TheUnited States became more industrialized after the civil war. changed many aspects of American society during theninetieth century. Revolution kicked off in the 1860`s, and this wasa time for rapid growth (Boyer, 2011).

brought numerous significant changes to the American economy andsociety. These changes included urbanization, rising of businessesand Laissez-faire capitalism (Meyer, 2009). The early government wasbased on the theory of Laissez where it was not allowed to interferewith the operation of private industries or the fate of workers.Later in mid-nineteenth century, workers formed unions leading to analternative theory of communism led by Frederick and Karl Marx(Meyer, 2009). In addition, industrialization also allowed UnitedStates to surpass a majority of its rivals including Great Britainand Germany. During the industrialization, immigrants came to U.S tolook for jobs which in turn led to millions of Americans shiftingfrom their rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban citiesfor commercial and industrial jobs (Boyer, 2011). Slums were built tocater for the immigrant`s families. More factories were built, andjob opportunities were booming.

Secondly,the major achievement was the construction of the TranscontinentalRailroad system, and steam engine. This made it possible to transportpeople, goods and anything that they needed to move to places withinthe Union (Meyer, 2009). With a good transport system and increasedjob opportunities, the economy grew at a high rate. Transport gavepeople an opportunity to travel to different places, meet people fromother cities that led to long distance relationships and marriages.The newspapers and mail systems were invented.

Thethird effect was that industrialization led to urbanization thatstimulated booming of big businesses and industries that concentratedworkers and factories together to create wealth for the nation(Boyer, 2011). Cities grew in size. Skyscrapers were constructed withsteel to allow buildings to be built even taller. Modern inventionssuch as telephone, electricity and x-rays were, as a result, ofindustrialization. Doctors were now able to use x-rays to helpexamine patients further on overall health.

Thefive groups that were mostly affected by industrialization includedNative Americans, farmers, immigrants, women and the middle classworkers. To start with, Native Americans were the most disadvantaged.The cities, factories and mills were being constructed, and more landwas needed. The Native Americans were to migrate in order toaccommodate the increasing number of industries. After railroadconstruction, urbanization of the west began, and when the IndianRemoval act was enacted, it further led the Native Americans tostruggle for sovereignty (Boyer, 2011).

Thesecond group that was affect, as a result, of industrialization werefarmers. During this time, agriculture was becoming mechanized andcommercial. This led to the loss of jobs as fewer farmers were needed(Meyer, 2009). Majority of the farmers were forced to migrate tourban areas to assume factory jobs. Further, women were not leftbehind. It was uncommon for women to get jobs outside duties of thehousehold. Women who migrated to cities to seek work in factorieswere discriminated, exploited at workplace and received smaller wagesas compared to men. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, womenrole in industries was gradually being recognized.

Childrenalso suffered, as a result, of industrialization. There was highdemand for labor and families migrated to cities with every ablemember of the family to work. This led to child labor in factories asthey were mistreated, overworked and poorly paid (Boyer, 2011).Further, the industries required the services of the middle classcommonly called “white collar” jobs such as accountants, bankersand managers and this gradually started to emerge towards the end ofthe nineteenth century (Meyer, 2009). More retail shops increased tothis effect, and more families were relieved from the stressfulindustrial life and were able to send their children to schools.


Boyer,P. S. (2011). Theenduring vision: A history of the American people.Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Meyer,D. R., &amp Center for American Places. (2009). Theroots of American industrialization.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.