14

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Conservationof Momentum

Conservationof Momentum

Sectionone: Experiment and observations

Objectivesof the experiment

Thefundamental aim of this research is to determine the nature ofinelastic collisions. Inelastic collisions can be the key thingslearning the conservation of energy, kinetic energy and momentum. Ininelastic collisions, the two objects stick together, and thesystem`s kinetic energy is not conserved. The study will determinethe momentum of the collision using different masses to see whethermass of the object affects the conservation of energy.

Collusionoccurs when two or more bodies exert pressure to one another when inmovement. Some of the energy from the inelastic collision isconverted to another form of energies such as sound and heat.

Theequipments used

Paper

Pen

 Data table 1: Launched sleds for 210 g Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Trial 6 Trial 7 Trial 8 Trial 9 Trial 10 Average Sled 1 0.227112 0.232179 0.229583 0.228731 0.225504 0.233183 0.231721 0.233482 0.231797 0.49559 Sled 2 0.392325 0.396779 0.395088 0.393783 0.391186 0.399782 0.396981 0.398483 0.397483 0.661582 Sled3 0.484283 0.488279 0.487183 0.485526 0.483282 0.492383 0.488813 0.49021 0.489583 2.78962 Sled 4 0.650322 0.653408 0.653382 0.651183 0.649482 0.659594 0.654683 0.655811 0.655891 3.27148 Average 0.438511 0.442661 0.441309 0.439806 0.437364 0.446236 0.44305 0.444497 0.443689 1.804568 0.406128
 Data table 2: Combined sleds for 210 g Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Trial 6 Trial 7 Trial 8 Trial 9 Trial 10 Average Sled 5 2.35188 2.35478 2.43868 2.39108 2.35472 2.35508 2.34818 2.36931 2.37302 2.35418 Sled 6 2.71393 2.72518 2.82058 2.76618 2.72588 2.72623 2.71592 2.74228 2.74162 2.72242 Sled7 2.94749 2.95191 3.05378 2.99533 2.953 2.95388 2.94129 2.97118 2.97221 2.94728 Sled 8 3.31329 3.33159 3.44349 3.37688 3.33138 3.33358 3.317 3.35341 3.34698 3.32229 Average 2.831648 3.002893 2.939133 2.882368 2.841245 2.842193 2.830598 2.859045 2.858458 2.836543 2.611284
 Data table 3: Launched sleds for 310 g Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Trial 6 Trial 7 Trial 8 Trial 9 Trial 10 Average Sled 1 0.227112 0.232179 0.229583 0.228731 0.225504 0.233183 0.231721 0.233482 0.231797 0.49559 Sled 2 0.392325 0.396779 0.395088 0.393783 0.391186 0.399782 0.396981 0.398483 0.397483 0.661582 Sled3 0.484283 0.488279 0.487183 0.485526 0.483282 0.492383 0.488813 0.49021 0.489583 2.78962 Sled 4 0.650322 0.653408 0.653382 0.651183 0.649482 0.659594 0.654683 0.655811 0.655891 3.27148 Average 0.438511 0.442661 0.441309 0.439806 0.437364 0.446236 0.44305 0.444497 0.443689 1.804568 0.578169
 Data table 4: combined sleds for 310 g Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Trial 6 Trial 7 Trial 8 Trial 9 Trial 10 Average Sled 5 2.81338 2.86248 2.87752 2.87088 2.84768 2.89969 2.86788 2.84452 2.80978 3.56938 Sled 6 3.29468 3.35128 3.37368 3.35963 3.33418 3.39368 3.35801 3.33198 3.29418 4.06558 Sled7 3.59008 3.6533 3.68021 3.66108 3.63408 3.69849 3.6609 3.63323 3.59371 Sled 8 4.08672 4.15639 4.20611 4.16208 4.13108 4.20451 4.16488 4.1346 4.0923 Average 3.446215 3.505863 3.53438 3.513418 3.486755 3.549093 3.512918 3.486083 3.447493 3.81748 3.52997

Section2: Analysis

Calculations

Theinformation gathered is the backbone of the calculations in thisreport. The calculations will mainly be in relation to the law ofconservation of energy. The information represented is arrayed in thesleds form, and as per the objects` mass used in the experiment. Thefirst object had a mass of 210g, and the other object had 310 g.

