Gen College Biology

13

GEN COLLEGE BIOLOGY

Question 1

Lesson plan

Topic: Photosynthesis

Objectives

The novice will be in a placeto understand the process of photosynthesis and the moleculesresponsible for the process.

The learner will understandthe essence of photosynthesis to life.

The significant idea forphotosynthesis

Conceptual question

What are the main componentsof photosynthesis?

How the light energy absorbedand what is its work in photosynthesis?

The overall components forphotosynthesis are water and carbon dioxide, which produce sugarsresponsible for storing chemical energy. The third component issunlight, which is absorbed by chlorophyll and the responsibleorganelles for the process are chloroplasts.

How to develop a more complexcomprehension of the topic

The learner will compare theprocess of photosynthesis with the real life scenarios,example-comparing photosynthesis with baking bread.

Evaluation

The learner gives descriptionsof essential features in photosynthesis such as stomata, carbondioxide, water, energy and sunlight.

Background information

Photosynthesis is a processthat plants and algae convert radiant energy to chemical energy.Plants use their leaves to absorb the light from the sun. The greencoloring matter in the plant (chlorophyll) absorbs light thatcombines with water and carbon dioxide in a number of reactions toform sugars. The reaction releases oxygen back to the environment(Stryer, 1995).

Question 2

Cellularrespiration

Cellularrespiration takes place in the organism cells it occurs to convertbiochemical energy to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and in the sametime release waste products to the surroundings. During cellularrespiration, the cell breaks large molecules to form small moleculesthe weak bonds in the cells break down to form stronger bonds thatare essential in the cell activities. Cellular respiration is anexothermic redox reaction because it produces heat to thesurrounding. Although the reaction is combustion it does not resembleother combustion reactions because it follows many steps. Cellularrespiration is very crucial in the cell because it encouragesoxidation of cells to provide an avenue for producing ATP necessaryfor transportation (Stryer, 1995).

Chloroplasts

Thechloroplasts are found mainly in the leaves of the plant because theyare responsible in providing food to the plant. They are only presentin a plant cell and sometimes in protists. The chloroplasts work inconverting the radiant energy to sugars or glucose that is used inthe plant. During the process of food generation the plant utilizescarbon dioxide, sunlight and water to make energy and oxygen. Thechloroplast has a stroma, which is the inner part where all thereactions occur the outer part of the chloroplast has a thylakoidstack that contains chlorophyll molecules that absorb sunlight.

Question 3

Mitosis and meiosis areprocesses that occur during cell division and reproduction. Mitosiscell division creates two genetically daughters that are identicaland originate from a single parent mother. Meiosis is a cell divisionmethod where there is cell fission in the nucleus that gives birth tofour gametes each cell produced has half the chromosome numbercompared to the original cell. Mitosis process is used by thesingle-celled organisms and in growth of fibers, tissues andmembranes. Meiosis mainly occurs in sexual reproduction whereby thesperm and the egg combine to form offspring that is geneticallydifferent. Both processes have various distinctions and similaritiesthe differences include: mitosis takes place with the cells, whichconstitute the body while meiosis occurs within the gametes. Inmitosis, one single division gives rise to two meiosis daughter cellswhere two divisions result to four products. The mitotic mother canbe either haploid or diploid while meiotic mother cell is onlydiploid. Number of chromosomes in mitosis remains the same while inmeiosis the products have half the number of chromosomes.

The similarities include: bothmitosis and meiosis are forms of cell division the only involvedparty is one cell that makes multiple cells. Both methods allowreplication, where mitosis leads to cell replication and meiosisleads to organism replication. It is surprising that cell division isvery crucial in the growth of an organism and reproduction of otherorganisms.

Question 4

Hudson and Collins in thearticle, look at how to derive HeLa cell from Lacks without herbenefiting from the exercise. The HeLa cells have played an importantrole in the medical researches in relation to the cancer cells andother cells that cause disease. The family members are among thepeople who suffer when one of their family members has contracted adisease. The family members must have access to the use of HeLa cellsand benefit from the researches. The two researchers have recommendedthe National Institute of Health have plans that help the people whoproduce the HeLa cells.

