AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE WAYS OF ADOPTING GREEN COMPUTING AND ITS

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ANINVESTIGATION INTO THE WAYS OF ADOPTING GREEN COMPUTING AND ITSEFFECTIVENESS IN THE ENVIRONMETAL CONSERVATION

ADMISSIONNUMBER

ARESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTFOR A DOCTORATE DEGREE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

NAMEOF THE UNIVERSITY

JUNE2014

DECLARATION

Thisproposal is my original work and has not been presented forexamination in any other university

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Thisresearch proposal has been submitted with our approval as Universitysupervisors

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ABSTRACT

Greencomputing, also known as Green IT, refers to the usage of computingresources effectively while increasing and maintaining inclusiveperformance. Indeed, successful green computing adoption will requireintegration of various interventions such as gadget designing andoptimization, power management, improved cooling technology,virtualization and safe electronic disposal. The study is prompted bythe rising issue of global warming and the challenges involved ine-waste management due to lack of definite and clear legal frameworkguiding this field. Essentially, the existing waste disposal programsand ways of adopting green computing may not holistically deal withthe global problem facing the world. Therefore, the researchendeavours to find ways in which green computing can be adopted inthe design, manufacturing, processing and disposal of computingrelated gadgets with an aim to reduce environmental degradation.Additionally, the research is anchored on the global need to saveenergy and maximize efficiency and reducing the risk of disposablehazardous materials to promote recyclability and biodegradability inthe world of computing. These interventions will be adopted toenhance application of Green Computing as a way of embracing agreener world.

Tableof Contents

DECLARATION ii

ABSTRACT iii

1.0 Literature Review 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Related Work 1

2.0 The Problem Background 5

2.1 Problem Definition 6

2.2 Problem Statement 6

2.3 Scope 7

2.4 Objectives 8

3.0 Research Methodology 8

3.1 Proposed Architecture 8

3.2 Research Design 9

3.3 Limitations 10

4.0 Work Plan 11

4.1 Gantt Chart 12

References 13

CHAPTERONE

1.0Literature Review1.1Introduction

Thischapter is a review of available literature on the ways of adoptinggreen computing in the computing world, and the effectiveness ofusing green computing as a way to conserve the environment.Specifically, the chapter analyses the available literature fromresearches done on sustainable green computing popularly known asGreen IT. The main areas of study will tackle the practices and studyof environmentally sustainable computing right from the computerdesigns, manufacturing, the usage and the final stages of disposal ofservers, computers and other related subsystems, for instance,printers, monitors, storage devices, communication and networkingdevices.

Thereviewed literature will enable the researcher to establish howadopting green computing will effectively conserve the environmentand the rationale behind its adoption towards a greener world. Theliterature review will give an insight and reason for adopting greencomputing.

1.2Related Work

AlthoughGreen computing offers an effective way to address the lingeringissues of global warming, there is less academic work tackling thistopic. Precisely, Green computing is the study of eco-friendly andefficient resources in computing. In fact, the field is under theattention of businesses, environmental organizations, governments andother industries. In the recent past, going green has beenpopularized as the best way to conserve the environment and as a wayof cost reduction in the computer industry.

GreenTechnology is a wide field which encompasses the 21st energygeneration technique and advanced computing materials used in ourdaily life. Equally, green computing emphasis on reducing theenvironmental impact of innovative technologies and industrialprocess.

Apartfrom the carbon dioxide emissions and the power hogs generated fromthe use and energy consumed by the computers, there are other toxicwastes produced when decomposing old computers and peripherals. Thosetoxic wastes pollute the land and affects the environment in a waythat cannot be reversed. According to Gaurav (2012), green computingis set to solve many problems and the goals of adopting it is topromote recycling of products, increasing the lifetime of computingproducts, reduce the effects of hazardous materials, reduce the usageof power consumption, and maximize the efficiency of products duringtheir lifetime. Therefore, green computing adoption calls for aholistic approach into ways of having a greener planet devoid ofpollution.

