APPLICATIONS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 8
Assignment1:Applications of Epidemiology
Introduction Non-socomial infections
Questions for the health care manager
Implementation Plan for Non-Socomial Infections Control
Recommendation for department heads on the steps taken to implement plan
Thehealth acquired infections, or the non-socomial infections have beena major problem in most hospitals. In particular, the situation atGood Health Hospital was overwhelming due to non-socomial infectionsthat plagued the Hospital. Most of these non-socomial infections weresurgical site infections related to hip surgery, abdominalHysterectomy in women, colon surgery and the coronary artery bypassgraft (CARBG). In all these infections were related to E. colibacterium(MedstarGood Samaritan Hospital, 2014).
Inthe better part of year 2012 and early 2013, the hospital recorded2infections related to colon infections, 3 cases of coronary arterygraft (CARBG) infections and 1case of abdominal hysterectomyinfections. As year 2013 progressed, the hospital was faced with 3cases of hip surgery infections. In total nine cases of E. colirelated infections were recorded in 2013.
Inall these cases of infections, the whites were mostly affected by theinfections while infection rates were low among the Asians and theBlacks. The female genders were the most affected patients. Inaddition, the records indicate that, older people were more comparedto young people in the recorded infections as shown in the tablebelow(Medstar Good Samaritan Hospital, 2014).
Case Time AgeGender Race
1. 2012 67 Female White
2. 2013 73 Female White
3. 2013 83 Male Black
4.2013 55 Female White
5.2013 64 Male Asian
6. 2013 24 Female White
7.2013 50 Male Black
8. 2013 32 Female White
9. 2013 73 Female Asian
Questionsfor health care administrator at Good Health hospital, regardinglitigation issues with infections from the nosocomial diseases
Accordingto the Center for disease, CDC, E. coli disease is a commonlytransmitted through many items that are used in the hospitalenvironment. In particular, according to the CDC, E coli diseasecould be transmitted through foods, vegetables, hospital surgicalitems and materials. In the revelation of these facts, there isneeded to conduct further investigations on the health careadministrator. The severity of these cases indicates the potentialof the disease to spread to other individuals in the institutionthereby endangering the health of the hospital community. Therefore,there is a great essence to conduct further investigation in order toget more information in regard to the litigation of theinfections.The following questions could be
askedto the health care administrator at Good Health Hospital
Does the hospital healthcare staff conduct thorough background screening of all patients and staffs at the hospital?
What sanitation measures does the hospital use to ensure that non-socomial diseases do not spread in the hospital?
Does the hospital screen all supplies and suppliers of hospital merchandise including food staffs, equipment’s and materials to give them a clean bill of health before been used in the hospital?
What precautions does the healthcare staff take to avoid infections during surgical procedures?
Does the hospital have effective mechanisms of screening patients’ guests, family members and relatives, foods or other materials brought by visitors.
Does the hospital have effective mechanisms of screening all materials ‘harvested’ or ‘donated’ for surgery?
Therationale behind these questions is to ascertain the possible sourceor opportunity that provides entry of these infections in thehospital. The first questions refer to the precautions the hospitaladopts in order to litigate against entry of nosocomial disease inthe hospital. It is important to screen the patients’ healthbackground before admission to the hospital this prevents entry andcontamination by infectious diseases to other members of the hospital(Wilks, Michels & Keevil, 2005).In addition, the health administrator at the hospital should ensurethat there are effective mechanisms put applied to avoid spread andcontamination of such diseases in the hospital environment.Prevention against infection is only possible through screening allmaterials foodstuffs, visitors, surgical materials and equipment’sbefore they are allowed in hospital premises. In the same line, greatcare should be taken during surgery procedures to avoid patients ordoctor infections (CDC, 2014).
Implementationplan for Intervention in the Non-Socomial Infections
Inorder to implement an effective prevention plan, the target audiencewould be the Chief Hospital Administrator, other administrators andthe junior health staff workers.A meeting would be convened to decideon the effective healthcare plan to eliminate nonsocomial infections.The first thing in the plan is to assess the number of infectedpatients and conduct further investigation on the sources ofinfections. Secondly, the hospital needs to screen or get othersources for materials if they cannot verify the sanitation level ofthe vendors and their products(CDC,2014).
Screening of all patients and outsiders before admission to the hospitals
Change the sources of hospital supplies
Improve on sanitation practices in all departments and areas in the hospital
Enforce strict prevention measures
During medical procedures like surgery, midwifing birth and treating open wounds or cuts
Isolate infected and suspected patients to avoid body contacts
Enforce overall sanitation protocol in the hospital hands hygiene, equipment sterilization and using alcohol rubs.
Caution on the use of antibiotics and the antimicrobial agents.
Recommendationfor department heads on the steps taken to implement the plan
Enforcestrict sanitation in all levels hospital kitchen, staffs, suppliersand all visitors. In this case, the health care manager needs toinstitute strict
Hand washing protocol and use of gloves, Aprons and other preventive clothes
Set a committee to oversee implementing of the prevention strategies discussed.
Enforce sterilization of hospital equipments.
Enforce regulations to Isolate sick patients
Surface sanitation methods and antimicrobial surfaces
The departmental heads could also institute a reward and punishment method for individuals who flout the conditions set to minimize non-socomial infections.
Theserecommendations are important in limiting transmission and spread ofnonsocomial infections. In particular, these measures help to cutinfection cycles, control and monitor hospital activities in order toavoid further infections. In order to prevent infection fromoutsiders especially visitors, it is important to enforce strict handhygiene, improve on the ventilation in all hospital rooms andconstantly use surface sanction treatment on all public areas withinthe hospital premises(Wilks,Michels&Keevil, 2005).
CDC.Get Smart for Healthcare. Accessed July 25, 2014 from
MedstarGood Samaritan Hospital, 2014. Retrieved on July 25, 2014 fromhttps://www.medstarhealth.org/good-Samaritan/
Wilks,S.A., Michels, H., Keevil, C.W., 2005. The Survival of EscherichiaColi O157 on a Range of Metal Surfaces.InternationalJournal of Food Microbiology,Vol. 105, pp. 445–454.