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Talisman Energy Inc.

TalismanEnergy Inc.

StudentName’s

TalismanEnergy Inc.

WhoWe Are

TalismanEnergy Inc. is a global company dealing with natural gas productionand exploration and was founded in the year 1992 (Christensen,1996).Its headquarters is in Calgary, Alberta in Canada. It operatesworldwide and the operation areas includes Canada(B.C., Alberta, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Quebec) and the United Statesof America (Pennsylvania, New York, Texas ) in North AmericaColombia, South America Algeria in North Africa United Kingdom andNorway in Europe Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea,East Timor and Australia in the Far East and Kurdistan in the MiddleEast. It has also constructed offshore Beatrice Wind FarmDemonstrator in Scotland’s North Sea. Ithas achieved this status through exploring and acquiring land leaseholding and assets in addition to mergers. It proactively operates toenable engagement of its business interest with the wishes orconcepts of communities where they operate since natural gasproduction for it to be successful entails cooperation amongconcerned parties (Haggett,2013).

Everypublic official, regulator, landowner, supplier, employee orcontractor is important for its success. Talisman energy Inc iscommitted to the development of a mutual long term beneficialrelationship in order to develop a positive long lasting impact onthe lives of the local community.

WHATIT DOES

Theaffordable, clean and abundant natural gas is essential for meetingenergy needs since Talisman Energy Inc is endowed with key energysources and natural gas which meet the demands of up to quarter ofthe world’s energy needs.

TalismanEnergy Inc has had wide experience in drilling of very deephorizontal wells in. As noted by Christensen,(1996),Talisman energy Inc adheres to legal safety and environmental codesof conduct which also involves minding the environmental issues andcoming up with the efforts to reduce adverse impacts on theenvironment.

TalismanEnergy Inc is aware that the best environmental policy identifiesprevention as the first undertaking. It has had excellentenvironmental protection track record since 1992 and its strongcommitment on environmental protection is highly attributed to thisachievement.

Thenature of its business always brings Talisman Energy Inc into contactwith other people across the regions where operations are carriedout. It is committed to operating with every person in an honest,fair and in an open manner.

Vision

Manycompanies develop a vision statement which describes the company andpeople when all the strategies have been fully implemented. Somecompanies also use the vision statement as a source of motivation

Talismandoesn’t have a vision statement but has listed its values asdescribed below. These values can be used to develop vision statementwhich is to create sustainable commercial success through continuousimprovement, building trust with all stakeholders through integrity,teamwork and valuing our people.

MissionStatement

Talismanmission Statement which has been updated reflects the direction ofnew business. The Mission Statement reads as follows: To deliver acompetitive and sustainable rate of return to shareholders bydeveloping, acquiring and exploring for oil, gas and alternativeenergy resources vital to the world`s health and welfare. TalismanEnergy Inc strives to do this in an environmentally responsible way,while reducing market price volatility.

Talismanenergy Inc has values which describes how it is and how it works. Itsvision and mission states what it believes and what it stands for. Inaddition it reflects its corporate culture and organization insight.Wholly, its values depict how it acts and expectation for treatmentas a Talisman team.

Thefollowing values or objectives have been outlined to supplement theachievement of its mission and mission.

Safety&nbsp

Talismanobjective is to develop the best working conditions where it won’tcreate any harm to various parties. It has taken safety as thefirst priority since when the operations outcomes and safety comesinto conflict the employees tend to select safety. Thus Talisman ishas made efforts to support this selection and provides resourcesimportant to acquire safety in the working environment.

Passion&nbsp

Talismanenergy inspires others through the passion it shows out for its work.

Itbelieves that by being passionate in its undertakings and for thecompany, it will achieve high productivity and success. It feelshappy and succeeds in what it does and feels enthusiastic about it.

Results&nbsp

Ithas a bias for results and takes measures to streamline things and bedone efficiently, to create value for its shareholders.&nbspItbelieves that for the effective results to be achieved it needs tocome up a vision, set priorities and implement SMART action plans. Itis purpose driven and is accountable for timely and high qualityoutcomes

Respect&nbsp

Talismanenergy Inc takes time to appreciate other stakeholder’s ideas andtreat them with respect. It values diversity of its workforce andstakeholders and values the strengths of others. It respectsothers through treating them with courtesy, listening and dignity.

Inexecuting and planning for its activities it considers theenvironment, by respecting it aiming to reduce the effect of itsoperations.

Excellence&nbsp

Talismanstrives to achieve excellence in what it does and how it does. Itinvolves handwork, innovation, being smart and demonstration oftechnicality, professionalism and problem solving skills. It strivesto maintain improvement in order to achieve excellence.

Teamwork&nbsp

Talismanworks together effectively to deliver results which goes beyond onescapabilities. Through working together superior results are achieved.The common and clear goals support teamwork. it is aware that forteamwork to be realized it has to be rooted in trust and needs toaccept and needs to provide, ask for aids and give advice as well asfeedback.

Honestcommunication&nbsp

Talismanshows courage in speaking honestly and supporting others to performthe same. Talisman provides honest and truthful communication anddiscloses all matters affecting it to all stakeholders. Theinformation is disseminated up, down and across all the organization.It speaks the truth even through the message passed is difficult andmay be the conversation is uncomfortable.

Goal &amp Strategy

Talisman’energy Inc strategic objectives are as follows

  • To develop sustainable growth in the north America region in addition to Norway and southeast Asia

  • To develop exploration portfolio to enable renewals through exploring for hydrocarbons with time

  • To bring these together with other sources of money in addition to focusing on the portfolio

Thestrategic objectives were developed to reduce the F and D or findingand development costs and increase life index reserve with time. TheF and D will be brought down through

  • Unconventional gas business model lowers the F and D costs unlike the conventional gas business model

  • It is planning to expand its activity in areas where F and D is lower for instance southeast Asia.

  • It will need to shift the exploration to larger prospects in order to lower it.

EXTERNALANALYSIS

Instrategic analysis the framework which is taken into consideration atfirst is the macro level and assists in the assessment of externalenvironment of a company, the ways through which it impacts onindustry development and how it impacts on the value of a company.The PESTEL analysis has six aspects

ThePolitical aspects

Itaffects the natural gas and petroleum industry.

Manycountries around the globe impacts on the industry’s players,because they are oil and gas resources or hydrocarbon reserves. Bycontrolling these reserves enables the governments to make saleconcessions to various companies hence provide them with rights toexplore and produce oil in the enclosed geographical area in a giventime. In addition the government is able to favor the local oilcompanies and lock out the foreign companies in the process. Anotherinfluential body is OPEC or the Organization of the PetroleumExporting Countries which control nearly 75% of the world’s oilresource. The geopolitical effects will enhance since oil resource isgetting depleted (Haggett,2013).

Theinternal political and broad geopolitical risks will tend to limitthe investment in many countries despite best policies and goodeconomy incentives. Civil conflicts, wars, strikes, nationalizationregulatory environment and expropriation will result to disruptionand discouragement of operations and investments since it is commonin oil producing countries. For example, there is no country whichhas had guts to invest in Iraq despite its richness in oil. Thegeopolitical stress in Middle East has always kept off the foreigninvestors. Also, as added byChristensen,(1996), the resistance in Mexico which could have issued the privatecompanies with greater roles has also diverted the investors. Thesepolitical aspects negate the development of oil companies.

Thedecisions by world politicians to develop cleaner sources of energyas a result of climate change will immensely affect the petroleumindustry. The treaties such as the Kyoto protocol, which developscommitments to bind countries legally to decline the green housegases can result in reduction of profitability and adversely affectthe growth opportunities.

EconomyAspect

Oilindustry is more interdependent with the world economy. The worldeconomy depends on oil supply at a price and the world economy isimportant for the development of oil industry. This can be understoodsince the oil demand is driven by the growth of the economy, andincreasing worldwide population. When the economy fall the demand foroil also decreases. The financial and economic crisis had a greateffect on oil markets. Currently the demand for oil is on a downhilltrend as a result of decreasing demand for oil in OECD or thosecountries whose economies had been recessed. In 2009 the impressionwas not positive due to lowered demand for oil and also decreasingprices which fall from $147 in 2008 to $50 per barrel in 2009(Haggett,2013).

Thedemand for oil in the developing countries is however perceived toincre3ase in coming decades it will increase in developing countriescharacterized by high growth in GDP for example India and china. Oilhas a good characteristic in that it is inelastic i.e. it takes alonger period of time for the consumers and businesses to react tochanges in its price which is an advantage to oil companies.

Apartfrom market demand and GDP, the value of a dollar also affects oiland petroleum industry as an economic aspect. Oil is traded in dollarcurrency worldwide. For example when the oil price soared in 2008,the dollar value was down at that period. This is as a result ofexchange rates. The producers of oil sell oil in dollar currency andare always faced with exchange rates between dollar and a nationalcurrency. Therefore when the dollar gets weak, the petroleum marketincreases the oil price since producers are allowed to sell at thesame price as before in their currencies after the dollar into owncurrency. This is attributed to good management of the economy of USAalongside the dollar to provide oil price stability and increaseprofitability of oil.

Socio-CulturalAspect

Socio-culturalaspect determines the beliefs, lifestyles and beliefs of thesocieties worldwide with oil companies. These forces also enable thesocieties to select or chose a given type of energy (Maharaj,2011).Despite the fact that the demand for energy especially oil isincreasing, the share of oil as a total energy consumed worldwide hasbeen declining three decades for instance in 1980s it stood at 45%and currently it stands at 35%. The trend will go on if green sourcesof energy increase their share. Emergence of global warming caused alot of fears the social responsibilities and considerations ofgovernments and societies paved way for exploitation and search foralternative sources of energy like hydroelectric power, bio fuels,solar energy and wind (Haggett,2013).

Inorder to take measures, many people have begun focusing on the healthliving surrounding and are more concerned about the environment.Environmentally friendly and new fuels have been developed and alsoproduction cost has been declining hence the use of oil and naturalgas energy is likely to be disfavored (Maharaj,2011).

Thesocial responsibly of companies also affects the oil industry throughtheir image. Hence a lot of companies have put across during theirannual reports that they are well involved in the development whichis sustainable in areas or societies they operate. Talisman forexample has invested in various social, cultural and environmentalactivities and agrees that it is depleting natural resources whichare part of societies’ heritage therefore it has a duty to beaccountable to the society. Also it assists the local societiesthrough investment in education to create skilled labor throughfinancing and training activities which motivates local suppliers(Maharaj,2011).

Technology

Thenatural gas and oil industry is technologically driven since researchand technology has a great role in solving energy demand andchallenges worldwide. It is an important aspect from exploration tillit is refined. Improved technology and innovation has enabled theextraction of large amount of gas and oil and extract the preservedreserves which were deemed exhausted. This has permitted theprofitability of oilfields which currently exist.

Theadvances in technology have enabled successful extraction andexploration of deep water reservoirs which are very hard to reach andin most reservoirs technology is still developed. An instance of suchreservoir is the oil field discovered in Brazilian shore recentlycalled Tupi reservoir. Talisman has been committed to advance thetechnology over the last four years and it as successful in liftingthe first oil from Tupi in may 2009.

Throughemployment of modern technology to local oil fields and explore, theoil companies can acquire comparative advantage. Thus technology iscrucial for the development in the downstream and midstream sectors.For instance, in the midstream sector, there is pipelinestransporting oil under the water at a great pressure with depth whilein downstream, it is used to optimize refining process of petroleumwith different quality which improves the margins of companies. Theoutlook is that technology will affect the development of oilindustry in the future and specifically its long term sustainability.This can be attributed to hydrocarbons getting depleted and newdiscoveries are met at great depths which recently had not beenexploited profitably and technologically.

Environmentalaspect

Throughoutthe development and exploration processes environmental issuesaffects the gas and oil industry which is perceived to be the highestemitter of pollutants to the environment. For instance there isalways complains of oil spillage in seas and oceans. There is no oilcompany which can be said it has never been involved in suchemission.

