Erikson`s 8 stages of Psychosocial Development

ERIKSON`S 8 STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 5

Erikson`s8 stages of Psychosocial Development

Erikson`s8 stages of Psychosocial Development

Scholarsand researchers alike have always been intrigued by the process ofgrowth and development of an individual from infancy to adulthood. Ithas well been acknowledged that this process involves somefundamental changes in every facet of an individual’s lifeincluding the physical, emotional, psychological and social aspects.It goes without saying that these facets are interlinked. While thereis no distinctive difference or timeframe within which changes occur,it is evident that the changes in an individual’s life arecontinuous. This is the notion that is espoused in Erik Erikson’s 8Stages of Psychosocial Development.

Erikson’stheory comes up with an explanation of the eight stages that anindividual who is growing in a healthy manner has to pass throughfrom his infancy to his late adulthood. It aimed at exhibiting thatthe psychosocial development of an individual results from theinterconnection between socio-cultural and historical context,individual psyche and the growing biological organism (Newman&ampNewman, 2005).Of particular note is the fact that Erikson opined that the processof socialization is made up of eight phases, which he formulated viaexpansive experience in psychotherapy including wide-rangingexperience with adolescents and children from varied social classes(Newman&ampNewman, 2009).Every stage, according to Erikson, is seen as a psychosocial crisisthat emanates and demands to be resolved prior to the satisfactorynegotiation of the next stage. The conception of these stagesresembles an architectural technique, where the satisfactory learningand resolution of every crisis would be necessary for the child tohave the capacity to manage the next, as well as subsequent one in asatisfactory manner.

Thefirst stage in Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development isinfancy which comes from the time of birth to the age of two.Characterized by mistrust versus trust Hope, this stage revolves around the fundamental needs of an infantbeing attained by his or her parents. It is noted that theinteractions between the infant and his parents or primary caregiversallows for the development of trust or mistrust. Trust, in this case,is seen as an essential truthfulness pertaining to others and a basicsense for a person’s own trustworthiness. At infancy, a child isentirely dependent on his or her parents or caregivers especially themother comfort and sustenance (Newman&ampNewman, 2009).The relative comprehension of the society and the world at large theinfant emanates from the parents and the varied interactions thatthey have had with the kid. In instances where the kid is exposed toregularity, consistency, dependable affection and warmth by theprimary caregivers, his or her perception of the world would be oneof trust. On the contrary, in instances where the parents are unableto offer a secure environment or meet the fundamental needs of theinfant, the child will develop a sense of mistrust, which wouldessentially result in feelings of suspicion, lack of confidence,frustration and even withdrawal. Erikson states that a fundamentaldevelopmental task in infancy would involve learning or determiningwhether or not the primary caregivers are able to satisfy the basicneeds of the child in a consistent and regular manner (Newman&ampNewman, 2005).As much as it is undesirable to be neglected or even abused in one’sinfancy, it is well noted that having an experience with mistrustwould enable an individual to comprehend the things that constitutedangerous and risky situations in one’s life.

References

Newman,B. M., &amp Newman, P. R. (2005).&nbspDevelopmentthrough life: A psychosocial approach. Belmont,Calif: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Newman,B. M., &amp Newman, P. R. (2009).&nbspDevelopmentthrough life: A psychosocial approach. Australia:Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

ErikErikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development comes up with anexplanation of the eight stages that an individual who is growing ina healthy manner has to pass through from his infancy to his lateadulthood. It aimed at exhibiting that the psychosocial developmentof an individual results from the interconnection betweensocio-cultural and historical context, individual psyche and thegrowing biological organism. Every stage, according to Erikson, isseen as a psychosocial crisis that emanates and demands to beresolved prior to the satisfactory negotiation of the next stage. Thesatisfactory learning and resolution of every crisis would benecessary for the child to have the capacity to manage the next, aswell as subsequent one in a satisfactory manner.

Thefirst stage in Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development isinfancy which comes from the time of birth to the age of two.Characterized by mistrust versus trust Hope, this stage revolves around the fundamental needs of an infantbeing attained by his or her parents. It is noted that theinteractions between the infant and his parents or primary caregiversallows for the development of trust or mistrust. In instances wherethe kid is exposed to regularity, consistency, dependable affectionand warmth by the primary caregivers, his or her perception of theworld would be one of trust. On the contrary, in instances where theparents are unable to offer a secure environment or meet thefundamental needs of the infant, the child will develop a sense ofmistrust, which would essentially result in feelings of suspicion,lack of confidence, frustration and even withdrawal. As much as it isundesirable to be neglected or even abused in one’s infancy, it iswell noted that having an experience with mistrust would enable anindividual to comprehend the things that constitute dangerous andrisky situations in one’s life.