Applications of Epidemiology; Nosocomial Infections


Applicationsof Epidemiology Nosocomial Infections

Applicationsof Epidemiology Nosocomial Infections

Healthcare-associated infections are infections acquired by people whilereceiving treatments in hospitals for another condition. Anywherehealth care is delivered one can acquire HAIs including areas suchas surgical centers, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, andend-stage renal disease amenities (Bennett et al, 2007). HAIs arecaused by any infectious agent such as viruses and fungi as well aspathogens.


Accordingto Good Health Hospital records, the cases recorded for the patientssuffering from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections rose by athird 2010 as compared with the year 2009. A large percentage of thepatients involved were older people aged over 75 years, as accordingto the statistics from the NHS Information Centre. The average staysin hospitals in relation to the infections were 31.1 days in lastyear. Medical experts blamed the poor hygiene on people for a rise inHAI’s infections, including Clostridium difficile and superbugsMRSA, and E. coli and norovirus (Taeusch et al., 2005). The recordedfigure of the number of patients who suffered from hospital-acquiredinfections in 2010 was 42712 a greater rise as compared to 22448patients as recorded in 2008 and 2009. A recent record in UnitedStates revealed that 9.2 out of a hundred patients acquirehospital-acquired infections.


  1. What are the types of nosocomial infections? Identified types of HAIs include urinary tract infections, pneumonia infections, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.

  2. What are the causes of HAIs? Pathogens are the major causes of human-acquired infections. It mostly affects the patients whom their immune systems are compromised by interacting with others. Fungi, parasites, bacteria or viruses can be acquired from the hospital environment and cause the infections.

  3. Who has the most risk of being affected by nosocomial infections? The most patients who are at risk of nosocomial infections are those in intensive care units.

  4. What are the nosocomial infection’s symptoms? Some of the symptoms include discharge, inflammation, abscesses and fever, which are accompanied by irritation and pain to the infected area.

  5. How are the diagnoses of nosocomial infections carried out? Sight is the only way to diagnose the nosocomial infections.

  6. How are hospital-acquired infections treated? The healing depends with the kind of infection. If the infection site is on the catheter or any inserted line, the line is supposed to be removed instantly.

  7. What is the viewpoint for hospital-acquired infection? Most of the nosocomial infections can be resolved with treatment although some are fatal.

  8. How are the hospital-acquired infections prevented? Since most nosocomial infections are caused by poor hand hygiene, everybody is, therefore, recommended to have a regular hand washing or wearing of groves. Use of antibiotics and following non-invasive procedures are also vital components of preventing the infections. The reason for proposing the eight questions is essential in creating awareness to the public about human-acquired infections and how to protect themselves.


Thetargeted audience includes scientists, clinicians and public healthleaders. The implementation plan will comprise of three phases.Acute-care hospital is the first phase where the plan will accountthe major infections in patient settings and outline a precedenceresearch agenda, regard payment inducement or disincentive policiesfor the best care and improve the conditions of the hospitals. Inaddition, acute-care hospital should strategize over the integratedinformation systems and raise awareness about the HAIs among thepublic through communication plans and also strategize on precautionmeasures among clinicians. The second phase involves challengestowards the public health and health care communities in identifying,responding and preventing HAIs around the settings where the healthcare is carried out (Rello, 2007). This is done through establishingambulatory surgical centers, provide end-stage renal illnessamenities and increase influenza vaccination amid the health careworkers. The final phase is about provision of the long-term careamenities such as nursing homes and nursing skill’s facilities. Thefacilities will benefit the public in understanding more about theHAIs.


Scientists,clinicians and public health leaders should the following fiverecommendations

  • Putting measures for infection control such as observing hand hygiene, identifying the patients who are at risk of nosocomial infections and following regular precautions to minimize transmission.

  • Emphasize on environmental factors.

  • Emphasize on architectural layout.

  • Preventing infections in burns patients through identifying the sources of the organism, early nutrition, surveillance and prevention of tetanus.

  • Antibiotic stewardship which include institution and coordinating of teams, optimizing dosing, auditing and using the information technology.


Tableof contents consists of nosocomial infections, prevention measuresand definition.

Nosocomial infections

Prevention measures


All human-acquired infections

Hands hygiene

Washing of hands before and after any contact with other patient.


Removing unnecessary catheters promptly

Removing CVC that is not essential for the care.

Surgical site infection (SSI)

Use of prophylactic antibiotics appropriately

It began one hour before the skin incision and then stopped after 24 hours.


Semi recumbent positioning

All mechanically ventilated patients should elevate the head of the bed at least 30 degrees


Removing unnecessary catheters promptly

Removing urinary catheter that is not essential for the care.


Bennett,J. V., Jarvis, W. R., &amp Brachman, P. S. (2007). Bennett&amp Brachman`s hospital infections.Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams &ampWilkins.

Rello,J. (2007). Infectiousdiseases in critical care.Berlin: Springer.

Taeusch,H. W., Ballard, R. A., Avery, M. E., &amp Gleason, C. A. (2005).Avery`sdiseases of the newborn.Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.