Itis important that polluters compensates for the environmental damagesthey cause. In addition, when concession rights are negotiated, thedetails and ways of cleaning affected areas should also be clarified(Maharaj,2011).

Companiesneed to allocate some portions of their profits in restoration andremediation of environment when inactive sites are cleaned. Theinactive sites includes waste disposal sites, service stations, oiland natural gas fields, chemical plans, refineries, terminals andnatural gas processing plants.

Allthese are burden to profitability of a company. Restriction on theenvironment also involves investment in technology to minimizepollution to very low levels. However, special care needs to be takencare of for safety of products, quality of products and means oftransportation of hydrocarbons possessing risks (Maharaj,2011).

Throughthis means the pollution of environment will be prevented and also tomaintain good reputation and the sustainability of petroleum industrythrough satisfaction of stakeholders and consumers, causing valuecreation for the shareholders.

Legalaspect

Thelegal aspect of the macro environment also shapes the industry. Thisindustry is subjected to tough regulations ranging from imposition ofdrilling obligations, environmental health and safety regulations anddecommissioning of oil fields regulations.

Thehydrocarbon products are also sold in regulated markets. In addition,a lot of companies are faced with difficulties in paying theconcession fees and taxes and royalties on petroleum which are veryhigh as compared to fees paid for other activities commercially.There is also unpredictability on changes to various regulations andlaws whereby companies may have to stop operations or get faced withadditional costs.

Nevertheless,the main legal concern which affects companies is as a result ofcompliance with obligations, laws and regulations pertaining toclimate change and environment. There is also local, state, nationaland international regulations pertaining the products, activities andoperations. Fuel specifications, programs on climate change andregulations on emissions will impact the production, profitabilityand sale of petroleum and natural gas. The environmental laws entailscompanies to provide remedy for damages on environment beforepetroleum pollutants or chemicals are disposed or released to theenvironment.

Macro-environmentaltrends

Dwindlingresource bases

Therehas been a lot of prediction concerning availability of naturalresources like oil and natural gases in the future and it will behard to get, develop and produce and as a result it will lead to highprices of oil and natural gas. The Department of Energy has projectedthat oil prices could raise to around $34 and $96 per barrel by theyear 2030.

RegulatoryForces

TheUnited States Government has been motivating private sector todevelop alternative sources of energy by offering them withincentives and grants. The Department of Energy initiated and awardedEnergy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC) which has been alwaysoffered to the private industry in order to explore and to developenergy efficient and alternative energy projects.

Thegovernment usually pays for any new project developed generating orsaving energy but the private company’s tries to develop thenecessary technology. It also provides the incentives to oil businessand private sector through reduction of taxes charged.

EnergyPolicy Act of 2005 issues tax break on alternative sources of energyproduction. Also in the policy is the automobile industry usingbiodiesel fuel and electric power.

Effectsof the Environment and Regulations

Talismanenergy Inc is an independent oil and exploration company. It dependson finding and development of natural gas and oil reserves.Decreasing natural gas reserve and accessible oil fields with highcost of extraction will increase the profit margins in the further.It is common that in future the oil and gas business is going todecrease. If price will go higher, people will move away from fossilfuel. The regulatory environment provides incentives to consumers andbusiness so that it avoid use of fossil fuels and ensure technologyand infrastructure are made available before change is affected.

Competitive/ Industry Analysis –Porter’s Five Forces

Todevelop a profitable competitive advantage or strategy, a companyneeds to view the competitive structure of its industry by looking atthe competitive forces since profitability of a company is influencedthrough industry profitability. In this case, strategists incorporate sector offer advice on the incorporation of Porter’sIndustry Analysis framework. This explains competitive environmentthrough five competitive forces. According to Porter’s framework,for example, competition results from producers of same products,suppliers of substitute’s products and new entrants in the market.A Company maintains high rate of returns due to barriers to entry orif the company has more advantages over the competitors. Thisanalysis permits investigation on the competitiveness in petroleumindustry which affects profitability sustainability of oil companiesin the future.

Threatof New Entrants

Threatof new entrants is the force brought by the new competitors in theindustry which affects the profits of a company. However, the threatposed by new entrants in the oil industry is small even though theindustry is attractive and high barriers to entry explain this.

First,there are a lot of capital required for the activities done by oilcompanies which are stationed in upstream, midstream and downstreamoperations of the industry. Large up-front investments are needed inoil fields development and setting facilities for production. Thecosts made here is difficult to be provided by every company.Development of oil fields, for instance, costs a lot of billiondollars in accessible reserves in Middle East to $50bn, in Brazilianoffshore Tupi field which is situated 4000meters below the seabed insalt layer and needs very complicated technology to extract.

Accordingto the International Energy Agency (IEA, 2008) report, the cost perunit in upstream oil industry have been increasing over the last tenyears averaging increases of 90% between 2000 and 2007.this involvescost of exploration, drilling, skilled services, scientific research,energy and materials, oil fields services, which create barriers tonew entrants.

Anotherbarrier is the economies of scale. As a result of increased unit costin the exploration and production of oil, bigger companies andrefineries who afford to maximize economies of scale will onlysurvive. This concept will complicate matters for the new entrantssince they will have few less number of oil reserves and may not haveinvested in foreign countries. Not investing in foreign countriesaffects a lot of oil rich countries except from Norway, Brazil andUS.

Securingdistribution channels access also causes barriers to entry by newcompetitors. Always national and international oil companies areusually characterized by well developed distribution channels indownstream or upstream or both sectors.

Pipelines,distribution stores and gas stations or both are modes ofdistribution. It is always costly and needs a lot of time to buildcreating hindrance for new competitors. Nonetheless, the greatesthindrance of new entrants is as a result of disadvantages notdependent on economy factors that are from national policies whichsupport national companies through unique ways. The natural gas andoil are resources belonging to the state and the government has totalownership hence it tends to issue access to raw materials only tocompanies operating nationally. A lot of oil rich countries permitother companies to exploit oil fields but through partnering with agiven national company.

Knowledgeand experience are important since technology is employed in findingaccess to inaccessible oil reserves. The recently discovered oilfields found offshore in Brazil, for example, special drillingtechnology are required and this technology is never possessed bymain international oil companies. Talisman energy inc. has also beeninvolved in such exploration since its formation and therefore itpossess competitive advantage over other similar related companies inthe industry.

BargainingPower of Buyers

Buyersinfluence profitability of oil industry since they did the prices ordictate for more high quality services through bargaining inpartnership with competitors. Nonetheless, in the petroleum industrythe price of oil is derived at a global level according to theeconomic relationship between oil supply and demand.

Thespecific global price of oil is the price of light crude which istraded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). In opposition tothis, oil is traded at global price and between two parties over thecounter. Concerning this, the ability to pay is the lone bargainingpower possessed by buyers. Oil buyers usually turns up national oilcompanies, distributers, refiners, traders, marketers and majorinternational companies. Sometimes, countries are treated as buyers.There are bigger consumers of oil such as Japan, china, US and UEwhich consumes more than half of total world oil production and thesecountries tends to exert a lot of pressure on bargaining power byvarying the demand of oil.

Despitethe fact that many countries are currently switching the dependenceof fossil fuels to the renewable energies, the dependence of fossilfuels will still be relied upon to satisfy the energy needs in futurewhere the demand is expected to increase especially in the industryand transportation.

Thereis evidence that largest buyers of oil through quantity demandedexert bargaining power in the market. Bargaining power is alsocontributed by the undifferentiated and standard product and buyersnot exposed to switching costs. These conditions don’t give thebargaining power to buyers because the product in the industry iscrucial for buyer’s services or products and buyers themselves arenot a threat in volumes purchased.

BargainingPower of Suppliers

Thesuppliers can have damage on the returns of future industry throughreducing quality of products or services or raising the price.Companies like talisman energy have a lot of suppliers from oil filedsuppliers, engineering suppliers, pipeline installations, equipmentand materials, scientific researchers and engineers and fielddevelopment management. Oil producing countries which are alsoreferred to as suppliers are the main component in the industry andown a lot of bargaining power. Currently the OPEC nations are theones mandated to nationalize the production of oil within theirdisposal and take and own all the business from larger oilcorporations.

OPECowns two-thirds of the oil reserves which have been proven globally.With cheapest means of producing oil, they thus will have highbargaining power to oil corporations. The bargaining power of OPEC iswitnessed only when oil-fields concession rights are being granted tointernational companies. In the past years when the price of oil wasrising the OPEC members or oil rich countries were found to be meanto foreign investors or companies. However, the bargaining powerchanged in 2009 when the price of oil dropped three times as from2008. Later when prices dropped drastically to $50 per barrel a lotof countries explored and found oil reserves but in smallerquantities uneconomical to be extracted by themselves and have beenlooking for assistance from international companies. Theinternational oil companies possess advantage since they haveknowledge, expertise and experience to develop fields which areaccessible (Haggett,2013). These multinational oil companies have large economies ofscale or a lot of capital and are able to take their operations toany part of the world and make oil deals with oil producers atfavorable terms.

Thepower is distributed to favor supplying countries and also it isdistributed to favor oil companies at the aspect of other remainingsuppliers in the industry. This is simply because oil industry hasmany small sub-suppliers from different industries. They are notenhanced and provided that big oil corporations have a lot of largevolume buyers and high amount of profits and hence reduce theirbargaining power. The oil companies are positioned to select the bestsuppliers to provide their businesses with the best quality ofmaterials and services supplies. Engineers and scientific researcherscomponent is also important in oil industry since they are the one’spossessed with knowledge and are able to develop technology used forextraction. Majority of oil companies are faced with difficulties ofobtaining enough of this qualified labor force.

Petroleumbusiness is cyclical and has lost its attractiveness hence theuniversity graduates have not been interested so far with thisindustry which provides them the bargaining power to oil companies.The general outlook of bargaining power distribution betweensuppliers and oil companies is that it is dependent on the type ofthe supplier. Taking a look at the suppliers of services andmaterials provides an impression that large oil companies exertbargaining power as a result of their position. But the picture isunique when taking a look at the oil fields suppliers with OPECmembers as for instance, which owns a lot of oil reserves easilyaccessible. Their policies can move out of business when theircurrent oil reserves dries out.

Threatof Substitute Products and Services

Thesubstitute products and services reduce the profits of companies andtheir value creation sources. But oil is the main source of energyand is not replaceable in some sectors categorically in industry andtransportation. It is going to stay to be the dominant source ofenergy till and after 2030. This is simply because oil is cheap ascompared to other types of fuel. When the exploitation and drillingtechnology gets more sophisticated and is going to outpace the costsof depletion, oil is going to be the cheapest energy source infuture. The oil substitutes become a threat if the price of oil willincrease drastically. The oil substitutes which are mostly used arein the following order coals, natural gas, renewable energy sourceslike solar energy and wind, hydropower and bio-fuels and nuclearenergy. Governments all over the world have begun changing theirperceptions on fossil fuels and the damages or pollutions it causeson the earth. This aspect is the most serious threat on petroleumproducts since the world is moving towards incorporation of greensources of energy.

Basedon Energy Information Administration natural gases substitute islikely to have a higher growth rate than oil. The natural gas willget high share of the market in the commercial, industrial andresidential sectors. This will good news to Talisman since itproduces oil as well as natural gas because they are always foundtogether. It will be effected since natural gas don’t have greatadverse in the environment since it emits less amount of green housegases and thus cannot CO2taxes to its price. In comparison it emits 40% less CO2thanoil and 78% less than coal.

Coalconsumption will fall in total energy share since its raw materialsare only found only in few countries and are also complex and foundfar away from main markets. In addition the coal cost of exploitationis expected to increase in future as a result of environmentalregulations like Kyoto protocol.

Therenewable energy for instance hydrogen, hydropower, and wind areprojected to increase in the market share in coming years.Nonetheless, without future planning as per the government policies,geared at declining CO2emissiononto the environment, adoption of renewable energies on a large scaleis going to be slow. If these energy sources will have high cost ofproduction, it won’t be competitive economically as compared tofossil fuels. However, the potentiality of such fuels should not bealliterated because a lot of world governments have activelyadvocated for the utilization of green energy sources.

