amp Crocker, A.C. (2011). DevelopmentalDisabilities: Delivery of Medical Care for Children and Adults.Philadelphia, Pa: Lea &amp Febiger.