Themomentum of a body is determined by the mass of the object and thevelocity in which the object is moving. Calculating the momentum ofthe single sled

Momentumcan be represented by letter p

Whereby

p= mv m=mass and v = velocity

Inthis experiment, there is no velocity, but there is time taken andthe distance (Length= 10cm). The time that will be used will be theaverage time in the single sled when the sled is launched which is0.406128

Thefirst calculation will be for the object with 210g mass.

v= distance divide by time

=10/0.406128

v = 24.62 cm/s

Themomentum of the object will be

p= mv

=210 x 24.62

5170.78

Calculatingthe conservation of momentum

Thedivision of distance by the overall time taken by the combined sledswill calculate the velocity after collision. The time that used inthis calculation is the average time for the combined sleds of 210gmass objects.

Velocity= mass of the first object divided by the combined mass of object oneand object two multiplied by the initial velocity.

v= m1 xu1

m1+m2

=210 /(210+210) x 24.62

=210/420x 24.62

=12.31

Graphs

Thegraphs in this report all represent the time taken to cover adistance of 10 cm for the flags and sleds. The graphs represent theaverages of the combined sled and individual sleds before and aftercollisions. There were eight sleds involves in each activity for the210g and 310g objects.

Figure1: Graph showing the average time taken by in the first four singlesleds of 210g object against the trial

Figure2: Graphshowing the average time taken by in the second four combined sledsof 210g object against the trial

Figure3: Graphshowing the average time taken by in the first single sleds of 310gobject against the trial

Figure4: Graphshowing the average time taken by in the second four combined sledsof 310g object against the trial

Sectionthree: Discussion and conclusions

PostExercise Questions:

A.How did the velocity the single sled compare to the combinedsleds?

Thevelocity of the combined sleds was lower that the velocity of thesingle sled. The single sleds where taking about 0.4 in the sledswith 210 g and about 0.5 in the sled with 310g. The difference in thevelocity resulted from the mass of the sleds. The sleds with greatermass had a lower velocity than the sleds with less mass. According tothe energy conservation laws, the lesser weighing objects conservesmore energy than the higher mass exerting object.

B.Was momentum conserved in the collision?

• What evidence supports your conclusion?

There was conservation ofmomentum in the collision. The conservation occurred because aftercollusion the sleds kept on moving. The momentum from one body wascombined with the momentum from another body. Conservation ofmomentum lies on the movement of the bodies and the force exerted byone body to the other.

C.Was kinetic energy conserved in a collision?

Conservationof kinetic energy was minimal because the two bodies had an inelasticcollision. The kinetic energy of an inelastic collision was conservedbecause there was conservation of momentum.

D.Did the results of this experiment agree with your expectations ornot? Explain.

Theexperiment`s outcomes agreed with the expectations that I had beforeconducting the experiment. Activities and the theory learnt in theclassroom. Momentum, kinetic energy and conservation of energy areamong the key elements in physics. The law of conservation of energyis among the pillars that make physics. The experiment conductedexplains the concept of conservation of energy.

Velocityafter collision

Thecombined sleds after collision will have a smaller velocity than thesingle moving sled before the collision. Collusion depends on twofactors, which are mass and velocity of an object. After thecollision, the objects will take have a different momentum to that ofa single moving sled. The single moving sled moves freely without anydisturbance. The movement of the sled also depends on the massexerted. The sled with 210g mass moves faster than the mass with 310gmass. The velocity is therefore depended on the collusion because itchanges when there

Isa collision.

Momentumafter collision

Themomentum of the combined sleds is similar to the single moving sledbefore collision. The momentum of a body is measured through the massof the body and its velocity. The momentum is high when the velocityof the body is high and when the body has a greater mass. Once theslide collides with the object the momentum changes in relation tothe mass and velocity. This is why when the combined sleds collidetheir momentum becomes equivalent to the momentum of a single movingsled.

Kineticenergy

Kineticenergy of the body is got through the mass and velocity of the movingbodies. The kinetic energy becomes minimal because the two sleds thatcollided resulted to inelastic collusion. In inelastic collusion, the kinetic energy of the bodies becomes very minimal because of achange in velocity. The velocity of the sleds was less compared tothe velocity of a single moving sled. A sled maintains its kineticenergy until when a change has occurred. In this experiment, thechange that took place was the collision.

Acombination that is more massive will result to a slower finalvelocity compared to a less massive sled. The sled with 310g massresults to a slower final velocity because of the impact that iscaused during the collusion. In an inelastic collision, the bodiesthat have a higher mass result to a slower movement after collusion.The collision causes a greater momentum but with a slower velocity.

Influenceof massive objects to velocity

Sincekinetic energy depends on the mass and the velocity of the object,there are high chances of the resultant kinetic energy in of thehigher massive slide to be more than the lower massive sled. Thefinal kinetic energy in the higher massive sled is caused by theresultant mass that is exerted by the sleds.