Landry et al. (2013) publishedthe journal in respect to the HeLa line. The molecular genetics`interpretation design is well detailed in this publication to informpeople the characteristics of the cell line. The researchersconducted experiments using the DNA and the RNA of the cells and thegene expression. The analysis showed that there are many pathwaysinvolved in repairing the DNA and forming new human tissues. Thestudy by Landry et al. established the importance of gene expressioncontrol in curing some resistant diseases. According to the researchconducted by classmate I have found that the HeLa cells have beenwell analyzed by many researchers and them, have found the goodnessHeLa cells line.

Question 5

I have found out that HeLacells have existed for more than six decades now, but medicalresearchers mostly know them. The HeLa cell is a line of cellsderived from an individual for a scientific research. The cellsoriginate from two different people and the name emanates from theinitial two letters of the names Henrietta Lacks. The lines of cellsare useful in studying the effects of developing diseases andmedication, and they form a major part of medicine in the presentworld. The science of using the cells in medical research has led toa number of issues on the way that HeLa cells were taken from theowner without her being aware.

I have learned that the poliovaccine was formed through the use of HeLa cells. The cells did notsuffer the polio disease when the scientists induced it to them.These were the first cells in history to be cloned and used in thestudies of cancer and other deadly diseases. It is surprising thatHeLa cells have been used in testing the parvo virus and how itinfects humans. The HeLa cells use has enabled the world to developnew methods of curing diseases and creating vaccines necessary forcontrolling diseases like Polio (Hudson &amp Collins, 2013)

Question 6

Mendelwas an Austrian monk who counted the number of offspring crossesthrough conducting pea plant crosses. His experiment started withusing homozygous genes the parent crosses were named the F1generation and the resultant products from the F1 generation werenamed the F2 generation. He used peas because they exist in differenttypes, and they grow quickly. He controlled how the plants could mateand which plant could mate with the other. Mendel predicted thatmating white flowers with purple flowers would result to a differentphenotype. He found out that the gene of the white flower existed intwo types both white and purple. Each version of the genes in thewhite flower (alleles) was present in the F2 generation. Theoffspring inherits the genes from both parents. He also found outthat there is a dominant gene over the other, and the features of thedominant gene have a higher advantage than the other gene.

Celldivision

Celldivision occurs through a cell dividing to give rise to two or moredaughter cells. Cell division gives rise to new products or resultsto growth of an organism. There are two cell division varieties thatare mitosis and meiosis. In mitosis, the cell divides into twoidentical daughters and in meiosis the cell produces four gametes.Cell division is critical to multicultural organisms because it helpsthem to replace the worn out cells. Cell division has a limit whereit stops and in humans it occurs about 52 times, and a cell becomessenescent.

GeneExpression and Biotechnology

Companiessuch as Monsanto and Bayer CropScience are researching the productionof genetically engineered agricultural crops (GMO`s) that will resistpest infestations, yield a greater quantity or have highernutritional value.

Question7

Science has resulted in no newmethods of generating products that are new and resistant to climaticchanges through genetically engineering crops and animals. Aparticular condition is introduced to an organism`s DNA throughengineering techniques. The change of DNA appears in a gradual wayand gives rise to a new type of crop or animal. The organismproduction rate becomes high because some of the factors affectingcrops or animals at the area are hindered. The genetically modifiedcrops presence in the world has attracted very many concerns from thehealth specialists and most governments. Most countries have bannedgenetically modified organisms. Although there is a heated debate onthe genetically modified organisms, the organisms have some pros. Theorganisms are pest resistant they have a high rate of herbicidetolerance they are resistant to diseases, cold tolerance and droughtresistance. They can play a significant role in nutrition to bringsanity to countries suffering from the vice of malnutrition. Amid thepros there are cons that can cause serious problems to the worldbecause the genetically modified organisms poses features that aredifferent from other organisms. There are high possibilities of theorganisms causing severe changes to other organisms. According to theUnited States of America`s study, the genetically modified organismscaused serious harm to other organisms. The researchers haveindicated that there is a controversy in implementing geneticallymodified organisms (Rifkin, 1999).

Question 8

The genetically modifiedorganisms existence in the world is one of the biggest mistakesbecause of the dangers that the plants pose to the world. Most of thegenetically modified organisms are plants, and the plants are themost crucial components of life. Plants produce oxygen that isessential to people and other animals. There are dangers of thegenetically modified crops taking over the world. If the worldaccepts the genetically modified organisms to precede over thenatural plants then the world will face a great problem in thefuture. Although many say that the genetically modified crops takelesser time to mature these same crops pose threats to othernaturally growing crops. The risks will result to destruction of allthe native or indigenous crops in the world. Research conductedshowed that there are diseases that arise from over consumption ofgenetically modified food. I strongly disagree with the emergence ofthe genetically modified organisms (Raeburn, 1996).

