Crimeprevention is defined as the set of techniques and strategies thatcan be imposed by individuals, communities, business, non-governmentorganizations or NGOs and the government itself in order to assessdifferent environmental, social and economic factors that canincrease the risks and likelihood of a crime or violence as well asdisorder and victimization to happen. There are different methods andapproaches in crime prevention depending in the focus ofintercession, the kinds of delivered activities, the theory behindthe said activities are designed in order to achieve the desiredoutcome, and the applied mechanisms (Australian Institute ofCriminology, 2012).
Situationalcrime prevention is one of the modern types of crime prevention wherethe methods used give focus on the preventive measures on how toreduce the crime opportunities. This type of crime prevention mainlyfocuses on the criminal setting (Willison, 2006). Situational CrimePrevention differs from most criminology because it starts with thestudy of the conditions that permit various types of crimes tohappen. Primarily its aim is to prevent the occurrences of crimesrather than the implementation of offenses and punishments to thosethat commit crime (Clark, 1997).
TheNew Yorkshire Police (2014) stated ten principles of crimeprevention. One principle is through securing or removing possibletargets that offenders may want to damage or steal. Another principleis the removal of the means to commit the crime, making things lessof value to the criminal, accessing controls, making sure thatcriminals would be visible if they decided to do a crime throughsurveillance, designing a house, building or a town withconsideration of reducing crime opportunities, setting rules,increasing the probability of a criminal to be arrested, and themethods to divert the possible criminals and offenders to commitcrimes.
Crimeprevention and the Criminal Justice System have the same purpose: itis to lessen the costs of human and materials of crime as well as thelessening of the crimes’ impacts to the social and economicdevelopment of nations. They also have the aim to form standards andnorms that can be followed by people in a nation or people around theworld (Encyclopedia of Nations, 2014). The relationship between crimeprevention and criminal justice system is that the crime preventioninvolves the prevention of a crime before it can be committed in thefirst place rather than just implementing punishments when they arecommitted. The criminal justice system’s role on the other handfocuses more in the detection and punishment of offenses and crimesthat have already been done (Lea, 2007).
Criminaljustice system may have overlapping ideals with crime preventionbecause it can implement things that may be related to the crimes’preventive measures which is the primary purpose of crime prevention.However, the two systems can work hand in hand since they have thesame goal of ensuring security to the people as well as givingdiscipline to all the people so that they can avoid doing criminalacts.
Governmentand other policy making bodies can use both the crime preventionsystem as well as criminal justice system in making effectivepolicies in order to secure the safety of the general public. If wecan use them both properly then we can be successful in designingsafety strategies for the public starting from the implementation ofspecific responses to the usual problems regarding public safety upto the proposal of insights and recommendations where the localgovernment can cooperate and work with the police system in resolvingthe problems and conflicts regarding public safety (Plant and Scott,2009).
TheUnited Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is one institutionthat has crime prevention programs. UNODC was made in order to seekrational and efficient responses to various problems like threatenthe public safety as well as to respond to things that hinder thedevelopment of the societies socially, politically and economicallyworldwide. The United Nations got alarmed by the increasingoccurrences of highly organized and transnational crimes that arehappening globally. These crimes have been causing drastic changes tothe lives of people in societies and states. The UNODC were able todevelop projects and techniques and were also able to provideassistance to the subjects that are related to crimes as well asimplementing trainings, consultations, giving supplies and resourcesto non-government organizations and the production of manuals,journals and books regarding crime preventions (UNODC, 2014).
Anotherinstitution is the Commission on and CriminalJustice or also known as CCPCJ. The commission was established to actas the primary body to make policies in United Nations that willaddress the fields of crime prevention as well as criminal justice.The commission also aims to improve global actions with the aim ofstopping national and international crimes and the insurance of afair administration when it comes to the system of criminal justice.CCPCJ also has the responsibility to coordinate with other agenciesof the United Nations that have related mandates to crime preventionand criminal justice like the Security Council, UNOD, etc (UNODC,2014). However, the best way to prevent crimes starts within us. Ifwe know and if we can distinguish the right from wrong, then we wouldhave no crimes to solve and we can live in harmony with one another.
Australian Institute of Criminology. (2012, December 13). Crime prevention approaches, theory and mechanisms. Retrieved from Australian Government: http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/rpp/100-120/rpp120/07_approaches.html
Clark, R. (1997). Situational Successful Case Studies, 2nd Edition. New York: Harrow and Heston.
Encyclopedia of the Nations. (2014). Social and Humanitarian Assistance – Crime prevention and criminal justice. Retrieved from http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/United-Nations/Social-and-Humanitarian-Assistance-CRIME-PREVENTION-AND-CRIMINAL-JUSTICE.html
Lea, J. (2007). Crime Prevention and Community Safety. Retrieved from http://www.bunker8.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/cjs/269010.htm
North Yorkshire Police. (2014, February 20). 10 principles of crime prevention. Retrieved from North Yorkshire Police: http://www.northyorkshire.police.uk/
Plant B. and Scott M. (2009). Effective Policing and . Washington DC.
UNODC. (2014). CCPCJ. Retrieved from UNODC: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/commissions/CCPCJ/
UNODC. (2014). Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from UNODC: http://www.unodc.org/lpo-brazil/en/crime/index.html
Willison, R. (2006). Understanding the perpetration of employee computer crime in the organisational context. Information and Organisation, 304-324.