Theexpansion of nuclear energy has been difficult in OECD countriesbecause it is more expensive option for generating electricity incomparison coal or natural gas. In addition, there is oppositionagainst exploitation of nuclear energy in some parts of the world

Becauseof environmental safety concerns, waste disposal of radioactiveelements and nuclear weapon proliferations. Thus use of nuclearenergy as a substitute is questionable. In the coming two decades ithas been projected that the worlds demand for energy is going toskyrocket in all types of energies. Also petroleum will go on leadingin the energy industry onwards but the alternative sources of energyis intensively sought more environmentally friendly sources of energywill pose a threat to petroleum industry. Therefore petroleumcompanies needs to focus on renewable energy sources. Talisman energyInc is an instance of oil companies which is increasing theproduction and research on bio-fuels.

Intensityof Rivalry among Competitors

Rivalryis initiated when competitors get pressure or endeavors to gaincomparative advantage in the industry. The competitive environment inpetroleum industry has few major players and various small playersfeatured with less power. Major competitors despite representing theinternational companies with little oil control but are enlightenedwith technology while the national oil companies which own 88% ofworld’s oil reserves in 2007 have put little focus on thetechnology.

First,most of such national oil firms are members of OPEC operating assingle entity or cartel declining the rivalry or competition. Butrivalry is getting heightened with big oil producers since the desireto replace the fields which are getting depleted exerts pressure,taking in mind the difficulties of exploring for new reserves. Thischallenge has made major producers to shift to mergers, acquisitionsand alliance formations, as a means of dealing with competitionrivalry or constraints (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Secondly,the industry which grows slowly also heightens rivalry amongcompetitors. The research which was done recently showed that gas andoil exploration is always fruitless and is easy to access and theirsupplies won’t be going alongside the demand. Since 2000, the onlyfive of the largest oil corporations have replaced 82% of oilreserves they consumed. In addition, no new refinery has been openedin US in the last twenty years.

Intheory, when there is high barriers to exit enables companies in theindustry to rival despite below average rates of returns. Highbarriers to exit is common in refineries businesses or downstreamsector but is lower in upstream sector of the industry where thefield concession rights is renounced easily as a result ofcompetitors interest to enhance new fields.

Otherfactor which contributes to competitor’s rivalry in oil industryincludes high storage costs or fixed costs and lack ofdifferentiation of oil and gas. High storage costs or fixed costscannot affects the big companies since they have advantage due toeconomies of scale and this leads to consolidation (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Thepicture shown is that competitor rivalry is significantly immensewhich is explained by lots of companies trying to replace depleted ordry oil resources. New oil fields are hard to exploit hence this taskis difficult and it requires costly and sophisticated technology. TheOPEC members have adopted protection and restriction policies towardsexploitation of oil fields. The world oil industry suggests negativetrend in the sustainability of company’s profitability. But thisdoesn’t apply to Talisman.

Talismanenergy Inc has privileges to access more oil resources. It dominateshome market, getting involved in production of alternative fuels likebio-fuels and oil and leads in extraction of oil found deep in theworld. These ensure that it has a competitive advantage over thecompetitors and get share3holders’s sustainable value. But being aninternational player, talisman’s profitability is vulnerable tobargaining power and threats from rivals or competitors.

SWOTAnalysis.

SWOT Analysis

Strength

  1. Talisman energy inc has a lot of exploitation upstream operations in which it develop, produce, transport and market crude oil which aids it in gaining competitive advantage

  2. It has its operations in various countries like North Africa, Australia, North Sea and Southeast Asia.

  3. It has got more than 3000 employees which all have a lot of experience in petroleum industry

  4. It is at high position to own the shale gas resource in USA which is an upcoming sector in unconventional source of natural gas

  5. In Canada it is among the largest companies dealing with energy

Weakness

  1. Sometimes it depends on third parties to gain access to some assets and this sometimes affect the financial operations

  2. It is characterized by limited scale and is outpaced by larger competitors in terms of revenue, employees and dominance of international market.

Opportunity

  1. Recently it announced new gas and oil projects and has allocated a lot of capital plans to be funded by cash from operation activities, sales of assets and the potential of its balance sheet

  1. It has joint together to venture with companies such as Sinopec and Mitsubishi. It has also made agreements such as Kurdistan and PETRONAS agreements which will enable it expand the operations and explores more oil internationally hence give Talisman more growth opportunities and will be able to increase its revenue generation

  2. It has closed or divests its noncore assets in Poland, British Columbia and Peru for it to be committed on main business and enhance its market position.

Threats

  1. It has been affected by the natural gas and crude oil fluctuation in their prices. This has had negative effects on its financial conditions, operation, its oil and natural gas reserve value, expenditure level of gas and oil development and exploration.

  2. There has been fierce competition from other competitors in the market and these competitors are larger in terms of dominance and revenue hence this will make Talisman lose its share in the market.

  3. There are sometimes occurrences of hazards and this will result in loss of skilled personnel or injury, damage of property, degradation of environment, additional cost of remedying incidents, investigation and penalties and being liable to third parties, therefore it increases the operation costs and reduces profit margins.

  4. Strict state laws and environmental regulations will have negative impact on the talisman’s operations through increased costs, affecting development frameworks, declining revenue and flow of cash from oil and gas sale, will reduce its liquidity.

Opportunities

Acquisitionsand agreements

TalismanEnergy Company has expanded its geographic diversification by meansof agreements and acquisitions. In 2008, one of its subsidiariesobtained all the shares of

CNOOCWiriagar Overseas at a cost of $212.5 million and this subsidiary hada 3.06% interest in the Tangguh LNG Project (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Thisproject is situated in West Papua, Indonesia, and has a lot of oilwells at offshore, pipelines, production facilities, and plantfacilities with a capacity of 7.6 million tons per year. In additionother two subsidiaries made and agreement Kurdistan regionalgovernment in Iraq and was interested in K44 and K39 in that order.Again in 2098 it announced that it made agreement with FEI FortunaShale to be interested in US properties belonging to Hallwood. It wasmeant that upon its completion Fortuna should have acquired 1/3interest of assets belonging to Hallwood in addition to properties inLouisiana, Texas and Arkansan at an acreage of 108000. Suchagreements enables talisman to increase its growth opportunities andincrease its revenue.

Newoil and gas production

Newgas and oil exploration by talisman energy Inc has enable it toincrease its gas and oil productions. In 2008 Vietnam 46/02 which isa subsidiary for talisman produced the first oil from Song Doc field.Production from five wells was expected to be 25000 bbls/d in early2009.three other wells were being drilled. In that period it wasestimated that its share of approved reserves in the Song Doc fieldwas around 6000000 barrels (mmbbls) and the reserves which had beenproved reaching 3mmbbls (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Alsoin 2009, it produced the first gas in Rev Field Norway and it wasexpected to produce 100mmcf/d of gas in addition to 6000bbls/d ofcondensed and natural gas liquids in two sea wells. In the same yearRev East well which was a third party was expected to be takenon-stream. At the end of 2007, Talisman share of probable and provedreserves in Rev Field was at 26 million boe while the proved reserveswere at 16million boe. Norge which is also one of its subsidiarieshad 70% interest in the field while Petoro had 30%. The oil and gastransported through a pipeline to Armada in UK. Thus, new productionpursued will increase the Talisman output hence increasing itsrevenues (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Threats

Economicslowdown in the US and Eurozone

Themain markets for Talisman are US and European Union. The economicslowdown in 2009 dealt a major blow to Talisman and affected it totoady. In 2007, the growth rate in US reduced from 2% to 1.1% in 2008and was expected to reach 1.6% in 2009. In Eurozone, the GDP reducedfrom 2.6% to 1% in 2008 and was also expected to reach 2% in 2009.This slowdown exerted pressure on company’s revenue and affectsdevelopment in the industry hence affects the talisman’s demand forproducts.

Environmentalregulation

Dueto oil pollution act of 1990 and Port State Control initiative, morestrict regulations have been enacted and adopted. As a result suchregulations lead to more costs channeled for pollution damages.Henceforth all companies in oil and gas industry have been subjectedto stringent environmental regulations. The storage and distributionfacilities have been strictly complying with regulations which havebeen changing from time to time. Such compliance makes Talisman incura lot of costs hence have adverse effect on its profits margins.

Saturationof resources

Theoilreserveshave been maturing especially in North America and has been leadingto increase in operation cost and replacement cost. Thus bigcompanies have been finding challenges in increasing the productionsince production has been declining in such mature oil fields. Inaddition, production from natural gas reserves in Canada has alsobeen decreasing. Despite the fact that Mackenzie valley reservesdevelopment was to boost gas reserves the overall decliningproduction is a major threat to many oil companies including the furthermore, offshore exploration and presentreserves are getting more mature and saturated. In the past there hasbeen dry holes being drilled in succession. Such saturation affectsthe operation of the company

SWOTAnalysis Table

Strengths

Strongmarket position

Talismanenergy inc is an international independent oil and gas company whoseoperations is mainly on exploitation, marketing, development,transportation and production of natural gas liquid and crude oil.Its three main areas are North Sea, North America and Southeast Asia.In North America it’s a leading explore of gas and possessunconventional potential for gas. In North Sea it has 40 oilfieldsand a large acreage for exploitation in Norway. In Southeast Asia, ithas long life reserves of natural gas and large acreage forexploration. Thus strong position of market enables increases theshare in the market.

Diversifiedgeographical presence

Talismanenergy Inc has diversified geographic presence and does theexploration, development and production in the following areas in theworld North America, the North Sea, Southeast Asia and Australia,North Africa, and Trinidad and Tobago. Its operations are carried outin the following 5 geographic segments North America, UK,Scandinavia, Southeast Asia, and others (consisting of North Africa,Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, Peru, and Qatar).As a result of thatdiversified presence, it produced 452000 barrels of oil per day in2008. Of this,

189,000boe/d was from North America, 117,000 boe/d was from the UK segment,33,000 boe/d was from the Scandinavia, 92,000 boe/d was fromSoutheast Asia, and 21,000 boe/d from other parts of the world. Thusdiversified presence enables a company to decline the risks frombusiness which might arise from another area or geography (Haggett,2013).

Weaknesses

Lackof scale

Talismanlacks the required scale to outpace larger players in oil and gasindustry. Majority of its rivals are larger in terms of revenue,employees and dominance in Europe and other markets. BritishPetroleum is one of its key competitors and generates revenue ofapproximately $288,950million, employs 97,600 people as by 2007. Exxon Mobil Corporation isalso one of its competitor and generates revenue of $390,328 millionand employs 81,000 2007. But, Talisman generated C$7,919 million in2008, and employed 2,600 people. Thus this is a problem for Talismansince as a result of small operation scale it will tend shy away fromcompetition (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Highdebt

Talismanhas been having a lot of debt. In 2008 it had total debt of C$3,949million. Despite the fact that, it decreased by 9% from 2007 whichwas an outstanding amount of CAD$4,341 million, this amount is stillhigh. This will make its ability to get financing difficult and alsosatisfy obligation (Haggett,2013).

GENERICSTRATEGY

Costleadership strategy

Talismancan use the cost leadership strategy whereby, it wins share of themarket by attracting the price sensitive customers through charginglowest price in market. It need to operate at the lowest cost aspossible as it offers the lowest price and maintains profitability.

Firstof all it will need to acquire high asset turnover. To achieve thisfixed cost need to be spread in more service or product units to leadto lower unit cost. This means it takes advantage of scale ofeconomies. In all industries, mass production of products is a mainstrategy in itself. Mass production or output need and leads to bigshare in the market and initiate barriers to competitors who have notgotten the economies of scale.

