An Investigation of Cultural Clues on Perceptions Built In the course of Computer-Mediated Communication A case study of Errors to the Individual against the Situation

AnInvestigation of Cultural Clues on Perceptions Built In the course ofComputer-Mediated Communication: A case study of Errors to theIndividual against the Situation

AnInvestigation of Cultural Clues on Perceptions Built In the course ofComputer-Mediated Communication: A case study of Errors to theIndividual against the Situation

ChapterOne

Thisstudy will be focusing on investigation of cultural clues onperceptions built in the course of computer-mediated communication.This chapter will discuss about Background of study, Problemstatement, and Research Hypothesis.

Backgroundof the study

Computer-mediatedcommunication (CMC) is a far-reaching concept in today’s place ofwork. Corporations are using Computer-mediated communicationtechnologies such as shared databases, e-mail, instant messaging, andvideo conferencing to link personnel and customers all over theworld. The use of this expertise is substituting interactions thatformerly would have happened in person or by phone (Watt, Lea, &ampSpears, 2002).

Constantdigital connectedness is not making us more because cell and smartphones have impacted greatly across all walks of human race and life.The most visible areas that have evidently been in impacted areeducation, business and the impact is heavily felt on social life.The use of computer technology has significantly changed people’sbehavior and cultural norms.

Ascomputer-mediated communication has turn out to be more ordinary,people are starting to appreciate the dissimilarities betweencomputer-mediated and face to face (FTF) communications. One form ofcomputer-mediated communication, e-mail, is well-thought-out to be aless rich avenue of connection when matched with face to faceinteractions, because e-mail leaves out some important forms ofcommunication such as nonverbal communication.

ProblemStatement

Theproblem that presents itself in computer-mediated communicationtechnologies is that corporations are unaware and uninformed of thefact that the technology that they have become more reliant on mightbe responsible for communication and project failures. Manyorganizations seem to be very fast on adoption of new technologicaladvances without delving into its merits and demerits (Watt, Lea, &ampSpears, 2002). Therefore, it is evident that more research is shouldbe done on any new technologies before their implementation. It is inline with these facts that the researcher want to conduct a study oncultural clues on perceptions built in the course ofcomputer-mediated communication.

ResearchHypothesis

  1. The research will look at the connection between technical language violations and cultural cues to determine its effects on communication.

  2. There will be investigation on the negative effects of cultural cues on technical language violation and the perception of the recipient.

  3. There will be investigation on the negative effects of cultural cues on technical language violation and the recipient’s cognitive views of the sender’s honesty.

ChapterTwo

LiteratureReview

Differentliterature have different take on computer-mediatedcommunication technologiessuch as e-mails. It has been established that with computer-mediatedcommunication technologies therelack of a conversational tone in short messages and violations of thetechnical language, such as grammatical and spelling errors couldaffect the perception of the email receiver of the sender’sintelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, consciousness, cognitivetrustworthiness, and affective trustworthiness(Watt,Lea, &amp Spears, 2002).Therefore, the authors scrutinize whether the effects of etiquetteand technical language infringement is contingent on the informationavailability indicating the sender of the email is from an alienculture.

Toshow evidence of the effects of cultural clues on perceptions builtin the course of computer-mediated communication, one independentvariable was email linguistic deviations and had 3-levels: etiquettedeviations where the email was lacked a tone for a conversation andwas short. Another independent variable is the cultural cue, whichhad 2 levels: Known (clear attestation that the sender of the emailis from an alien culture) and the unknown (elimination of the emailsender’s culture). The final independentvariable in the experiment is the violations of the technicallanguage (email had grammatical and spelling errors).

Accordingto Larsen (2003), as a result of the high immigrants’ percentagefrom Asian countries in professional and management positions, theviolations of technical language condition emerged with errorscharacteristic of the Asian culture. For example, the Asian culturesare notorious for incorrect homophones, prepositions, and the absenceof noun-verb agreement. In the experiment, the participants werefemale students from a United States’ northeastern University. Italso states the age of the participants, ethnicity, and theexperiment only included participants from the United States and whomEnglish is their first language. The results of the experimentrevealed that participants perceived negative notions of the emailsenders with violations of technical language.

ChapterThree

ResearchMethodology

TheResearch Methodology chapter presents the theoretical orientation andthe research design of the dissertation. The research design sectionof the chapter includes objectives of the research, quantitativeresearch, qualitative research, and validity of the research,reliability of research, and ethics and confidentiality of therespondents to the various methods, which were used in collection ofdata (Midgley,2010).

ResearchDesign

Theresearcher will integrate various research approaches such as the usecontent validity index and the use of statistical package for socialscientists (SPSS), that ensured reliability of data collected. Theresearch design that will be employed will be experimental design,which will utilize two cross culture and three e-mail deviation. Theindependent variable in this paper is the cultural cues and themanipulated variable is the e-mails that come from different culturalpoint of view.

Theexperimental design will incorporate both quantitative andqualitative methods. Qualitative approach entails subjectiveassessment of attitudes, behavior, and opinions. While thequantitative approach ensures analysis of data collected from thequestionnaires, some of the statements (statements that investigatedlevel of agreement of the respondents) will be coded so that theycould give the researcher an easy time when analyzing the collecteddata.

