John Graunt`s Contribution to Epidemiology


JohnGraunt`s Contribution to Epidemiology

JohnGraunt`s Contribution to Epidemiology

Epidemiologyrefers to the science that seeks to understand the various patterns,causative agents and the associated effects on the given populationsin terms of health in addition to the living conditions. Epidemiologyis referred as the foundation of the public health since it guidesthe decisions made by policymakers through provision of evidence onpossible and also preventive measure that could be taken to avert forexample disease outbreaks. Epidemiology has enabled clinicalresearchers and public health specialist to easily understand andtackle their subjects through statistical analysis of the collecteddata. The statistics obtained have the ability to enable the publichealth specialist accurately predict the likely hoods of diseaseoutbreaks in a country. If the collected statistics are correctlyinterpreted the country’s health sector stands to gain from them.

Anideal example of an epidemiology specialist that used statistics togive rise to the improved study is John Graunt. The analysis ofmortality rolls as enumerated in the book “Natural and he PoliticalObservation upon the Bills of Mortality acted as a basis for thedevelopment in the field of epidemiology (Merrill, 2010). The bubonicplague onset and spread was tried to be explained by the experts.Though the system did not work in the city of London it acted as afoundation that other experts based their works. Furthermore, he wasrecognized by the Royal Society to a point that he was elected as afellow. Additionally, his works were furthered by anesthesiologistJohn Snow whose work is viewed as key to analysis in epidemiology.

Graunt’sworks in the statistical field to enhance the efficiency inepidemiology started to show fruits Grunt’s analytical works forexample pointed out that more males were dying as compared to females(Merrill, 2010). Similarly, he was able to clearly validate the claimthat more male were also being born in the city. Moreover, throughstatistics he was able to point out the years that infant mortalitywas high. As a result the epidemiologists were able to study andestablish the causative agents of such trends in the society. He wasable to illustrate that population a studies were important with theaim of understanding disease distribution in addition to thedefinition of the causatives. Additionally, through his studies itbecame clear that multifactor etiology exists (Merrill, 2010). Theexperts were able to understand that some of the disease were multirelated especially the chronic diseases.

Theestablishment of definite statistical measures in the field marked anew era. The development of measures such as standardized mortalityrate tables, life table and to cap it all the development ofmathematical models that are based on the epidemic curves allindicate the level of brilliance he set the field on. As a resulttribute has continued to be attributed to him given his commitment toensure that demographic studies were factored in while theepidemiologic studies were being conducted. Moreover, the recognitionof the interrelationship between occurrences of new cases of adisease in relation to the pre existing ones is established andnecessary measure proposed such as quarantine (Merrill, 2010).Finally, the statistical dimension brought about by Grunt has enabledthe classification of disease in a systematic manner internationalmaking the diseases control and prevention easier.

Itis important to acknowledge the great work done by Graunt as one ofthe brilliant development in the epidemiology field as having greatlyshaped the future developments in the field. The statisticalapplications have made disease controls and prevention easier.


Merrill,R. M. (2010).&nbspIntroductionto epidemiology.Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.