Secondlyit needs to achieve low direct and indirect operating costs. Thiswill be through issuing great volume of standard products andreducing personalization and customization of service. The cost ofproduction is kept low through use of few components, standardcomponents and limiting models. Also overheads will be kept lowthrough payment of low wages, building facilities in areas with lowrent rates, and initiating culture which is cost conscious. Thisstrategy will be maintained through lots of cost reduction throughcost production control, outsourcing, increasing use of assets andreducing costs on advertising, distribution and R and D (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Thirdly,the supply and procurement chain needs to be controlled to lead tolower costs. This can be met by selling oil and gas in bulk to offerdiscounts, generate competitive contact bidding, and squeezesuppliers’ price. Procurement advantages may also result fromaccessing raw materials and backward integrations (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

However,talisman needs to take into consideration that cost leadershipstrategy has some disadvantages since it is characterized by littleroyalty of customers since customers who are price sensitive mayswitch when substitutes which are lowly priced is availed in themarket. Having reputation as cost leader can also lead to low qualityproducts which may be hard to brand it again if it movesdifferentiation strategy (Trish &ampMatt, 2012).

Differentiationstrategy

Talismanwill need to differentiate it’s in order to compete well.Differentiation is recommended where the targeted consumers are notsensitive to price, the market is not saturated and competitive,consumers have certain needs which are underserved and the companypossess uncommon capabilities and resources which are able to satisfytheir needs in means which are hard to be copied. Intellectualproperty patents and different expertise technically, talentedpersonnel and innovation processes will be employed by TalismanEnergy inc. it will be sure of successful differentiation when itwill accomplish the premium prices of its products and services,increase revenue per unit or increase the loyalty of its consumers tobuying its service or product. Differentiation calls forprofitability if the total price for the product is more that totalexpenses to get the product or service. It is also ineffective if itsunique brand is copied by its rivals. A brand management which issuccessful leads to conceived uniqueness despite the similarities ofproducts (Pratima &amp Natalie,2009).

&nbspVariantson the Differentiation Strategy

Talismanenergy Inc can employ the shareholdervalue model which stipulates for timing and using specializedknowledge to develop differentiation advantages so long as theknowledge is still unique. Its suggestion is that consumers maypurchase a product or a service from a given company in order toaccess the unique or uncommon knowledge. It has an advantage in thatit is static instead of being dynamic since purchasing is a onceevent (Trish &amp Matt, 2012).

&nbsp Talismanenergy Inc can also employ the unlimitedresources model which calls foruse of mass resources which enables the company to outpacecompetitors through differentiation strategy. Since it has a lot ofresources it will be able to manage risks and also maintain theprofits easily than companies with few resources although this offersthe short term advantage. It will go on developing continuousinnovation in order to sustain its competition position (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Focusleadership

Thisdimension explains how companies need to compete as per thedifferentiation and cost leadership. Talisman energy company mayprefer to join competition in mass market characterized by broadscope or a market with narrow scope thus competition can bedifferentiation or cost leadership (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

IfTalisman will adopt narrow focus it will focus on few markets whichare termed segmentation. These are different groups having specialneed. Offering oil low prices or offering differentiated oil serviceswill need to depend on the resources belonging to it. If efforts inthe market will focus on narrow segments of market and employing themarketing mix to such markets, the needs of that market will be met(Trish &amp Matt, 2012).Talisman will thus achieve competitive advantage as a result ofinnovation and marketing instead of efficiency (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009). Talisman energy Inc willtarget markets which are likely to be availed with substitutes or inmarkets with weak competition to gain above investment returns.

Byadoption of broad focus, talisman energy Inc need to identify theneed and want of the mass market and initiate competition based onprice at a lower cost of differentiation in terms of customization,quality and brand but it will need to do this taking intoconsideration the capabilities and the resources available (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

.

DISCUSSION&amp RECOMMENDATIONS

RecommendedStrategies

Fromanalysis of Talisman SWOT we came across with a lot of problems andbelow are the strategies recommended to improve its performanceefficiency.

Weakness

HighDebt

Todecline the talisman debt Talisman needs to concentrate on strategicareas and exit non strategic areas. It needs to sell non-strategicareas to enhance cash flow and thereby decline amount of debt (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Lackof scale

Togain edge in competition from bigger oil companies like BritishPetroleum, it needs to employ differentiation strategy. MichaelPorter differentiation strategies are comes about when a companyprovides services at the similar price as competitors. By doing thistalisman will get a sustainable competitive advantages if processesof value creation is not imitated by other companies (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

Threat

Economicslowdown in the US and Euro zone

Thebest means is to improve the efficiency. Talisman energy Inc duringeconomic crisis needed to concentrate on bottom line. The production,energy utilization is recommended to be made effective.

Environmentalregulations

Asa result of strict and frequent changes of oil pollution actstalisman energy Inc incurs high cost in complying with the act. Tosolve this it need to develop a strategy by coming up with a team tomonitor this compliance process in order to avert changes. Changeswhich might occur without proper planning will lead to higher cost.

Saturationof resources

Thiswill impact on the operation of Talisman energy inc. to avert this itneeds to focus on portfolio strategy. Talisman need to focus on areaswith high exploration and exit the areas which have been depleted(Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

References

Carlisle,T. (2000). Calgary Oil Firm Talisman Pays Painful Price for SudanInvestment. TheWall Street Journal. August17

Christensen,M. (1996). TalismanEnergy Inc..Toronto: Midland Walwyn Research.

Haggett,S. (2013).Talisman Energy shares surge as Carl Icahn acquires stake.Retrieved From,http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/07/us-talisman-icahn-idUSBRE9960VR20131007

Maharaj,A. (2011). Canadaleads global interest in CSR.Retrieved From,http://www.corporatesecretary.com/articles/compliance-ethics-csr/11972/canada-leads-global-interest-csr/

Pratima,B. &amp Natalie, S. (2009). TalismanEnergy Inc.: The Decision to Enter Iraq.Ivey Publishing.

Trish,G. &amp Matt, S. (2012). The Community Obligations of Canadian OilCompanies: A Case Study of Talisman in the Sudan. Vol.Iss: 4,pp.231 – 261.

Gordon`s Park

StudentName’s

Gordon’sPark

Thisis a story about the effects of poverty in a community as discussedby parks after going on a research at catacumba in favela with hiscolleague Mr. Gallo (Park 96). Parks main research however was toresearch on a father who lives in a poverty stricken environment, toknow about his income, political views, friends, religion, ideas andfrustrations but he ends up concentrating more on a 12 year old boy(Park 96) who seems to be carrying on the burden of his entirefamily. At first as you read through the story, you might end upthinking that the 12 year old boy whose name is flavio is the breadwinner of the family. The young boy does all the household choreswhereas, there are other children in the house. But being thefirstborn in that home he has no option but to perform these dutiesdiligently since he’s afraid that failure to do this, he will endup being scolded as we note where he tells his sibling to check onthe beans and make sure that they don’t get burned since hisparents will come and scold him.

Flavio’sfamily is in such a poor and desperate situation because of povertysuch that he is forced to work even when he is not feeling well.Therefore, being the firstborn in that family he is forced bycircumstances to perform all the duties of a parent when his parentsare not around. This shows that poverty discriminates even the sick.Flavio’s neighborhood does not help his situation in any wayeither. He carries water up a slope which is quite tiresome for a boyhis age. The water he gets is not enough as we see him using it toclean the rice, then the baby and his other siblings. The water isthen sprinkled on the floor of course bearing in mind that it is notclean by the time it reaches that point therefore creating a healthhazard for that family (Park 96). As he goes back to his apartment,he realizes the kind of comfort he lives in since he sees that even acorner of his house is big compared to that of flavios family house(Park 98).As park and his colleague move around the neighborhood thefollowing day, they observe that there is stench all over the placeof rotting things mixed with smoke. Park describes how someone can bewrithing in poverty, worry, overwork even physical illness and stillharbor hope in his heart (Park 99).

Inresponse to William Morrison’s post, I totally agree with his viewson parks findings. First I agree with the fact that he views park assomeone with humanity. This is supported by the fact that after hegoes home after his first visit to catacumba, he thinks about thekind of house flavio’s family live in and feels pity on them. Parkalso decides to take flavio to see a doctor the following day so thathe can be checked on his illness. It is also true that the poorpeople view the outsiders as people with bad intentions and that iswhy they react negatively when park tries to capture a funeralprocession with his camera. However, they don’t mind the stranger’spresence in their community as long as they are not interruptingtheir routine life or trying to involve the outsiders of what theyare going through. No matter how much love you give the poor peopleor how much you offer yourself to them, it will never be enough. Theirony of this story however is the part where the sculpture ofChrist’s back is facing catacumba slopes, as if meaning they havebeen forsaken (Park 101).

WorksCited

GordonParks. Descritpive Flavio’ Home.

Current Event

CurrentEvent

StudentName’s

CurrentEvent

Choosingthe

Thetopic chosen for this paper is the event on the development andrelease of National Teacher Preparation Standards on SexualityEducation. The event took place in the United States, whereby sexeducators came together, prepared, and released the sex educationstandards. The event was published on ScienceDaily on June 15, 2014.The aim of the report was to address policy and support to promotesexuality education in order to lessen risky sexual acts amongst theteenagers.

Describingthe

Accordingto current findings by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 80percent of young people aged between 15 and 17 years lack recognizedsex education prior to engaging in first time sexual intercourse. Thefinding represents an overlooked chance for community members as wellas sex educators in providing teenagers with the required instrumentsand skills to formulate efficient decisions regarding sex. Accordingto the report, it is significant to prepare tutors efficiently asthis would help them in providing superior sexuality education.Provision of quality education is essential in lessening teenagepregnancy and the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)which have become rampant in the current time. In addition to this,it enhances relationships, communication, as well as sexual health.The sexuality education standards are seen as a platform of anexceptional cohesion attempt in preparing undergraduate studentspursuing health and physical education to offer premium and inclusivesexuality education which is culturally, developmentally, and ageappropriate.

Sexualityeducation in the United States is offered at high school levels andit is incorporated in the health curriculum. Both America’s tutorsand parents participate greatly in offering teenagers with therequired information to safeguard both the future and their health.Some of the professional areas addressed by the standards encompasscontent knowledge, professional disposition, and assessment andimplementation amongst others. The standards would enable preparationprograms for the teachers to guide instruction, curriculum, as wellas evaluation decisions amongst students pursuing degree programs whoin turn would undertake the role of instructing sexuality education.

Theevent took place in the United States and it was the initial timewhen particular standards for tutors were developed with the aim ofteaching matters related to sexuality. The development of thestandards is an element of the continuing Future of Sex EducationInitiative. It is a countrywide project aimed at enhancing sexeducation of the teenagers. The persons involved were sex educatorswho were responsible in developing the standards.

Analyzingthe in terms of Sociological Concepts

Socialconstructionism is a sociological theory that scrutinizes thedevelopment of equally created knowledge regarding the world(Macionis, 2012). According to the theory, implication, meaning andunderstanding are developed in coordination with other persons(Macionis, 2012). A major element of social constructionism is thatlanguage plays a major role in assisting individuals constructreality. The topic under investigation can be analyzed in terms ofsocial constructionism considering that it is a social issueaffecting the entire society. Developing standards on sexualityeducation entails creating knowledge on how the young persons wouldobtain quality and relevant information to help model sex behavior.Social constructionism focuses on how such knowledge can be createdjointly.

Socialstratification entails classifying persons into groups on the basisof common socio-economic conditions (Macionis, 2012). It is a systemthrough which individuals are ranked in hierarchy by the society. Inthis case, it has been shown that a large percentage of the teenagersaged between 15 and 17 years lack the knowledge of sex educationprior to engaging in their initial sexual act. Classifying this groupof persons and ranking it as a first priority triggered the need todevelop preparation standards for teachers which would assist themteach sexuality education more effectively (Barr et al. 2014).

Socialcontrol is the political and societal systems which standardize groupand personal behavior (Macionis, 2012). As a result, individuals areable to abide by the rules formulated by a certain social group,state, as well as the society in general. In this case, formulatingthe National Teacher Preparation Standards for sexuality educationcan be said to be a societal mechanism in controlling and preventingteenage pregnancies as well as STDs.