Accordingto Jenkin et al., 2010, the environmental degradation needs to bereversed to guarantee the future of sustainable business practices.This has created awareness to adopt the revolutionary processes ofgreen computing. In fact, Wati and Koo (2010) avers that theenvironmental issues in the world today poses a great challenge whichhas changed the way businesses operate in many aspects. Su andAl-Hakim (2010) emphasize that although information technology haspositively affected the way business operates and improved thequality of life through the economic growth, they must play afundamental role in creating a greener economy.

Computerscience plays three vital roles in the interaction between theenvironment and organization by enabling sustainable practices,enhancing environmental performances and influencing what peoplebelieve about the environment (Melville, 2010). According toUnhelkar (2011), the prevailing trends in sustainable, greencomputing adoption are directed towards IT management in providingeffective and efficient resources that will reduce environmentalimpact. In fact, the effects of green computing can be approached intwo perspectives where the first perspective it can be used directlyto reduce the negative impact on the environment. Secondly, greencomputing can be used to indirectly support the business initiativesthat are aimed at reducing negative impacts on the environment(Jenkin et al., 2010). When businesses and green computing closelyalign their goals, standards and processes, they open up platformsand business opportunities in the energy efficient economy (Unhelkar,2011).

Theproponent of green computing suggests that for a sustainable andadoption of green computing to be effective, a holistic approach isthe solution. Notably, this is the only way to address the issue ofenvironmental conservation. In addition, Murugesan (2008), suggeststhat four groups of approach must be implemented: Green design, Greenuse, Green Disposal and Green manufacturing. In essence, the authorconfirms that using the four approaches, the dream of having a totalsustainable environment can be unveiled. Under those circumstances,Murugesan (2008) avers that one of the basic approaches in greencomputing is to turn off the PCs when not in use, use of thin clientcomputers and using screen savers. Secondly, in designing, the focusshould be integrating the technologies and new techniques to reducethe impact of computers to the environment. Therefore, this willbalance economic benefit and performance with the environmentalcompatibility. Thirdly, Murugesan (2008) continues to emphasize thatwhen it comes to disposal, there is a greener term known as re-use ofthe older computers and related gadgets to other individuals who needthem if the gadgets meet the requirement. However, if the gadgetscannot be recycled, they should be disposed properly without posingany danger to the environment.

Theissues that make adoption of green computing mandatory rather than arequirement is the alarming levels of primary and secondary emissionsthat are related to computing. Therefore, it is necessary to adoptthe best ways and practices to tackle the environmental issues(O’Neill 2010). Consequently, this would establish a green cyclefrom the information technology side throughout the entire lifecycle.

Inconclusion, the aspect of green computing is new and came into beingwhen people started to realize that the issue of environment was aglobal problem and needed individual intervention to mitigate thedangers involved. By and large, Green computing is still in itsinfancy and awareness about the ways and benefits of green IT comesin handy. Indeed, more industry initiatives and academic research areessential to underscore the best ways of implementing green computingand its effectiveness in conserving the environment (Sayeed and Gill,2010). However, in the current world, there is a huge amount ofcomputing related gadgets manufactured, which impacts negatively onthe environment if their usage is not controlled. Therefore, the aimof green computing is to deal with the issue of energy shortage andglobal warming. In addition, environmental degradation is an issuethat the private sector and the government have prioritized.

Essentially,any computing process in the industry should provide the society’swants and needs in the best way that do not impact negatively to thenatural resources. Therefore, green computing comes in handy increating recyclable products that are aimed at reducing pollution,manufacturing recyclable products, providing alternative technologiesin computation fields, and having economic benefits throughactivities that conserve the environment and protect the naturalresources. Consequently, the research indicates that the approach ofadopting green computing is a multi-faceted issue and requires aholistic approach right from the design, manufacturer, usage anddisposal of computers and peripherals. Therefore, the research willdwell on the ways to adopt green computing and its effectiveness incombating environmental degradation.

