440 M1 Case

440 M1 CASE 5

Introduction to Database Technology and Database Management

Data refers to raw facts as well as figures, which lack significance.They could be any alphanumeric lettering, as numbers or text. Forinstance, 41, 56 and Yes are data sets that lack significance. Theyneed to have a context and undergo processing to become relevant(Liew, 2007). Information is processed data into a form giving itrelevance. Data that has advanced to the level of being significantfor some analysis refers to information (Liew, 2007). Knowledge isthe comprehension of rules required to deduce information. It is acombination of structured experiences, values and insights providingan outline to assess advent experiences (Liew, 2007). Data ought tobe organized to be regarded as information. Information should be putinto perspective to act as knowledge. Knowledge derives frominformation flow, fixed in the holder’s beliefs and assurance.

Database refers to information arranged in a manner, which makes itpossible for a computer program to choose pieces of data. It is aswell, a systematized group of data stored in a computer. Databasesare used because data is kept in a central place and accessible bymany users (Paredaens, 2007). The advantages of databases includetime saving. A database draws out information after the user typesparticular keywords to aid the computer in information recollection.It is more time efficient when compared to accessing files stored inpaper. Databases help in communication big organizations can gainfrom databases in instances when information spreads amid more thanone user. For instance, if the organization has two divisions andmust share information, a central database ensures that all employeesaccess company information via their personal computers (Paredaens,2007). Security is more attainable when using databases filecabinets are easily tampered or misplaced. However, databasesincrease security through password protection. This ensures thatpeople not allowed to view the information cannot access it.Regulated data redundancy, when designing databases, several filesare incorporated, and every rational data amassed in a central place(Paredaens, 2007). It avoids replication of data in diverse files,and guarantees uniformity while saving on storage space. DBMS availsa recovery, in addition to backup subsystem following hardware andsoftware breakdowns. For instance, if the failure happens during atransaction, through the recovery subsystem, the database is revertedto the initial condition before commencement of the transaction(Paredaens, 2007).

DBMS refers to a compilation of programs, which facilitate thestorage, adjustment and extraction of information from databases(Gill, 2008). It is a set of programs, which control hugesystematized groups of constant data, providing ad hoc inquiry tonumerous users. DBMS recognizes data requests from the applicationprogram and commands the operating system to convey the suitabledata. It is possible to add new data to the database with minimalinterruption to the accessible system. There are diverse kinds ofDBMSs varying from small systems running on individual computers tolarge ones, which run on mainframes.

DBMSs include hierarchical, relational, network and object-oriented.Hierarchical DBMS occurs when the associations of data items create atree-like form. Although straightforward, the structure is notflexible, as associations are just one-to-many. Currently, it ismostly employed for storing file structures (Gill, 2008). RelationalDBMSs are the most commonly employed system in microcomputer, as wellas mainframe structures. Employing a two dimensional form of datastorage. It facilitates the connection of record tables via generalkey values. The disadvantage of this kind of DBMS is that end userquestions are difficult to run because they might need intricatetable combinations. Associations in the network DBMS are moremultifaceted, adopting a many-to-many system. The structure makes itprobable to access numerous records via diverse paths.Object-oriented DBMS is capable of handling diverse data kinds,involving graphics, pictures, sound and video. It is well recognizedfor application in multi-media web uses. The structure was formulatedfor use with Java and different object-oriented programming words. Itcan be utilized in storing data from an array of media sources,producing output in the form of multimedia (Gill, 2008).

The ease of use and modification apparent in the relational databasecan be employed to compare it with the object-oriented database,which is more appropriate for multimedia. Relational database linksdata through utilization of ordinary data parts or main fields. Filesand tables comprising data are regarded as relations. The databaseswork on the rule that every table has a major field, whichexceptionally classifies every row. The major fields might beemployed in linking a single data table to a different one. Thebenefits of a relational database are simplicity of application andcapability to alter entries without re-describing the whole system.Contrary, the object-oriented database is applicable when data fromdiverse media resources is being amassed. It employs small, reusablesoftware bits referred to objects. Every object comprises of twocomponents. These are pieces of data as text, sound and graphic, aswell as the guidelines or software programs termed as methods on whatcommands to perform with the data. The advantage is that thecapability to blend and match re-applicable objects availsunbelievable multimedia ability.


Gill, P. S. (2008). Database management systems. New Delhi:I.K. International.

Liew, A. (2007). Understanding Data, Information, Knowledge and theirInter-relationships. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice,8(2): 1-1. Retrieved from: http://www.tlainc.com/articl134.htm

Paredaens, J. (2007). Databases. Michigan: Academic Press.