Thestudy seeks to use experimental design where the dependent variablewhich is based on computer-mediated communication such as e-mail thatoriginates from different culture is examined. Through the use ofboth quantitative and quantitative techniques, the researcherprovides a detailed analysis examining the respective cultural cluesbased on the perceptions that is built in the course of the computermediated communication. Through the study participants on the casestudy, the researcher experiments such errors executed by individualsagainst a given situation. The study enacts strategic approachesattached to research standards and policies to control extraneousvariables and other confounding entities are likely to limit thereliability and validity of the study findings.

Targetpopulation

Thetarget population of the research study will be 200 high schoolstudents. The participants in this study will be in the age bracketof 13-18 years old and will have a mixture of different cultures suchas African American, Caucasians, American Indian, Hispanic, Asiansand only those born in America were considered native Englishspeakers. Therespondents will be got through random sampling.

SampleSize

Thesample size was got by a use of a formula. TheSlovene’s formula was used to determine the minimum sample size ofthe study population.

n= N

1+N(e)2

Where

n=sample size, N= population size, e=level of significance 0.05

Forthis study therefore the sample size will be

n =

200

1+(200) x (0.052)

n =

200

n =

1+ 0.5

11 200

n =

1.5

133Respondents

Sources of data

Theresearcher collected data from secondary and primary data sources.Secondary data guided the researcher to establish what otherresearchers found out previously. This enabled the current researcherto fill some gaps that were left behind. In this respect, textbooks,journals, newspapers and other relevant records were used hand inhand with primary data (Kumar, 2010). On the other hand, primary datarevealed concrete information about the target populationinvestigated on which basic conclusions were drawn. Both secondaryand primary data will supplement each other to enable the researcherto analyze information. &nbsp

Materials

Toeffectively collect the data, and analyze information to achieve theset study objectives while also addressing the study problem, thestudy uses different materials to collect data. These materials alignwith the quantitative and the qualitative research based designs andtechniques to enhance validity, reliability and effectiveness on datacollection. Some of the materials to be used in the data collectioninclude using questionnaires, interviews, and examining thedocumented secondary data towards achieving the set study objectives.Through the use of some of the proffered materials, the study usesquantitative aspect on figures and statistical responses offering aclear approach on the study findings.

Procedure

Thestudy uses systematic procedures or steps on data collectionproviding a clear approach on how the data is collected based on theissue under the study and the study objectives. The precedinganalysis offers a clear approach on the respective steps that theresearcher seeks to embrace during the data collection through theexperimentation approach. They are

Step1:Establishing how the data will be collected

Theresearcher develops a clear approach where the use of recommendedmaterials is used. The participants should also be informed on howthe data will be gathered based on the materials to be used.

Step2:When to collect the data

Theresearchers evaluate and opt for the feasible period to collect thedata. This is also achieved through consulting the participants onthe favorable period to carry out the study. Some of the instructionsor questions that can be enquired from the participants should alignwith the study objectives.

Step3:Determining who is responsible for collecting and recording data

Underthis step, the researcher determine who is responsible on datacollection and recording while also informing the participants on howit will be executed and the respective ethical standards are ensured.Indulging or involving the participants is essential towards ensuringcounterbalancing and randomizing the findings based on the studyobjectives.

Step4:Where to store the data collected

Thestep entails the need for the researcher to determine where to storethe data collected or instructing the participants on whether to dropor collect the questionnaires.

Step5:Determining whether the data collected is correct

Underthis step, the researcher develops standards and policies based onresearch requirements hence determining whether the data collected iscorrect. This is essential towards averting manipulation andcollecting unreliable data. Through randomizing and counterbalancingthe data based on the participants, the researcher ensures respectivestandards are met.

Analysisof Data

Duringdata analysis, quantitative and qualitative methods of research willbe used to analyze the data. The data will mainly be analyzed usingdescriptive statistics such as frequency tables, percentages, barcharts and histograms. This enabled the researcher to meaningfullydescribe distribution of scores or measures on the studythe culturalclues on perceptions built in the course of computer-mediatedcommunication.

EthicalConsideration

Anyresearch that is undertaken must always adhere to research ethics,and this is pointed out in methodology. In line with this, theprivacy of the actual and possible respondent will be maintained atall cost.

References

ChristensenF., (2008). Research Methods for Business Students.6thed. Essex: Pearson Custom Publishing.

Kumar,R. (2010) Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners.3rded. London: SAGE Publications Ltd [Kindle DX version].

Limat(2009) ResearchMethodology,Lingayas Institute Of Management And Technology [Online]. Availablefrom: http://www.limat.org/data/research/Research%20Methodology.pdf

Midgley,G. (2010) Systemic Intervention: Methodology, and Practice. New York:Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Vignovic,J. A. &amp Thompson, L. F., (2010). Computer-mediated cross-culturalcollaboration:Attributing communication errors to the person versusthe situation. Journal of Applied Psychology. 95,265-276.

Watt,S. E., Lea, M., &amp Spears, R. (2002). How social is Internetcommunication?A reappraisal of bandwidth and anonymity effects.InS.Woolgar (Ed.), Virtualsociety?Technology, cyperbole, reality (pp.61–77).Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.