2.0The Problem Background

Environmentaldegradation is a significant concern in the world for both thecurrent and future generation. The challenges of global warming andchange of climate are posing a threat to the sustainability of thedigital economy in the world. In fact, the greater challenge isanchored on the limited energy source, the rising cost of theavailable energy and lack of appropriate ways of e-waste management.

Accordingto Murugesan (2008), the climate and weather patterns in the worldhave been affected by increased accumulation of greenhouse gases,making countries suffer droughts while others are experiencingfloods. In fact, in the world, temperatures have increased, posing agreat problem for the earth`s inhabitants. Murugesan (2008) confirmsthat 2005 was the warmest year in the last three decades, and allthe warmest years recorded were between 1980 and 2008. To reduce theaccumulation and increase of greenhouse gases, the efforts should bedirected towards reducing the global emissions. In addition,information technology affects the environment in various ways.Firstly, every stage of a computer’s life right from the design,production, and disposal pose an environmental challenge. Secondly,the manufacturing of computers and peripherals consume electricity,use raw materials, water, chemicals and yield hazardous wastes duringoperation and disposal. Therefore, those processes indirectly ordirectly increase the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere henceaffecting the environment.

Pritchard(2007), as cited in Murugesan (2008) avers that the energy needed forcomputers, data communication gadgets, cooling system in datacenters, servers and monitors are steadily increasing the emission ofgreenhouse gases. In addition, every year a computer generatesapproximately a ton of carbon dioxide, while its components containtoxic substances that pollutes the earth and contaminate the water.Ultimately, many computers and peripherals are disposed of after twoto three years creating a landfill, which become unmanageable in thelong run. Further, there is a proportional increase of computers andperipheral usage and their replacement. Hence, the management of suchvast component poses a threat to the environment.

Significantly,the computing industry, individuals and businesses are receivingpressure to adopt a sustainable green computing throughout the lifecycle. In fact, there is corporate and social responsibility toconserve the environment.

2.1Problem Definition

Theenvironmental degradation requires a holistic approach to solve it.The facts established recently indicate that an urgent interventionis required to combat global warming. According to U.S. EPA (2012),in America alone Data centers, servers, and electricity emit in theneighborhood of 74.5 billion lbs annually of CO2. Secondly, U.S EIA(2008) indicates that from 2005-2009, the number of householdcomputers has doubled, in addition, those computers were used morethan 10 hours a day in the year 2009 alone. Thirdly, Robinson (2009)confirms that between 20-25 tonnes of e-waste is generated anddisposed of each year in the world. Lastly, the usage of paperglobally has increased by 11% between the year 2000 to 2011. Hence,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011) statethat this transforms to a projected increase of 109 to 274 millionmetric tonnes of writing and printing paper from 2006 to 2060.Furthermore, depending on the modes and process of production, atonne of paper will require 12 to 24 trees to manufacture (Buongiornoet al., 2012). In essence, it is evident that there is a problem thatneed to be solved. Those facts justify the adoption of sustainablegreen computing in every sector of the economy.

2.2Problem Statement

Inthe world of computing, there is a research gap that needs to befilled. Essentially, the integration of green computing in the fieldof IT is a pertinent issue that requires a research in a holisticapproach. Indeed, the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is aglobal problem facing the whole world. There is a big percentage ofgas emissions, which originate from the computing world. In fact, theincrease of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been blamed forrespiratory diseases, global climate change, acid rain and smog.Therefore, there must be a deliberate effort initiated to bring theemission of harmful gases to a grinding halt. The whole worldrequires a solution if the sustainability of the digital economy issomething to go by. In addition, the global warming is a globaldisaster which requires a holistic approach to all individuals,government and Information technology sector. Therefore, the solutionlies from within, and the benefits are global.