Valuesare delineated as an extensive preference regarding suitable guidingprinciples (Macionis, 2012). They mirror an individual’s sense ofwhat is wrong or right. There are various kinds of valuesencompassing moral, ethical, ideological, aesthetic, and socialvalues. In this case, values are significant in explaining sexualityeducation. Certainly, values play a major role when teenagers engagein early sexual behaviors. The development of standards on sexualityeducation is key in encouraging moral values among the teenagers.

Structuralfunctionalism is defined as a structure of generating theory thatperceives the society as a multifaceted structure with various partsworking together with the aim of enhancing stability (Macionis,2012). The society is addressed in terms of its various constituentcomponents including customs, norms, institutions and traditions. Thesociety in general is shaped by these social structures. Certainly,the development of the standards would enable teaching institutionsto effectively offer sexuality education to teenagers and this wouldcontribute greatly in shaping the society (Barr et al. 2014).

Socialstructure is delineated as the social arrangements which emerge anddetermine individual behaviors in a society (Macionis, 2012). In thiscase, the emergent of National Teacher Preparation Standards can beseen as a framework of shaping teenage behaviors in the Americansociety.

References

Barr,E.M., Goldfarb, E. S., Russell, S., Seabert, D., Wallen, M. &ampWilson, K. L. (2014). Improving sexuality education: The developmentof Teacher-Preparation Standards. Journalof School Health, 84 (6): 396.

Macionis,J. J. (2012). Sociology(14th Ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Universityof North Florida. (2014, June 9). Both teens, teachers not gettingsex-ed training: New standards needed?. ScienceDaily.Retrieved June 15, 2014 fromhttp://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140609093612.htm

Popular Culture (Oprah Winfrey TV Show) as a Means of Soft Power

SOFT POWER AND THE POPULAR CULTURE 3

PopularCulture (Oprah Winfrey TV Show) as a Means of Soft Power

Asthe world enters the information era, soft power is increasinglygaining popularity over hard power. It refers to the use ofattraction method to appeal to people rather than use of force. Agood example of soft power is the popular culture, which is highlyregarded in America. It has created a negative image of Americathrough music, films, and other forms of modern day entertainment(Whitlock, 2007). However, America has been able to regain itstainted image by use of certain forms of popular culture and attractother people who share the views of the American dream (Romanowski,2012). One of the best examples that can be used to achieve this isthe use of TV shows, which happens to be the most popular in theworld (Klaehn, 2010).

TheAmerican dream that attracts people abroad is embodied in some TVshows such as Oprah Winfrey, which is popularly known all over theworld. The setting of this TV show is highly attractive as it drawsthe attention of many people worldwide. Oprah Winfrey has madetheworld to talk about almost everything. This ranges from politics,wages, business and other things that affect the world in variousways. While it is true that Oprah Winfrey’s personal skills areoutstanding, she has also contributed profoundly to America’s softpower by spreading the values of America’s values in the show. ThisTV show is broadcasted in all parts of the world reaching millions ofaudiences (Chan Yu, n.d). The TV show is also a platform forcommunicating and disseminating information to the elite and thecommoners of the greater society. Her messages keep the worldthinking, which consequently influences the audiences greatly(Greene, 2004).

References

ChanYu. (n.d). Popular Culture as a Means of Soft Power. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/4961144/Popular_Culture_as_a_means_of_Soft_Power

Greene,I. (2004). Softpower skills, women and negotiations.San Diego, Calif: PSI Publishers.

Klaehn,J. (2010). Thepolitical economy of media and power.New York: Peter Lang.

Romanowski,W. D. (2012). ReformingHollywood: How American Protestants fought for freedom at the movies.New York: Oxford University Press.

Whitlock,G. (2007). Softweapons: Autobiography in transit.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Data Warehouse Security

DataWarehouse Security

DataWarehouse Security

Manyorganizations are doing much to protect their strategic informationassets. Security of data warehouse is now becoming a priority formany of them. Data warehouse can be defined as a system that involvesintegrated databases that help in decision making and problem solving(Alberto &amp Martin, 2000). The system has summarized and highlydetailed historical data that relate to numerous subjects, areas, andcategories .Different time horizons have relevant units of data. Datawarehouse forms part of an organization’s system involved indecision making. Ordinarily, the system is not used in data update.Analysis and access of data becomes easier since the data warehouseempowers users to do so. Organizations with data warehouse becomecompetitive because they are capable of maintaining and attractingmarket shares, the employees have the capability to solve theorganization’s problems efficiently and effectively and, theinformation also becomes easier to share .Consequently, the employeesturnover is reduced (Vance, 2011).

Thereare set of challenges that emulate from the data warehouse security.Security of warehouse data prevents unauthorized hackers frommodifying and accessing data of an organization, and prevents theftof applications. In addition, the information is received by theright users (Nadkarni, 1998). The system ensures that records of allusers are kept and that all the information is received at the righttime.

Itis important for enterprises to ensure that they have a mechanismthat offers internal control .This security mechanism ensures thatdata is distributed in an environment in an integral, available, andconfidential manner. According to Vance (2011), during itsdevelopment stage, a data warehouse must be built with considerationto security. Security requirements can be proactively achievedthrough different phases.

Phaseone consist of identification of data. Identification of data that isdigitally stored in the DW is the first step undertaken to ensuresecurity. This phase operates as a foundation for other developingphases. In this process, complete inventory of the data available tothe end users of data warehouse, is undertaken. Installation ofsoftware that monitors data is very essential in this phase. Albertoet. al, (2000) suggests that data monitoring software has thecapability of providing accurate details about columns, profiles ofdata found in the environment of DW, tables, all databases, and alsoinformation of the users and how the data is being used often. Thedata collected must be reserved for the next phase and it should beorganized in a formal manner for documentation.

Thesecond phase involves classification of data. In order to satisfysecurity demands, it is best for an organization to classify theavailable data in the DW environment. The data is best classified ina prudent manner to ensure confidentiality, availability andintegrity of the data. The data owners, end users, and the custodianshold the mandate of ensuring they are involved in this task.Generally, it is advisable to classify information on the basis ofmodification, destruction, and on the basis of sensitivity todisclosure (Martin et. al., 2000). In terms of sensitivity, corporatedata is classified as public, confidential, and top secret. Thepublic data is the least sensitive and can be accessed by end usersof all levels. Examples of these types of data are admissioninformation, phone directories, and also financial statements thathave been audited. Confidential data is moderately sensitive. Thistype of data cannot be disclosed to the public. Such data is accessedby users when there is a need for then to work in a successfulmanner. Examples are medical history, investments, and personnelinformation. Top secret information is the most sensitive of all. Theleast privilege principle applies in this category of data. Data canonly be accessed by the high data warehouse users. They should alsohave security clearance that is valid. Access is limited to users whohold the critical duties of an enterprise. This type of data includesthe trade secrets, recruitment strategy, and product lines new to thecompany. The main goal for classification of data is to ensure thatdata is ranked in a manner that increases sensitivity (Vance). Thisact ensures that each category has different security measures.

Accordingto Nadkarni (1998), quantification of data forms the third phase.This is the process of assigning value to the data that has alreadybeen classified in different categories based on sensitivity. Often,the value of data is measured through the cost of restoration ofcorrupted integrity, fabrication, and interception of data. Also, thecost to reconstruct data, slow decision making, payment of financialliability for disclosing the confidential information, can be used tomeasure the value of sensitive data.

Phasefour involves identification of data vulnerabilities. Identifying anddocumenting vulnerabilities is essential in this phase. In built DBMSsecurity, dual security engines, inference attacks, availabilityfactor, human factors, insider threats, outsider threats, utilityfactors, and natural factors are vulnerabilities that must beorganized and documented in a comprehensive manner (Martin, et. al2000).

Thecost of the protective measures of the DW environment must beidentified to ensure security. The protective measures include, theaccess controls, human wall, integrity controls, encryption of data,partitioning, and development controls. Phase six involves selectionof security measures that are cost effective. Justification ofsecurity expenses is of importance since all security measuresrequire funding. Adaptability, compatibility, impact on the datawarehouse performance must be used side by side with the cost factorto ensure effective security.

Evaluationof the effectiveness of the security measures forms the last phase.This process must be done in a continuous manner to verify whetherthe measure are flexible, straightforward and simple, carefullytested and verified, used in a proper, legitimate, and selectivemanner, efficiency on the basis of time, user centric activities, andmemory space (Vance, 2011).

Inconclusion, the delegated authority and data warehouse administratorshave the mandate to ensure that security measures of DW is effective.Security mechanisms must be presented in multiple layers to cater forsecurity of all components of the DW. This ensures that critical datais not lost or compromised when one mechanism fails.

References

Alberto,A. &amp Martin, C. (2000). The data warehouse: an object-orientedtemporal database, retrieved fromhttp://www.essi.upc.edu/~martin/papers/03.temporal.pdf.

Nadkarni,P. (1998). Data Warehouse Technology: focusing on ClinicalWarehousing, retrieved from,http://ycmi.med.yale.edu/nadkarni/warehouse_fr.htm.

Vance,A. (2011). Data Analytics: Crunching the Future, retrieved from, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/data-analytics-crunching-the-future- 09082011.html.

Memo of transmittal

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 22

To: Bill Kevin, CEO, ABC Inc.

From: Student name

June 12th 2014

Transmittal for Report on conflict management at theworkplace

In response to your request for a report pertaining the issue ofconflict management at the workplace, I have carried out a study onthe causes and the strategies of managing disputes at the workplacein this corporation. I am pleased to present the enclosed report toyou, which comprises the causes and the various strategies that themanagement can use to avoid and manage quarrels.

Based on the study I conducted, communication amongst the employeesand between the employees and the management came up as the maincause of disagreements. This has led to unclear rules andregulations, unclear roles and poor performance. The issue ofpersonality differences also came up as a major cause of quarrels.These and other points have been widely discussed in the report.According to my study, I recommend enhanced and clear communicationamongst employees and between the employees and the management. Thereshould also be clear avenues through which employees can air theirgrievances.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the employees of ABCInc. for their support and information during the analysis of theproblem. I also thank the management of the organization for theinsight they offered in regard to the organization’s conflictmanagement procedures.

Kindly feel free to call in case you need to discuss the report orif you need additional information.

Conflict management

Executive summary

Conflict management has been defined as the lack of understandingamongst two or more parties with varying ideas, opinions or opposinginterests. Disputes are unavoidable in the workplace. Research hasfound out that quarrels are normal and are a part of the workplaceenvironment. At ABC Inc., workplace quarrels are extremely common.This has led to low productivity, low morale amongst employees andabsenteeism. The management has a tremendous role in ensuring that itputs strategies in place to resolve the various conflicts, whicharise amongst the employees. It is evident that in the workplacethere are varying opinions and ideas, which more often than not tendto clash with each other leading to disagreements. Researchers havefound out that managers use approximately 20% of their time trying toresolve workplace disputes (Doherty &amp Guyler, 2008). This is anindication the ABC Inc. is not an exception and the problem ofworkplace disagreements must be addressed critically.

The process of handling and resolving quarrels at the workplace hasbeen a major challenge for numerous managers and employees. There aretwo strategies that managers and employees use while dealing withworkplace disputes. People will either avoid disputes or they willdeal with it. Notable is the fact that the end result has a greatimpact on the performance of the employees. If there is no resolutionfound out of a quarrel, the parties involved will feel uncomfortableand dissatisfied. The most significant goal for conflict managementis find a resolution to the problem (Raines, 2013). This is willensure that a destructive situation has been turned into anopportunity for creativity and increased performance.

There are various causes of quarrels at the work place. At ABC Inc.the causes of disputes amongst the employees range from poorperformance, different personalities, varying values, poorcommunication, limited resources, as well as different interests.Whereas avoiding quarrels is viewed as the best way to resolve adispute, research has indicated that avoidance only postpones thedisagreement. When the management or the employees avoid adisagreement, it is vital to note that this is not a solution byitself. Avoiding a conflict only postpones it and the disagreementresurfaces at a later date. It is imperative to come up withstrategies to resolve the quarrel in order enhance performance.

