Analysis of Ketamine


Analysisof Ketamine

Analysisof Ketamine

Throughoutthe years, the world has been undergoing an evolution in the drugsmanufacture sector. The scientists have been synthesizing new drugsto replace previously used drugs that may have been associated withcertain serious side effects on patients when diagnosed. If used asprescribed the drugs become of great help to the ailing personsmaking them recover their health conditions quicker and moreefficiently. However ,the drugs has serious some serious side effectsif either misused or used without following instruction from thehealth practitioners. Additionally, the impact of the drugs on theuser and the society can also be huge depending on their margin ofuse. An ideal example of such a drug is ketamine.

In1962, Ketamine was first synthesized at the Parke Davis researchstation by scientist Calvin Davis (Lockwood,2003).&nbsp.The drug was manufactured to replace anesthetic PCP. The main reasonfor the synthesis of Ketamine was to replace the previous drugs thatwould cause a long lasting and serious hallucinogenic effect on thepatients upon gain of the consciousness. Additionally, the PCP thatwas previously used as an anesthetic resulted suffering fromdeliriums, and moreover psychosis. This called for the invention of adrug that would act as an NMDA receptor antagonist with minimal sideeffects on the patient. Ketamine was first patented as veterinarydrug in 1963 in Belgium .However, human test of the drug began 1964and it was discovered that Ketamine produced minimal side effects.Additionally, it was realized that it had lesser psychotomimeticeffects that also lasted for only a short duration. In 1965, Ketaminewas declared safe for human treatment since it would be valuable useto the field of medicine (Miller,2010).Today it is used on persons undergoing minor surgeries includingchildren. However, it use is still mainly in veterinary medicine dueits hallucinogenic effects to human beings. Additionally, the drughas also been discovered it can be used as a recreational drug knownas a psychedelic drug due it role as a dissociative anesthetic. Thedrugs act by distorting the user’s sight and sound perceptionproducing a felling of detachment from the environment and even atpersonal level.

In1969, Ketamine was first introduced for prescription as KetamineHydrochloride. Its name was Ketalar (Miller,2010)..In 1970 the drug was approved for human consumption by the USFDA(United States Food and Drug Administration) and used a part oftreatment program on the soldiers in Viet Nam war as ananesthetic(Lockwood,2003).&nbsp.Over the years, the interest in the drug increased whereby the drugwas used for medicinal therapy and for recreation too. Individualswould illicitly use it for regression therapy for mind explorationand spiritualism as result of the New Age. Ketamine over timecontinued being illicitly used in form of capsules, liquid andinjectable solutions in the illegal drug sale points. The drug wasmodified using various ingredients to alter its effects an idealexample being `ectasacy’ (Nagelhout,2014).&nbsp.The drug is used by party goers and is linked to certain dance moves.To counter the effect various legal acts have been enacted to helpregulate the drug use across all the regions in the world (Aronson,2009).&nbsp.This includes ban on sale other than use by medical practitionersacross the country.

Researchhas proven that that abuse of the drug has serious detrimentaleffects on the user. It causes slurred speech in individuals since itmeant to be used as an anesthetic not as a recreational drug.Additionally the drug has been discovered to cause brain damage tothe abuser. Furthermore, the nervous system is also affected causingcommunication mishap within the body. At a critical stage the drugmay also cause death (Nagelhout,2014).&nbsp.Additionallythe drug cause powerful hallucination to an extent that individualsclaim ability to talk to their gods. It also causes euphoria to theusers. Moreover, the drug has been known to cause presence of bloodin urine and urine infections that fail to respond to medicaltreatment. The urological problems sometimes become very critical toa point that the bladder has to be removed. Those is due to thedamage caused by the drug to the user .Some drug abusers have had toundergo bladder stretching surgeries since their bladders turn as ifthey very old. The pain associated the bladder damage is unbearableas some victims narrate. The frequency of going to the washrooms isincreased to once per every five minutes and that becomes a problemto the victim since they may not be able to concentrate(Nagelhout, 2014). Further,the drug is known to result to renal system damage in the user s bodythus harming his or her health.

Theimpact of Ketamine use in the society cannot be under estimated .Tobegin with, lives have been lost in various families as the youngparty goers abuse the drug that has serious effects on their health.Families that have lost their loved ones have undergone emotionalsuffering that in turn affects their productivity(Aronson, 2009).&nbsp.As a result they end up being less productive in their economicactivities due to stress. Secondly, family resources that could havebeen used to make investment have been used to pay for the medicalrehabilitation of the drug abusers. As a result the economicempowerment of the people is reduced. Moreover, the drug abuse hasresulted to the members of the families of the Ketamine abusers tosuffer from various medical complications examples being bloodpressure and heart attacks, and all these being as a result of theemotional sufferings. Finally, the bright futures of the young partygoers are also dented due to their medical conditions that in turnaffect the social and economic wellbeing in future.

Insummary, it is important to note that Ketamine is an important drugto the medical specialist in course of their treatment work. However,it is critical that measures are put in place to regulate the drughandling in the country to minimize the detrimental effects on thesociety and individuals.


Aronson,J. K (2009).&nbspMeyler`sside effects of drugs used in anesthesia.Amsterdam: Elsevier

Lockwood,B. (2003).&nbspKetamine.New York: Rosen Pub.

Miller,R. D. (2010).&nbspMiller`sanesthesia: 1.Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevie

Nagelhout,J. J., &amp Plaus, K. L. (2014).&nbspNurseanesthesia.St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Saunders.