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5

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CellStructure and Function: Cell Types and Transport

Abstract:

Thepaper explores the distinction between the eukaryotic cells andprokaryotic cells. It then establishes that the prokaryotic andeukaryotic cells differ in shapes. The report further reveals thatprokaryotic cells have cilia or flagella, while the eukaryotic cellshave flagella only. Whereas prokaryotic cells reproduce by binaryfission, the eukaryotic cells reproduce sexually or Nucleus. It alsoestablishes that the two cells have similarities. For example, theyboth have Vacuole, which perform the same function in the differentcells. Additionally, the paper looks at the structure of the cellsand their functions. There are various distinctions between animaland plant cell. After the report prepares and tests diffusion throughboth liquids and solids, it then contrasts the rates oftransportation by way of permeable membrane by use of Iodine, glucoseand starch solutions of dialysis tubing. It finally analyzes theoutcome by using Benedicts reagent.

Purpose

Thepurpose of this report is to elucidate the variations betweeneukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It is enables other people to learnand understand whether an organism is eukaryotic or prokaryotic uponobservation. It also describes the distinction between animal andplant cells, and connects the functions and the structure.Additionally, another purpose of the report is to elucidate themovement of metabolic raw materials into cells. It also explains themovement of waste products out of the organism.

Data Table2:Diffusion Rate Comparison

Medium

Beginning

Time, To

End Time, T1

Length of Time in hours

= T1–To

Movement of color in mm

Rate of diffusion in mm/hour

Semisolid

(Gelatin)

8.00

18.15

10.15

30

2.96556

Liquid (Water)

8.00

9.00

1

45

45

DataTable 2

DataTable 3

DataTable3: Diffusion through a Differentially Permeable Membrane

At Beginning of Exercise

At End of Exercise

What are its contents?

What it its initial color?

What is its final color?

Benedict’s test color

What are its final contents?

Dialysis Tubing

Water mixed with glucose

Almost colorless

Purple

Water, glucose and color

Beaker Water

Water mixed with a food color

Purple

Purple

Yellow precipitate

Water, glucose and color

Theanimal and plant cells are different and have distinct structures.For example, the plant cells contain chloroplasts, yet the animalcells do not contain chloroplasts. Moreover, the shape of the cellsis different, as well. This paper investigates the assumption thatthe prokaryotes cells would be successful in adverse conditions incontrast to eukaryotes. The paper assumes that the reason forProkaryotes’ success is because they are archaebacteria andeubacteria. As such, the prokaryote cells have a small surface areamaking them able to survive under such harsh conditions.

TheTransmission Electron microscope would be the ideal choice to view

Exercise1

  1. The two cells have different shapes the plant cell has a regular fixed form, and the animal cell has an irregular round shape

2. Listthe specificcellpart thateach cell type possesses to:

Prokaryote

Eukaryote

Escape from hazardous conditions?

Cilia or Flagella

Flagella

Regulate water content?

Vacuole

Vacuole

Store food?

Vacuole

Vacuole

Reproduce?

Binary fission

Nucleus or Sexually

Questions

  1. Prokaryote

  2. Prokaryotes would be more successful in extreme conditions than Eukaryotes. It is because the prokaryotes are archaebacteria and eubacteria. They have many group divisions such as extreme methanogens, thermophiles, and halophiles. They live in boiling water and sulphur springs. Similarly, the structure of their cell wall is not normal it is ether linkage, instead of the ester linkage.

  3. The Transmission Electron microscope would be the ideal choice to view bacteria.

  4. Amoeba is present in marine habitats and freshwater habitats. They are predators, and they survive on smaller protists.

  5. Since Cyanobacteria are producers, they are beneficial as they manufacture a considerable part of the atmospheric oxygen gas on Earth, and they are at the center of most of the marine food chains. However, some amoeba species cause diseases in humans. For example, such amoeba cause diseases such as amoebic dysentery.

Exercise2.

Questions

  1. Animal Cell

  2. The animal cell would be more successful in extreme habitats than the plant cells because they are prokaryote cells, such as bacteria in ocean walls or floors, ice, where they feed on chemicals and thermal vents, and in hot springs. It is because the animal cells have a small volume ratio that ensures molecules and nutrients cross the membrane easily.

C.