There are various conflict management strategies, which ABC Inc. canadopt. It is significant for the management to find out the maincause of the conflict before embarking on resolving the conflict. Allparties involved in the quarrel must also collaborate in the effortsof finding a solution to the disagreement. It is critical for theparties involved in the conflict to figure out the need for resolvingthe dispute. During conflict resolution sessions, it is imperative tostick to the main issues regarding the row (Raines, 2013). It istempting for the conflicting parties to resort to calling names andthis may interfere with the conflict resolutions procedure. Whereaspostponing a conflict may not be the best option, circumstances mayforce the management to postpone a conflict resolution session. Sucha postponement may be necessitated by the emergence of emotions,which may interfere with the process of finding a productiveresolution. The process of actively resolving a quarrel when itoccurs will ensure that a positive working environment is created foreveryone at ABC Inc. This will directly translate to productivity,increased morale and reduced cases of absenteeism

Contents

Memo of transmittal 1

Executive summary 4

List of figures 7

Introduction 8

Causes of conflicts at the workplace 9

Personality differences 9

Conflicting resources 10

Lack of compliance with organizational rules and policies 11

Lack of proper communication amongst employees 11

Poor performance 12

Conflicting goals 13

Conflicting roles as a source of conflict in the work place 13

Conflict management strategies 14

Conflict avoidance 14

Compromising 15

Forcing or competing 16

Collaborating 17

Smoothing 18

Recommendations 18

Conclusion 21

References 22

List of figures

Employees from different racial backgrounds

Poor communication amongst employees

Introduction

Conflicts at the workplace are common and unavoidable. There arevarious factors which lead to workplace quarrels. It is vital to notethat employees at ABC Inc. have been sourced from various parts ofthe world. As a consequence, the employees have different values andinterests. More often than not, these employees will air differentopinions, which might lead to disagreements. Such sharp disagreementshave been identified as conflicts (Raines, 2013). Conflict managementhas been defined as the process through which conflicts and disputesare identified and are dealt with effectively, rationally and in animpartial way. The main aim of conflict management is to enhance thepositive aspects of disputes while limiting the negative aspectsassociated with quarrels.

Research has indicated that the time spent by managers andsupervisors resolving quarrels has double since the 1980s. This hasbeen associated with enhanced complexity of organizations, as well asthe adopting of group decision making techniques. A proper conflictmanagement procedure leads to increased performance by the group.Various forms of quarrels exist within an organization. Disputes mayoccur between various departments, individuals or employee groups.The most common form of conflict at ABC Inc. is the individualconflict, as well as the group conflict. There are various modelsthat have been put forward on how to manage conflicts. One of theoldest models is the Mary Parker Follett model, which asserts thatindividuals can manage conflicts through domination, compromise andintegration. The researcher also found out that organizations wereusing other models to manage conflicts such as suppression andavoidance.

Causes of conflicts at the workplacePersonality differences

In any organization, employees are pulled from differentbackgrounds, religious and political affiliations, cultures, gendersand ethnic groups. This bring along a wide range of personalities inthe workplace. At ABC Inc., employees constitute of personalitiesfrom varying genders, cultures, as well as political and religiousaffiliations. Personality differences was identified as one majorcause of quarrel at the workplace. It was identified that there islack of proper communication amongst the employees in regard to theirpersonality differences. As a result, employees normally engage inquarrels due to minor personality differences such talking loudly. Itwas also evident that employees from different religious backgroundsand political backgrounds also engage in disagreements and argumentsin regard to their beliefs (Masters &amp Albright, 2012). Employeesfail to address these personality differences, which end upculminating into enormous conflicts in future. The image below showstwo employees from different racial and cultural backgrounds:

Employees from different racial backgrounds

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Conflicting resources

It is evident that all employees require certain resources, whichare vital in facilitating their work performance. The resources atABC Inc. are limited and there are numerous instances when anindividual or a group of people may require a single resourcesimultaneously. As a result, this has led to quarrels as employeescompete for resources. Such resources may include the office spacemeeting rooms and office supplies. It was also evident that employeeswould compete over office supplies and attention from the managementand fellow colleagues. Quarrels arise when resources are limited andmore than one person, individual or department is fighting over theresource. This is a common occurrence at ABC Inc. where resourcessuch as office supplies and office space are limited. It was alsoevident that competition over incentives such as rewards for bestperformers was a source of dispute. Whereas competition can behealthy for an organization, it is critical to note that it can bethe source of anti-productive behavior in the workplace (Masters &ampAlbright, 2012). This occurs when individual employees start to viewother employees as competitors, rather than members.

Lack of compliance with organizational rules and policies

Many are the times when employees are caught on the wrong side ofthe law. Some employees rebel against the rules and regulations setby the organization. It was evident that employees could pesterfellow employees in regard to disobeying the rules and regulations ofthe organization. This is a main source of conflict at the workplace.Employees have varying views in regard to the various rules andregulations of the organization. Such differences in interpretationsare major sources of disputes amongst employees. It was clearlyevident that there is the lack of an understanding as to why therules and the regulations are in place and the consequences ofbreaking such rules and regulations.

Lack of proper communication amongst employees

Another major source of dispute amongst employees is the lack ofproper communication. Botched communication between and amongemployees has been cited as a main cause of dispute in and outsidethe office. The lack of effective listening skill is a major problemthat inhibits proper communication. This in turn leads todisagreements, which ultimately result in disputes. Poorcommunication or varying communication styles can also fosterdisputes (Masters &amp Albright, 2012). For instance, there areemployees who assume that their colleagues will understand cues andact accordingly. On the contrary, some employees only understanddirect communication. This may result into disputes amongst employeesas a result of lack of understanding. Since different employees comefrom varying cultural backgrounds, communication language barriersaffect their ability to communicate effectively. This can result todisputes where employees accuse others of backbiting. The image belowillustrate a poor method of communication:

Poor communication amongst employees

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Poor performance

In any workplace environment, there are employees whose performancesupersedes that of their colleagues. This is a source of dispute inthe workplace. Hard working employees may feel under pressure and endup accusing their colleagues of being lazy and unproductive. It wasalso observed that there are some employees who like the grill ofgetting things done at the last minute, while other prefer structuredwork, which is done step by step. This is a work style that isrelated to performance standards. Such conflicting styles of work canlead to disputes between the employees, as well as between themanagement and individual employees. At ABC Inc. employees’performances vary significantly. This creates tension amongstemployees who feel that they are subjected to too much pressure bytheir colleagues.

Conflicting goals

More often than not, the goals set by various managers at ABC Inc.,conflict with each. It was noted that different managers were settingcontrasting goals for the employees. For instance, one manager wouldencourage the employees to work at speed while serving customers. Onthe other hand, a different manager insisted on in-depth and highquality services to the clients. These are two conflicting goals forthe employees. In this regard, the employees tend to engage indisagreements with the managers over which goals they are supposed tofollow (Masters &amp Albright, 2012). It is evident that these twogoals are extremely hard to reconcile.

Conflicting roles as a source of conflict in the work place

It is a common occurrence at the workplace for managers to assignduties to employees outside their territories of work. This mayresult to conflict in roles where an employee may perform the dutiesof another employee. This conflict in the roles can result intoconflicts at the work place. It is also evident that this aspect mayhappen in the reverse form. Some employees may have the feeling thatsome tasks assigned to them should have been assigned to someone else(Masters &amp Albright, 2012). This is also a major source ofconflict in the workplace. At ABC Inc., such instances occur due toabsenteeism of some employees due to sickness, day-offs or maternityleaves.

Conflict management strategies

There are a number of strategies that management staff at ABC Inc.can adopt in order to effectively manage the frequent disputes thatoccur amongst the employees and between the employees and themanagement. Although numerous efforts have been made to alleviate anddeal with disputes at the workplace, it is vital to note thatdisputes at the workplace are not bad. Disputes can be beneficial tothe organization if they are managed well (Masters &amp Albright,2012). It is also critical to note that dispute management isdifferent from conflict resolution. Whereas conflict resolution seeksto resolve disputes, conflict management seeks to reduce the negativeeffects of disputes. Conflict management seeks to increase thebenefits accrued from disputes. Conflict management should ensurethat the conflicting parties learn from the dispute and that theyrealize the need to end the conflict.

The following are the various strategies that can be used to manageconflicts in the workplace:

Conflict avoidance

Conflict avoidance is a technique which is used to manage conflictsin the workplace. It is a technique that attempts to directly avoidthe issue at hand. Managers try and postpone the issue or fail tobring up the contentious issues during meeting. This technique isnormally used by managers as a temporary measure to deal with theissue or as a permanent measure of disposing the argument. However,it is critical to note that this technique can be used for solvingminor quarrels, which are non-recurrent. The technique cannot be usedto manage a disagreement that is major or that which keeps recurring.Managers may also apply this strategy through separating employeeswho severally engage in arguments. In order for avoidance strategy towork in managing conflicts at the workplace, the parties involved inthe dispute must both accept to avoid participating in the conflict.This strategy is applicable when the issue at hand is a trivialissue, which is not worth the time and resources of resolving theproblem.

This conflict management strategy can be applicable in situationswhere the parties involved are too emotional and cannot handle thesituation. It is an effective strategy where an immediate solution isnot available and the management may require additional time to finda solution to the problem (Masters &amp Albright, 2012). It also anapplicable method when the parties involved do not find any chance ofgetting their concerns met. There are times when a more pressingissue can be at hand and the avoidance strategy can be applied. Insuch a case, avoidance offers the chance to conflicting parties toconcentrate on other important issues. However, in instances where anindividual is representing a group, avoidance may not be the bestmethod that can be applied. This is because the group may bedemanding for action and therefore the relationship between theperson and the group may be negatively affected.

Compromising

Compromising in managing conflicts ensures that the parties involvedin an argument arrive at an amicable solution where each party issatisfied with the final decision. This strategy demands that eachparty in an argument drops some of the demands in order to arrive ata solution that is acceptable by both parties. The strategy involvesthe signing of agreements, which each party in the argument must meet(Collins &amp O`Rourke, 2009). In this regard, the management mustfollow up to ensure that the parties fulfil their pledges and observethe agreements made. This strategy provides a temporary solution asthe management finds a permanent solution to the problem. Thisstrategy can also be applied in situations where there are highlevels of tension. It is an excellent method of lowering the stressand tension levels since every party feels satisfied. This method isalso applied when the goals involved in the quarrel do not requireextremely assertive strategies such as collaborating and forcing. Thestrategy often uses communication, where the parties involvedmutually agree on terms. It is, however, vital to remember that theseterms vary from the original goals. Compromising is not the bestapproach to use since it might result in lose-lose situation or awin-lose situation. This strategy does not create long run trustbetween the arguing parties. Additionally, the strategy also requiresfollow up by the management to ensure that the parties fulfil theagreements they sign.

Forcing or competing

This is conflict management strategy where one of the individualspersists his or her pursuit of the concern despite the resistancefrom the other party. For instance, an individual may insist on acertain viewpoint until it goes through or is adopted. This strategycan only be applied in situations where all other less forcefulmethods are ineffective. This management strategy can also be appliedwhen aggrieved parties want to pursue their rights. It is vital tonote that the strategy can be used in dire situations which requireforce such as life threatening situations (Collins &amp O`Rourke,2009). Research has also found that this strategy of managingconflict is used as the last resort. The strategy is also a quick wayof managing a disagreement between employees or between employees andthe management. It also creates self-esteem to the individuals whoseviewpoints stand. The strategy calls for firm actions againstaggressors and it therefore draws respect from the aggressors.

Whereas this approach may be quick and draws respect fromaggressors, it is vital to note that the strategy may createhostility between the arguing parties in the long run. It has alsobeen noted that the strategy can attract aggression from the oppositeparty. Such aggression might not have been present during theargument. Since this approach uses force, the individual fighting forhis or her right through force may get exhausted. In other words, thestrategy requires enormous energy and therefore it is not the beststrategy for managing conflicts in the workplace.

