Introduction to Sociology

Introductionto Sociology


Globalizationrefers to the great interrelationship, interconnectedness andhomogenization of the world societies. The term is associated with a‘global shift’ characterized by increased movement of people,technology, shared economic and political aspects. The term denotesthe widespread, deepening and broadening global society sharingvarious aspects of social, economic and political aspects. However,the idea of globalization is perceived differently by differentindividuals scholars and critics alike. Among them are the skeptics,the transformationalistsand the hyper globalist who perceive today’s globalizationdifferently.

Accordingto hyper globalist, the modern society live in a global world inwhich states are increasingly being subjected to great social,economic and political changes, thereby eroding the significance ofstates and the power of leadership individuals in those states (Held,McGrew, Goldblatt &amp Perraton, 2). The resultant effect is thatstates are becoming implementers of decisions made elsewhere in theglobe. In short, according to hyper globalist, the global societytoday is dictated by unprecedented circumstances beyond the statescontrol those lenders the state weak.

Theskeptics, on the other hand, observe that, refutes the hyperglobalist perspective that the world is dictated by unprecedentedcircumstances. According to skeptics, they are of view that, althoughthere are great changes at international level affecting social,economic and political activities in states, such changes has notweakened the states but rather, strengthened and reinforced thestates powers. In this respects, the skeptics view the effects ofglobalization as a resulting from the operations of individualstates. Transformationalist observe that, globalization reflects theemerging creation of new political, social and economic circumstanceswhich are instrumental in changing individual states, and as such,playing a significant role in transforming the states operations.However, the transformationalists believe that the future ofglobalization is uncertain and that politics has no bearings in anychanges in globalization (Held et al., 3).

Despitethe different approach in which the skeptics, transformationalistsand the hyper-globalist have in regard to globalization, they allacknowledge that globalization is indeed a reality changecontributing to the interconnectedness of the states. Similarly, theyall perceive that globalization is a process that embodies changes inthe social, political and economic frontiers. Globalization iscreating and generating increased social relations, transactions,networks of activities, power influence and interregional flow ofgoods, services and people.

Inaddition, all perceive globalization as intensifying and speedingworldwide interactions and the intensity of interactions in allaspects of world life. However, while the hyper-globalists see thediminishing in states influence at the face if increasedglobalization, both the transformationalists and the skeptics are ofview that, globalization increases the states powers by facilitatingand strengthening the social, political and economic aspects of astate. In this respect, the transformationalists and the skeptics seeglobalization as important in strengthening the capacity of the stateto participate effectively in globalization. While this argument isindeed true, assessing globalization especially in regard topolitical issues where different states political governance aresubjected to external influences, one can justifiably support thehyper-globalist perspective.

Increasedglobalization has indeed led to weakening of states powers statesare subjects to global multinationals, intergovernmental bodies andtreaties that dictate trade transactions, leadership and otherimportant social aspects within the states. In addition, significantchanges taking place on the other parts of the world have had greatinfluence in within other states. As such, globalization is leadingto weakening of states powers both at social, economic and politicalaspects. There, the arguments by the skeptics and thetransformationalists fail to see the impact of increasingly deep andintensified political, social and economic implications ofglobalization. However, in all aspects globalization is creatinggreat changes through interconnectedness and interrelationship intrade, technology, political powers and social life. The underlyingeffects are increased transformational changes across all aspects ofthe societies in the different global states (Held et al., 3).


Socialmovements occur when individuals, groups or organizations want toadopt, undo or resist social change. Social change is associatedwith transformation of culture and institutions of the society overtime. Such social changes may be in political, economic or the sociallife. The term is associated with increased social mobility in thesociety due to unprecedented changes in such aspects as increasedindustrialization and urbanization. As a result of great changes thatoccurred in the 19thcentury, social movements emerged as group actions seeking to changeissues that were accompanied by the changes taking place. Socialmovements are formed by individuals with shared concern and acollective identity. As such, individuals form social movements toaddress a common concern or change the status quo of a given issue.Examples of such movements are the radical and the reform movementsthat arose to demand changes in the economic, social and politicalaspects. The underlying scopes of these movements have beendissatisfaction and a form of expressing their dissent. There arevarious theories that attempt to explain the existence of thesesocial movements and the underlying motivation to cause socialchanges (Staggenborg,123).