Adoptionof sustainable Green computing is the solution for the environmentaldegradation challenges. Consequently, the approach should range fromvarious interventions such as gadget designing and optimization,power management, improved cooling technology, virtualization andsafe electronic disposal. This research provides effective ways ofadopting green computing and its benefits in environmentalconservation.

2.3Scope

Thisresearch will highlight the areas that our thesis will be covering tojustify the adoption of green computing in the information technologyfield. The research will focus on several dimensions which include,understanding the challenge in the computing world, the impact of ITon the environment, the concept of green computing, ways of adoptinggreen computing, the benefits of green computing, environmentalsustainability, economics of efficient energy and recycling ande-waste management.

2.4Objectives

  1. To understand the importance of green computing and the role it plays in

Conservationof energy.

  1. To identify the key ways of adopting green computing from the design, manufacturing, usage and disposal of computers and peripherals.

  2. To identify the benefits of adopting green computing and its effectiveness in the sustaining the world of computing

  3. To identify key issues which are relevant to green IT and evaluate various methodologies in combating those problems.

  4. To initiate a network project in government agencies, Industries and Universities aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions which arise from ICT services.

3.0Research Methodology

Thedetails on how the research will be conducted will be discussed andthe description of the study area, study population, samplingprocedure and sample size. In essence, the following sections will betackled research design, target population, sample and samplingtechniques, research instruments, data collection procedure, methodsof data analysis and the ethical concern of the study.

3.1Proposed Architecture

Thereare various ways of carrying out the research. Therefore, in thisresearch three types of research instruments will be employed in thedata collection. These instruments will be questionnaires, interview guide and focus group discussion guide. Questionnaires will be usedto gather data from the employees in IT firms, while interview guideswill be used to interview management in those firms. On the otherhand, focus group discussion will be used to guide discussion amongthe employers. In fact, Kiess and Bloomquist (1985) observe thatquestionnaires are more advantageous in their administration and cancollect data in the setup of a small number of people to a largernumber of people simultaneously. In addition, they provide aninvestigation with the easy accumulation of data and the respondenthave the freedom to make suggestions and express their views. On thecontrary, interviews are considered appropriate in a small samplesize since the researcher can probe and get more information thatwould be possible using the questionnaires.

3.2Research Design

Thestudy will employ the survey design, both qualitative andquantitative methods. Qualitative research will give the researcherthe required tools to evaluate the intricate phenomena in theircontext. Secondly, the qualitative research will be applied toanalyze the case studies on the implementation of green computing ofthe two institutions, Västeråsmunicipality and Mälardalen University in Belgium (Oelreich,2004).The information from those two organizations and how they haveimplemented Green IT will be used qualitatively to understand theways and successes of implementing.

Thesecond method will be quantitative research which will becharacterized by a collection of statistical data thoroughquestionnaire, online survey and telephone calls in the fourinternational organizations which have integrated Green IT, namelyYahoo, Apple, Verizon Wireless, and the National Snow and Ice DataCenter. Eventually, the data collected will be coded and entered intothe SPSS. The Lickety summated rating scale will be used to analyzequestions from the filled questionnaires.

Thesurvey will study the data collected from a sample size to estimateone or more parameters in the population. The quantitative surveywill be involved in describing, recording, analyzing and reportingthe conditions that existed or existing. The data collected will beof the essence in evaluating the current practices about greencomputing and provide a platform for the decision making. The surveydesign is considered appropriate, and it will enable the researcherto collect and analyze data from the respondent who include ITexperts, managers and employers and employees in informationtechnology firms Yahoo, Apple, Verizon Wireless, and the NationalSnow and Ice Data Center. In addition, the design will enable theresearcher to describe the current situation in the computing worldand its relationship with environmental degradation and suggest waysto adopt green computing as a remedy.

3.3Limitations

Thisresearch will have several limitations and the primary data collectedwill only come from several organizations. Henceforth, the findingsand the conclusion may not be conclusive and comprehensive enough.Fisher et al. (2007) highlights that there are challenges that comewith case studies from what happens in a particular situation willnot typically reflect the results in all other cases.