Collaborating

This is probably one of the best strategies that the management atABC Inc. can use to manage various disagreements among the employeesin the organization. It is a strategy that seeks to bring thedisagreeing parties together in a win-win situation. The strategyensures that the disagreeing parties are satisfied with the decisionarrived at. One of the parties in the conflict tries to approach theother party in an attempt to resolve the conflict. The strategy seeksto identify the underlying concerns for the arguments and finding anamicable resolve to the problem (Collins &amp O`Rourke, 2009). Thestrategy is applied mainly when a long term relationship between thearguing parties is required. The method also requires the parties inthe disagreement to have high levels of trust. It is also vital tonote that the strategy is adopted in situations where consensus isimportant.

Whereas this method has been viewed as one of the best, it isimperative to note that is also has a few shortcomings. To startwith, the strategy requires a continuous collaborative relationshipto ensure that the trust remains. It is also evident that thestrategy cannot be used in situations which require urgent measures.This is because the method is a slow one which requires consultationbetween the arguing parties. The strategy also requires that allparties involved to commit themselves towards finding a solution tothe issue at hand.

Smoothing

This is a strategy that can be used in conflict management where oneof the parties involved meets the needs and the concerns of the otherparty before meeting his or her own. This is a method that can workextremely well in situations where an urgent resolve is required. Forinstance, in a situation where two individuals are fighting overspace, one individual might opt to allow the other individual use thespace. This strategy is applicable in situations where enough time isnot available to find an amicable solution (Van, 2005). It is amethod that allows for an immediate solution to an argument. Thisapproach requires that one of the parties to admit that he or she iswrong. When this method is applied, it offers an opportunity for themanagement to view the problem from a different perspective and finda solution to the argument.

This strategy has a few shortcomings. To start with, the strategymay give the opponent the opportunity to exploit the other party whois accommodating. It is also apparent that the strategy may attractrepression from the supporters of the party that accommodates.Finally, the strategy may affect the confidence of the person whoaccommodates the opponent.

Recommendations

Whereas the above conflict management strategies may seemsufficient, it is vital to note that there are various steps that themanagement at ABC Inc. should take to ensure that disagreements aremanaged effectively and impartially. As it has been said earlier inthe report, lack of proper communication was cited as one of themajor causes of conflicts in the workplace. The managers and thesupervisors have the responsibility of creating an effective workingenvironment. Although differences in opinions, interests and beliefsare inevitable, the management must be ready to intervene if suchdifferences escalate to interpersonal conflicts. Managers andsupervisors who value their organizations and are ready to delivermust be ready to manage disagreeing parties and get to the root ofthe problem (Van, 2005). The key point to note is that the managersmust focus on the issues at hand rather than the individuals involvedin the dispute.

Whereas avoidance has been cited as one of the strategies to manageconflicts in the workplace, managers must only take this as atemporary measure. Avoiding a conflict does not guarantee that theproblem will no resurface later. Research has found out that avoidinga problem is only creating a chance for a similar problem to reappearat a later date. Unresolved disagreements hide under the workenvironment and only appear later when they are least expected. It isalso critical to note that unresolved problems resurface when stresslevels are high.

Impartiality is imperative in attempting to manage disagreements atthe workplace. There are numerous managers who attempt to seekopinions in regard to the disagreement from one party while leavingthe other out. This is an extremely wrong approach, since it willonly lead mistrust between the arguing employees and the management.It is therefore very critical to seek views from all the parties in adispute (Collins &amp O`Rourke, 2009). It is vital to clearlyarticulate the problem before embarking on any efforts to manage it.The parties quarreling must also be clearly informed on the steps tobe followed towards finding an amicable solution to the problem. Themanagement and the supervisors must ensure that the employeesinvolved in a disagreement realize the need to find a solution thatis satisfactory to both of them. Conflicts should provide anopportunity for learning and being effective and productive infuture.

In regard to the problem of conflicting resources, the managementmust ensure that it comes up with strategies that ensure that allemployees benefit equally from the available resources. Themanagement must embark on efforts to inform the employees thatresources are limited and that they must not all get what they need.The management must encourage the employees to adopt the spirit ofsharing. However, in instances where the management can afford toprovide the required resources, it should forge forward and provideall the necessary materials to the employees. This would go a longway in avoiding conflicts at the workplace. Conflicting parties mustbe involved in an open talk with the management to ensure that theyunderstand the needs of each other.

In instances where working styles lead to arguments at theworkplace, ensure that people who portray similar working styles areplaced in similar groups. This will be a sure way of avoidingconflicts. If arguments come up in a particular team, considerreplacing or transferring one or more of the employees with varyingworking styles. Personality tests such as Myers-Briggs PersonalityTest can be extremely effective in enhancing people’s understandingof other’s working styles. Personality tests also ensure thatpeople become flexible in accommodating others.

Lastly, communication should be viewed as the main pillar inmanaging disputes at ABC Inc. The management must clearly andfrequently communicate to the employees in regard to the variousrules and regulations within the organization. Employees should alsobe encouraged to air their views and grievances without fear to themanagement and their supervisors (Van, 2005). It was also found outthat employees do not communicate over issues which affect them suchas their different cultures, religions and ethnic groups. Themanagement must encourage employees to communicate over the issuesthat seem to be potential causes of conflicts. In the process ofmanaging disputes, the management must involve all the parties andmust be fair, impartial and issue based.

Conclusion

The issue of workplace conflict cannot be avoided in anyorganization. The management of the organization must be extremelyprepared to manage the disputes that come up within the organization.ABC Inc. faces this problem and this report has presented the variousstrategies that have been proved to work efficiently and effectivelyin managing such quarrels. The organization has employees fromdifferent backgrounds, religions and political affiliations. In thisregard, disputes cannot be avoided. The resources at the organizationare limited and therefore employees fight over what is available. Itis critical to note that conflict management seeks to enhance thebenefits associated with workplace disputes while suppressing thenegative effects. Employees must learn from the disputes they areinvolved in and must realize the benefits of ending their arguments.It is vital to reiterate that impartiality, fairness andeffectiveness must be practiced when attempting to manage anydisputes. The parties involved in any dispute must feel that they aresatisfied with the decision arrived at.

References

Doherty, N., &amp Guyler, M. (2008). The essential guide toworkplace mediation &amp conflict resolution: Rebuilding workingrelationships. London: Kogan Page.

Raines, S. (2013). Conflict management for managers: Resolvingworkplace, client, and policy disputes. San Francisco, Calif:Jossey-Bass.

Masters, M. F., &amp Albright, R. R. (2012). The complete guideto conflict resolution in the workplace. New York Toronto:AMACOM.

Van, G. B. (2005). Managing workplace conflict: Alternativedispute resolution in Australia. Annandale, N.S. W: FederationPress.

Collins, S. D., &amp O`Rourke, J. S. (2009). Managing conflictand workplace relationships. Mason, OH: South-Western CengageLearning.

Types of Homicides

TYPES OF HOMICIDES 4

Typesof Homicides

Homiciderefers to the act killing a human life by another human being. Itinvolves deliberately or indeliberately taking an action meant tobring to an end the life of the individual. Homicide can be in any ofthe three forms namely murder, manslaughter and justifiable homicide.

Thefirst form of homicide takes the form of murder. It refers todeliberate and preplanned cases of killing a person by an individual(Brookman, 2005). The act is viewed as inhumane and worth a seriouspunishment. Murder may take two forms namely, first degree murder andsecond degree murder. First degree murder that is the most inhumaneform of homicide refers to the deliberate and preplanned killing of aperson. All indicators show that the death was meant to occur asfacilitated by the killer. The preplanned actions act as the corpusdelicti is punishable mostly by death penalty. Second degree murderrefers to have the scenario where the murder had not preplanned tokill but performs actions meant to kill (Morrall, 2006). The actionthat was taken in killing acts as the foundation to the proof of thecrime. It is mostly punishable by life imprisonment.

Thesecond form of homicide is manslaughter (Brookman, 2005). It refersto the scenario whereby the killer had neither planned to kill nortaken actions meant to kill. The death occurs accidentally throughthe actions of the accused person of killing. The situation throughwhich the death occurred, acts as the foundation for the prosecutionand the subsequent sentencing of the culprit. The judgment passed onthis crime depends on the specific conditions on the occurrence.

Thethird form of homicide is the justifiable homicide. It occurs when aperson is killed by the other while on self defense (Morrall, 2006).This may be to avoid being killed themselves. Under the law no crimeis committed in this case. Moreover, the relevant authorities justrecord the death and under the circumstances it occurred. Howeverserious questions have been raised as to whether it is right for anindividual to kill.

Affirmativeact is an act which indicates that, there is no any criminalliability as a result of an omission to act in a criminal liability (Scheb,2011).In this regard, there must be a legal duty to act for one to beguilty of crime resulting from a particular failure. Affirmative actcan arise if there exists a relationship between the victim and theactor such as husband-wife or parent-child, in case of a statutoryduty or if there was a contract between the victim and the actor(Scheb,2011). The affirmative action is significantly applicable in all the threeforms of homicides.

References

Brookman,F. (2005).&nbspUnderstandinghomicide.London: SAGE Publications.

Morrall,P. (2006).&nbspMurderand Society.Chichester: John Wiley &amp Sons.

Scheb,J. (2011). CriminalLaw.Cengage Learning. Available at

http://books.google.com/books?id=5tqB1FUhCnMC&amppg=PA93&amplpg=PA93&ampdq=affirmative+act+in+criminal+law&ampsource=bl&ampots=zCZNBcD2UH&ampsig=f_DXAhH_R5NL–n92IB-4d1aBVQ&amphl=en&ampsa=X&ampei=h8WaU6jMO4LYOp_9gKgM&ampredir_esc=y#v=onepage&ampq=affirmative%20act%20in%20criminal%20law&ampf=false

One Year Promotion Plan

ONE YEAR PROMOTION PLAN 7

OneYear Promotion Plan

OneYear Promotion Plan

Theproduct and company that is under promotion is the Barilla SpA. Theability of the company to sell more of the pasta in a new location isby establishing a functional and effective promotional plan for thenext year. Barilla SpA is a leading manufacturer of Italian pastathat has revolutionized the market by strong marketing, branding andcompetitive advantage (Barilla Group, 2014). In relation to this casestudy, the company is facing challenges in their promotion anddistribution channel in the United States. As an Italian companysetting markets in the United States, this promotional plan willfocus on its presence in New York.

Thetarget market for this promotion plan is the market of LivingstonCounty in New York City. The exact location of Barilla Spa store inthe County is Avon village in the New York County. The county has apopulation of over 65,393 according to the 2010 census, while thelarger New York City has over 8.3 million people. This target marketis divided into the walk-in consumers and delivery consumers. Thispromotion plan for the company store in the county will approach thetwo consumers with different message but focusing on one promotionalplan.

Themain objective of the promotional plan is to increase the sales ofthe company while making it a preference of the New York customers.Since Barilla SpA pasta is a not an American company, the promotionplan will aim at three main objectives. First, this promotional planaims at establishing awareness of Barilla SpA pasta in New York. Thisawareness will start with the store location at Livingston County.Secondly, this promotional plan aims at an increase in the sales ofthe Barilla SpA pasta store in the Livingston County and in thelarger New York. This will be a resultant outcome of the store thathas low sales, as a new venture. Finally, this promotional plan aimsat creating a foundation for long-term market share in the New Yorkmarket.

Budgetand Budget Allocation

Thebudget technique used for this promotion plan is zero-basedbudgeting. The use of this technique will ensure that the costs ofthe promotion plan will be incurred on demand. The costs will bedistributed across the activities that are involved in the promotionplan. In addition, the costs will be allocated per the priority ofthe activities and according the importance of the activity to thefinal target.

Thebudget allocation of this promotional plan per year is $10,000. Thetotal amount for the promotion plan is to cover for the marketingcosts, advertising costs, promotional staff costs and media costs.The following are the budget costs and activities that thispromotional plan will focus.