Thistheory postulates that, social movements are created by individualswho feel deprived off some resources, services or certain rights.Deprivation theorist observes that, individuals who lack services,goods, or their rights have been neglected are likely to engage insocial movements to demand changes. Although no society can candidlyassert that they are deprived nothing, this theory has a limitationin that all members of society are deprived one thing or the other.As such, the justification of forming a social movement to demandsuch changes whereas some other members of the society lack otherthings is not justifiable.

Resourcemobilization theory

Thetheory emphasizes that social movements are established byindividuals who want to engage in development by pooling resourcestogether. In this respect, individuals form groups to mobilizeresources that are necessary to implement a social change desired.The assumptions of this theory are that, the movement is based on arational basis, resources are important for the strengthen of themovement and that the resources with shape their movement activities(Staggenborg,123).


Accordingto the theory, he observed that, capitalism was the cause of socialproblems experienced in the modern society. He argued that, theowners of means of production were constantly exploiting the workersthereby denying them their right wages. The capitalist was concernedwith the accumulation of profits at the expense of the poor. As such,Marx observed that, due to this inequality, the workers feel deprivedand oppressed this problem would later lead to a revolution forsocial change.

Allthe social change theories indicate that social movements emerge dueto sustained oppression and deprivation. The deprivation theorypostulates that, when individuals are deprived certain goods,services or rights, they feel the urge to form a social movement tofight for their rights this idea of deprivation is common among theother theories of social movements. However, while deprivation ofmaterial resources is the main objective, some social movements areformed to pursue other interests like gender equality, politicalpower, civil rights and social recognition. Resource mobilizationtheory focuses on creating change for its members using their ownresources compared to Deprivation theory and The Marxist theory. Thebasic assumption of resource mobilization theory is that members havethe capacity to create change that they need unlike the othertheories that indicate that social movements are formed byindividuals who are helpless and lacking. However, all these theoriesof social change show the element of deprivation as the driving forcebehind social movement.

Postmodernfeminism compatibility with the radical, liberal, and black feminists

TheGender difference between men and women has been a source of greatconflict between men and women for decades. Throughout history, womenhave been subjected to various forms of oppression, deprivation andexploitation by the society. However, the fight against genderprejudice peaked in the late 20thcentury culminating into feminism movements that sought to addressand set agenda on the social inequality that existed in the society.As a result, different perspectives of feminism have emerged toexplain the nature of feminisms among these perspectives is theliberal, black, radical and the postmodern feminism.

Radicalfeminism observes that, men are responsible for women oppression inparticular, men exploit women through domestic work and deny womentheir chance to participate in leadership position within thesociety. The liberal feminists see women oppressions as a result ofthe social and cultural attitudes prevailing in the society, theylink gender inequalities to various factors in the society. As such,feminists are not a product of a larger system. Liberals thusadvocate for separate measures of addressing gender inequality. Theblack feminist on the other hand, observe that the mainstreamfeminism only seeks to address the issues of middle class white womenliving in developed countries. As such, feminisms cannot be used togeneralize the fight for equality among all women. Thisdissatisfaction led to the emergence of black feminism to focus onthe problems of black women.

Inparticular, black feminisms were inspired by the realization that thegeneral feminisms could not address the issue of racism andoppression of black women. The postmodern feminism theorists observethat, all women do not share the same identity and experience ofgender inequality. In this way, it shares the same argument withblack feminism who refuted the single idea that women oppressioncould be fought under one unified feminisms body. There are salientdifferences in race, economic, class and political among women in theglobal society. Therefore, both the black feminism and the postmodernism feminism theory share same ideology in challenging aunitary basis of fighting women oppression.

Thepostmodernism feminist theory refute the claim that there could be auniversal categorization of ‘women’ on the basis of genderoppression and inequality, and therefore, reject the arguments thatall forms of gender inequality is as a result of race, class orpatriarch aspects in the society gender inequality cannot beexplained using a single approach and therefore there is need toaccept the various standpoints given on the issue of genderinequality. In this case, the postmodern feminism appears to becompatible with other feminisms theories. However, the post modernfeminists


HeldDavid, McGrew Antony, Goldblatt David &amp Perraton. ‘What isglobalization,’ 1999. Retrieved from

StaggenborgSuzanne,SocialMovements,OxfordUniversity Press,2008.