Inaddition, the number of interviewees will be small and limited to,environmental specialist, managers and IT experts. Although, theinterviewees will be selected from their familiarity on practices andgreen policies in their organization and green computing initiatives,their knowledges and experiences may not pinpoint the actualinformation required. In the actual research, the findings are basedon the respondents` perception and self-reported data, which may onlyreflect a temporary response by the respondent or an overstatedresponse during the interview or in the questionnaire.

4.0 Work Plan

COMPUTER SCIENCE PHD PROJECT

Column1

Column2

Column3

Tasks

Start Date

Duration (days)

End Date

Research Proposal

10-May

30

10-June

Submission

11-June

1

12-June

Defending the research proposal

13-June

1

14-June

Research paper 1

15-June

2

17-June

Research paper 2

17-June

2

19-June

Research paper 3

19-June

2

21-June

Research paper 4

21-June

2

23-June

Submission

24-June

1

24-June

Thesis

25-June

60

25-Aug

Final Submission

26-Aug

1

27-Aug

Defending the Thesis

29-Aug

1

30-Aug

4.1 Gantt Chart References

Buongiorno,J., et al. (2012) Outlook to 2060 for World Forests and ForestIndustries: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2010RPA Assessment.

Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2011) FAOYearbook of Forest Products 2000, and (2013) FAO Yearbook of ForestProductss 2011.

Fisher,C. Buglear, J. Lowry, D. Mutch, A. and Tansley, C. (2007) Researchingand Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students,Prentice Hall, Second Edition.

GauravJ. (2012). GreenComputing “Future of Computers” EmergingResearch in Management &ampTechnologISSN: 2278-9359.

Jenkin,A. T., Webster, J. and McShane, L. (2011) ‘An agenda for Greeninformation technology and systems research, Informationand Organization,Vol 21, pp. 17–40.

KiessO. and Bloomquist W. (1985) PsychologicalResearch Methods,A Conceptual Approach, Boston: Ally and Bacon.

LakshmiS.V.S.S., Ms. I Sri Lalita Sarwani, M.Nalini Tuveera (2012).International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 1282-1285

Melville,N.P. (2010) ‘Information systems innovation for environmentalsustainability’, MISQuarterly,Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 1–21.

Murugesan,S. (2008) ‘Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices’, ITProfessional,Vol.10, No.1, pp. 24-33.

Oelreich,K. (2004) ‘Environmental certification at Mälardalen University’,InternationalJournal of Sustainability in Higher Education,Vol. 5, pp.133 – 146.

O’Neill,M. G., (2010) GreenIT for Sustainable Business Practice: an ISEB Foundation Guide BCS,The chartered institute for IT.

Pritchard,S. (2007) “IT Going Green: Forces Pulling in Different Directions,”FinancialTimes,30 May 2007.

Robinson,B. (2009) E-waste: An Assessment of Global Production andEnvironmental Impacts. Science of the Total Environment, 408:183-191.

Sayeed,L. and Gill, S. (2008) ‘An exploratory study on environmentalsustainability and IT use’, Proceedingsof the Fourteenth America’s Conference on Information Systems,Toronto, Canada.

Su,Y. and Al-Hakim, L. (2010) ‘System Dynamics Modeling for Green ITStrategies: SAP Sustainability Development Case’, Challengesin Environmental Science and Computer Engineerin (CESCE)International Conference.

Unhelkar,B. (2011) ‘Green IT: The Next Five Years’, ITProfessional,Vol.13, No.2, pp.56-59.

U.S.EIA (2009) 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey.

U.S.EPA (2012). CO2Emissions.Emissions &amp Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID).

Wati,Yulia and Koo, Chulmo (2010) ‘The Green IT Practices of Nokia,Samsung, Sony, and Sony Ericsson: Content Analysis Approach’, 43rdHawaii International Conference on System Sciences,January 05-08.