Promotional Activity

Budget Allocation (in US Dollars)

Success Measure Metric

Media Coverage

300,000

Number of orders

Instant Messaging

10,000

Number of orders

Online Campaigns

50,000

Traffic in the company website.

Number of online orders

Outdoor Promotion

200,000

Number of orders

Direct Selling

100,000

Number of direct sales

Social Media Campaign

80,000

Number of social media following and resultant orders

Eachof the activities included in the budget involves a cost that isestimated as the anticipated cost. However, the cost of the activitywill be incurred once the activity has been approved and its realcost established. This is in accordance with the zero-budgetingtechnique, which will help Barilla SpA pasta store to reduce itscosts and create efficiency in the utilization of the promotionbudget. The promotional plan will focus range of pasta in the countyand in the larger New York market. This is because the promotionalplan intends to extend the market for the company by institutionmeasures that will become the foundation of the next year’spromotion all over New York. PromotionalActivities

Thepasta store will involve a range of promotional activities that willinclude all the aspects of product promotion. The main activitieswill be media coverage, instant messaging services, online campaign,outdoor promotion, direct selling and social media campaign.

MediaCoverage

Asa new establishment, Barilla SpA pasta will use all the mediaplatforms available in New York to pass the message to potentialcustomers. The company will use television for the first three monthswith a 30 second advert in one selected TV station and two selectedradio stations. After three months, three months, the media ads willbe run again on different media stations and the same processrepeated over the last two quarters of the year. The use of the printmedia will be necessary due to the population that reads newspapersand magazines. Therefore, Barilla SpA will run a newspaper advertevery Friday of every week and a magazine advert every month with oneselected magazine in New York.

InstantMessaging Services

Thecompany will engage in text messaging service as a way of providingpersonalized and direct messages to potential customers. To achievethis, the company will establish a promotional permission bycollaborating with promotional cell phone text messaging serviceproviders.

OutdoorPromotion

Thepasta store will engage in outdoor promotion using billboards instrategic locations that will attract the attention of many potentialconsumers. The Barilla SpA will also engage in giving of posters andbrochures to target customers for delivery services. This willspecifically target households and people at the offices in workingenvironments.

DirectSelling

Thecompany will engage in direct selling as a way of gatheringinformation on the response of the customers on the brand and on thepromotional activities. Barilla SpA will intend to maintain a strongbrand promotion by engaging, robust direct sales teams. Through theseteams, the company will create personalized message to potential andtargeted customers.

OnlineAdvertising

BarillaSpA pasta store will engage in diversified advertising andpromotional programs in the online platforms. The company willestablish online promotion will online advertising agencies such asGoogle Ads and independent online traffic agencies. This will alsoinclude email marketing where personalized message will be sentthrough the online platform of the company, notably its website.

SocialMedia

Inaddition to online promotional campaigns, Barilla SpA will engage inconsistent social media advertising to reach out to potentialcustomers. According to Kenneth and Traver (2014) the use of socialmedia and online messaging is gradually becoming a part of life ofboth people and organizations. Therefore, Barilla SpA will establishsocial media platforms on all social media sites that attract a largenumber of following.

Conclusion

Thepromotion plan will make the difference between the company’s pastabrands with the rest in the market. The company engages in tradepromotions, sales representatives, and advertising to achieve itsmarketing. Because of this promotional plan, the company will enjoy arobust market in order to establish presence in New York.

References

BarillaGroup. RetrievedFrom, &ltwww.barillagroup.com&gtJune 12, 2014

KennethL. Traver, G. (2014). E-commerce.business. technology. society. 10th edition.Boston,

MA:PearsonEducation

Foreign Aid and Global Gag Rule

ForeignAid and Global Gag Rule

InstitutionAffiliation:

ForeignAid and Global Gag Rule

Doesit matter whether one is pro-life or pro-choice? When it comes to theissue of women health, people should not be concerned with partisanpolitics, but rather about support. No rule should gag or hurt womenby holding critical programs hostage to politics and ideologicalprecincts. In fact, such programs are not only detrimental to thehealth of women but to the general welfare of developing nations. Having a moral robustness means that people should rise and backprograms that aim to support women’s welfare without imposingrestrictions on their welfare or health that one purports to support.In fact, the issue of life or choice does not guarantee one a pass inglobal welfare.

Forthe past 40 years, the United States has provided planning aid todeveloping countries, and one such program that is embroiled bypartisan politics is family planning aid (Bendavid, Avila &ampMiller, 2011 Cohen,2011)).In spite of the long-standing legislative interdict on the UnitedStates to foreign aid to pay for the abortions, recognized as helmsamendment, the anti-abortion proponents unaccountably but consistencehave asserted that such stand is contrary to antiabortion. Cohen(2011) asserts that although the gag rule is practiced as a way toreduce the abortions practiced across the countries getting theforeign aid, it does not actually inhibit abortion, but diminishesthe gains made in the provision of health care, more so, maternalhealth care.

Infact, abortion rates have not decreased as proponents of the ruleopine (Cohen,2011).Opposing the rule means endowing women with mechanism over their ownfertility and as such, produces welfares for the women, theirfamilies and nations. In fact, any regulation aimed at eliminatingAmerican assistance for family planning eliminates reproductivehealth programs that have greatly supported women and their families.As such, the government should channel foreign aid to deservingpeople in order to enhance their health, irrespective of their stand.The issue is not about abortion, but about lack of contraceptionthus, the government should scrap the rule and allow flow of aid toall deserving countries. In fact, Joseph(2012) contends that women in developing countries turn to abortionsor other practices due to lack of contraception.

Reference

Bendavid,E., Avila, P., &amp Miller, G. (2011). United States aid policy andinduced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletinof the World Health Organization,89(12),873-880c.

Cohen,S. A. (2011). GPR. GuttmacherPolicy Review,14(1).

Joseph,R. (2012). Sex, abortion and Obama. Journalof Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care,38(3),187-190.

Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence

DATA WAREHOUSE AND BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE 6

DataWarehouse and Business Intelligence

Differencesbetween data warehouses and databases

Database is any collection of data organized for storage, accessibility,and retrieval. There occurs different types of databases but the mostcommon is the OLTP (on-line analytic processing). A data warehouse isan OLTP database itself. Databases are based on operationalprocessing while data warehouse is based on information processing.It can also be argued that databases store the current data whichalways promised to be up-to-date. Data warehouse on the other handstores information that is mainly historical and whose accuracy hasto be maintained over time. On the issue of functions, databases areused for day-to-day activities while data warehouses are usually usedfor long-term decision support. Data warehousing is associated withmanagers and analysts while databases are associated with commonusers such as database professionals.

Anotherdifference that occurs between the two is that databases haveorientation on transactions, but data warehouses have orientation inthe analysis. Data warehouses have their summarizations inconsolidated form, but databases have primitive and highly primitive.The above illustrations show that the database is appropriate for thetraditional system of data storage strategy while data warehouse is amodern form of data storage strategy which is used for producingenormous information.

Whatare the data warehouse technologies?

Datamining

Datamining is the deliberative act of obtaining hidden predictiveinformation from large databases. It is one of the powerfultechnologies that help organisations to focus on the most importantdata in their data warehouses (Nick, 2004). Data mining equipmentsenable companies to be predictive about future trends and behavioursas it provides information that experts may not think about becauseit lies outside their expectations. Data mining saves time as it isfast and efficient.

Fordata mining to be productive, several applications have to beemployed including massive data collection, powerful multi-processorcomputers, and data mining algorithms. All of these technologies aimat generating new business opportunities by providing capabilitiessuch as automated prediction of trends and behaviours and automateddiscovery of previously unknown patterns. The most usefultechnologiesused in data mining include unnaturally neural networks, decisiondiagrams, rule induction and nearest neighbour method (Nick, 2004).

Customerrelationship management (CRM)

CRMis a devised way that integrates the concepts of data mining,knowledge management, and data warehousing in order to beef-up theorganisation’s decision making to regain the long-term andprofitable relationships with the customers. It normally deals withgathering all customer-related information into a single compositionand combines it with robust analysis of sales, marketing, and serviceproposals. The focus of customer relationship management is toautomate sales force by building separate applications for CRM havingtheir own databases. CRM has brought benefits such as minimizedETL-processing, more timely and high quality data, alignments ensuredwith business objectives, reducing the operational cost, improvingcustomer services, and customer retention. These benefits have beenmeasured through statistical data analysis to show the trends overthe years. CRM employs such tools as customer mart, marketing mart,sales mart, service mart, and partner for success.

On-lineanalytic processing (OLAP) for business intelligence

On-lineAnalytical Processing (OLAP) is often considered best if a companywishes to analyze data. OLAP is, therefore, a technology that is usedto organise large business databases and support businessintelligence (David, 2009). OLAP databases are organised into one ormore sections, and each section is organised and designed a sectionadministrator to fit the way that the company can retrieve dataeasily. OLAP databases comprise of two types of data: measures anddimensions. Moreover, OLAP databases help arrange data by many levelsof detail, using the categories that the company is familiar with toanalyze data. OLPA is dynamic as the company can change the directionof the analysis. OLAP framework, for instance, has been integratedinto some commercial e-commerce systems (Data Mining Page, 2014).

Whatare the relationships between data warehouse and businessintelligence?

Todetermine the relationship between data warehouse and business, it isadvisable to understand the two terms. Data warehouse is a placewhere storage of data occurs for it to be archived, to be analyzed,and for security purposes. Data is a technique used by many companiesto come up with facts, trends, or correlations. Data marts aresegments or levels of information and data that are grouped togetherto provide relevant information into that segment or level. Datamarts are usually smaller than data warehouse. As a result, reportingtools are made to generate reports from the data warehouse (David,2009). Data warehouse also manages cleansing, data transformation,data acquisition persistence management, and storing information.

Businessintelligence implies the tools and systems that play a crucial rolein strategic planning process of a corporation. The systems usedallow the company to collect, store, access, and analyze corporatedata to enhance decision making. Business mainly deals with areas ofcustomer profiling, customer support, market research, and productprofitability (David, 2009). Business intelligence, therefore, is theleveraging of data warehouse to aid make business decisions andrecommendations. Data and information rules are leveraged by businessintelligence to help to make decisions along statistical analysis,OLAP (online transaction and processing), and data mining tools.Business intelligence operations are more expensive than datawarehouse ones.

Thereexists a correlation between data warehousing and businessintelligence. Business intelligence is a term that is commonlyassociated with data warehousing. Business intelligence indulgesitself in various activities to gather today’s market informationthat can also constitute that of their competitors (David, 2009).Business intelligence relies on data warehouse to get data so thatthey can simplify information and crunch it. Data warehouse has torely also on business intelligence to be fed with the simplified andanalyzed data. The raw data in the data warehouse has to betransformed so as to meet requirements and objectives of the company.

Thetransformation is done through a process known as Extraction,Transformation, and Loading (ETL). Once the data has been convertedand fed into the databases, it is ready for the next processing.These databases are the one referred to as data warehouse databases.Building of data marts follows. The whole process, therefore, hasintelligence involved in business (David, 2009). This is datawarehousing and the system involved from the start to end is known asbusiness intelligence system. It can be deducted that datawarehousing and business intelligence are interrelated.

Insummary, it can be noted from the above discussion that datawarehousing helps a company to store data while business intelligencehelps the company in controlling the data for effective decisionmaking as well as forecasting. Although most business intelligencesystems are based on data warehouse systems, not all of them are datawarehousing, that is, they do not take data directly from the sourcesystem. It can also be noticed that the term data warehouse mayeither mean data warehouse system or data warehouse database.Business intelligence, on the other case, can either mean businessintelligence system or business intelligence application.

References

DataMining Page (2014). AnIntroduction to Data Mining. RetrievedFrom:

http://www.thearling.com/text/dmwhite/dmwhite.htm

David,T. (2009). Progressivemethods in data warehousing and business intelligence : concepts andcompetitive analytics.Hershey: Information Science Reference.

Nick,C. (2004). InternationalJournal of Intelligent Systems-Granular Computing and Data Mining.NewYork: John Wiley &amp Sons.