Table1:ComparisonofStructureandFunction:AnimalandPlantCells

Animal Cells

Plant Cells

Differences:

Cell membrane only

Cell wall and cell membrane

Microtubules instead of chloroplasts

Chloroplast because they manufacture their food

Lysosome

Thylakoid membranes

Celia is present

Celia is very rare in plant cells

Has small vacuoles (smaller than those of a plant cell)

A large central vacuole that takes 90% of the plant cell.

Irregular shape (round)

Regular (fixed shape)

Similarities:

They both have nucleus

Have Mitochondria

Both cells have Vacuoles or contractile in the animal cells

They animal and plant cells have Golgi apparatus

They also have Ribosomes

Exercise3

a)Liquid (water)

b)The liquids have a higher diffusion rate than the solids becausethe molecules of liquids are far from one another compared to thesolids. The rate of bombardment between the molecules of water ishigh in water compared to the rate of molecule bombardment inGelatin. The distant location of molecules in liquids forms a largerspace of movement than the packed area of a solid or semi-solid.

Thehypotheses were supported because the rate in which diffusionoccurred in the liquid (water) was faster than the rate of diffusionin gelatin.

Therate of diffusion can be increased through increasing the temperatureof a substance or through using food color, which has a very highconcentration. The rate of diffusion is reduced through reducing thetemperature level and using a solution, which has a lowconcentration.

Asper Sadava et al(2007) thediffusion rate can be tested in two separate experiments where oneexperiment is conducted in higher temperature with a higherconcentration while the other experiment conducted in a place withlower temperatures and lower concentration of the food color.

Theexercise represents passive transport because there is no use ofenergy to transport substances from one point to another. Theparticles moved from one place through diffusion.

Monitoringthe exercise is important because it enables the individual carryingout the experiment to see the rate of diffusion and identify when itis quick and when it is slow (Alcamo1997).

Agraphic representation that is in intervals will be the best methodto enable the individual carrying out the experiment to know the timewhen the diffusion was at the maximum and when it was at a minimum. That is why the experiment was recorded at intervals of 15 minutes.

mate results

My results

Rate of diffusion

Gelatin

3.3

2.95

water

48

45

Theresults were almost similar with a difference of few units. Thealmost similar results were realized because the experiments wereconducted from a similar place with same factors and using similarsubstances.

Exercise4

a)

Testsubstances are materials that are used to measure or indicate thepresence of properties in the solution. The test substances in thisexperiment are the Benedict’s solution.

b)

Thecolor change occurred because the water was mixed with the chemicalsto change its color. The color change shows that diffusion has takenplace.

c)

Thecolor from the jar entered into the dialysis bag. The color change inthe dialysis bag indicates that diffusion had taken place. The colormoved from the glass jar to the dialysis bag through diffusion.

d)

TheBenedict’s reagent tests the presence of starch in a solution orsubstance. The water in the jar indicates presence of starch when itis tested by the Benedict’s solution.

e)

Waterdid not diffuse to the membrane bag because the solution in themembrane bag was of higher concentration than the solution in a jar.Movement of molecules occurs from high concentrated area to a lowconcentrated area through a semi-permeable membrane. The color movedinto the membrane because it was in a high concentration in the jar.

Thehypothesis was supported by the experiment because all the resultsshowed the intended expectations. The dialysis membrane did not allowwater to go in, but it allowed glucose to come out and mix with waterin the jar. The plasma membrane has a layer with lipids that performsselective transport of substances in and out of the cell.

Theexercise demonstrates active transport of materials in the cell. Thecell requires active transport to get substances in and out.

Accordingto Srivastava,P. K. (2005), activetransport is necessary for the cell to get required components forits activities. Without transport of substances, there will be noexchange of fluids, gases or waste products from the cell and thebody in general. The membrane performs a regulatory role of whatsubstances that get into and out of the cell to enable the cellconduct its operations efficiently.

WorkCited

Alcamo,I. Edward (1997). &quotChapter 2–5: Passive transport&quot.Biologycoloring workbook.Illustrations by John Bergdahl. New York: Random House. pp.&nbsp24–25.

Sadava,David H. Craig Heller, Gordon H. Orians, William K. Purves, David M.Hillis (2007). &quotWhat are the passive processes of membranetransport?&quot. Life&nbsp:the science of biology(8th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. pp.&nbsp105–110.

Srivastava,P. K. (2005). Elementarybiophysics&nbsp: an introduction.Harrow: Alpha Science Internat. pp.&nbsp140–148.