Thank you for sharing my viewsand be vigilant and educate those people who do not know about thegenetically modified organisms and explain to them their dangers.

Thank you for reading myopinions, although you did not agree I know someday you will beconvinced that genetically modified organisms are dangerous and needto be abolished.

Question 9

Genetic engineering has becomea significant discussion in the world, and it has greatly affectedhumankind both positively and negatively. The scientists have a dreamof taking the world into the next level through geneticallyengineering programs to plants and animals. The genetically modifiedcrops have increased the rate of food production in the world. Mostcompanies that use genetically modified food brought their productsto the market to curb the problem of hunger. The presence of theproducts has influenced food production positively.

Economically, the geneticallymodified crops have led to the growth of the economy, in the UnitedStates the production of genetically modified crops consisted 68% ofthe world grown crops. The products brought profits to the farmers,and they competed with other farmers in getting the market.Genetically modified food has affected the market through increasingthe number of sales in the market. The genetically modified crops arelabeled to differentiate them from other products because not allpeople in the world that use the products. The genetically modifiedcrops have impacted on the environment because some of the crops aredrought resistant, and they can grow during a drought season. Theenvironment that used to be dry has now changed to become greenbecause of the drought resistant crops (Montgomery &amp Sivramiah,1999)

Question10

Controlof Gene Expression

Controlof gene expression can be done in a number of ways, the first way isthrough managing the process in which the RNA is spliced. The phraseonly occurs if the RNA carrying messenger survives long enough. TheRNA molecule is stable only when protected from any form ofdegradation. In the eukaryotic cell stabilization of RNA is conductedthrough post-transcriptional modification. The other way ofcontrolling gene expression is through selecting the mRNA present inthe cytoplasm to be translated to ribosomes. Protein inhibition isamong the common ways of overriding a normal gene expression control(Spadaro et al. 2012).

Caspid

Caspidis a protein element that is found in a virus. It is made throughseveral oligomeric subunits called prometers that are made up ofproteins. The capsid is used to enclose the genetic materials of thevirus. The classification of the caspids is done in relation to theirstructures, and most viruses have helical or icosahedral structurecaspids. Most of the viruses are well protected by the lipids thatform on the outer part of the virus cells. The caspid gives virusesthe high resistivity level to medicine, and they help them to stay inhazardous places. When the viral infected cell replicated the caspidstarts to form and during assembly of the products in the cell theDNA or RNA comes to the caspid and this process makes the functioningof vaccines a possibility (Branden &amp Tooze 1991).

References

Branden, C.and Tooze,J.(1991). Introductionto Protein Structure.New York: Garland. Chapter14 – Mendel and the Gene Idea Retrievedfrom http://www.coursenotes.org/Biology/Outlines/Chapter_14_Mendel_and_the_Gene_Idea

Hudson, K.L., Collins, F.S.(2013) Biospecimenpolicy: Family matters.Nature journal.Retrieved from&nbsphttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v500/n7461/full/500141a.html

Landry, J., Pyl, P.T., Aiyar,R.S., Pau, G., etal ( 2013 Aug) Thegenomic and transcriptomic landscape of a HeLa cell line.&nbspJournalof Genes, Genomes and Genetics. Retrieved fromhttp://www.g3journal.org/content/3/8/1213.full

Montgomery J. &amp Sivramiah,F. (1999) Biotechnology, Biosafety, and Biodiversity: Scientific andEthical Issues for Sustainable Development. Science Publishers, Inc..

Raeburn, P. (1996), The LastHarvest: The Genetic Gamble That Threatens to Destroy AmericanAgriculture. University of Nebraska.

Rifkin, J. (1999), The BiotechCentury: Harnessing the Gene and Remaking the World.

Rissler, J. and Mellon, M.(1996) The Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops MIT Press.

Stryer, Lubert (1995).Biochemistry(fourth ed.). New York – Basingstoke: W. H. Freeman and Company.

SpadaroD, TapiaR, PulimenoP, CitiS. (2012)Thecontrol of gene expression and cell proliferation by the epithelialapical junctional complex. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928510