Current controversies in Sports Nutrition 9
Reviewof the problem and relevant published literature
Nutritionin sports is a critical area since sports action is largely dependenton the functionality of the body. Body mass and body fats have been ahotly discussed topic in the field of sports. The discussions havebeen dominated by the various ways through which sportsmen and womenreduce body weight, as well as body fats. One of the primaryproposals to deal with body mass, and fat gain that has mostly beenrecommended is the consumption of low carbohydrate foods. However,there are numerous controversies with regard to the ability of lowcarbohydrate foods to reduce body weight and fats.
Low-carbohydratefoods have been the topic of profound scientific and public attentionfor several years. As Western civilization continues to fight withincreasing rates of obesity, in both the grown-up and the youthpopulace, low-carbohydrate diets in different expressions have becomecommon weight loss options (Caballero et al., 2008).
Dietmeans a review of the food taken by all humankind all foods will becategorized as being among the three dietary groups: carbohydratesi.e. foods got from plants and digested to create glucose and othersugars (Simopoulos et al., 2013). There are also proteins, whosesource is both plants and animals, and when digested by the body,they generate amino acids. Amino acids are mostly known forenhancing muscles and tissues. Lastly, there are fats obtainedfrom both plants and animal sources. The customary equilibriumbetween these three diet groups to form a healthy diet was approvedby nutritionists as a fraction of, 12-15% proteins, less than 30%fats and 60-65% carbohydrates (Kreider et al., 2009). It wassimilarly formal insight amongst sports scientists that remarkablelessening in the quantity of carbohydrates consumed by the body wouldcause inability on the side of the body to propel itself in thecourse of sports activity.
Thereis much historical backup for the low-carbohydrate diet as anathletic exercise aid. In ancient Greek, Olympians trained on acontrolled diet restricted to animal flesh. Also, in native NorthAmerica, the warriors that engaged in lacrosse also ate an exclusivemeat diet as they prepared for competition (Chauncey, 2010).
Formany years, Carbohydrates have been associated with energy.Additionally, the central nervous system and the brain, which arealso paramount to the body during sports, require energy retrievedfrom carbohydrate sources (Davies, 2014). If in a given diet theproportion of carbohydrate is 33%, then the diet can be said to be oflow-carbohydrate. Such diets are common in specific athletic dietswhere carbohydrates are slightly reduced, though not eliminated, toattain an express short-term effect (for instance, increasingproteins for a short time in particular muscle building program)(Luca, 2013).
BothAthletes and non-athletes have been maintaining a low carbohydratediet as a means of attaining a quick loss of weight. The dominantphysical rule remains constant regarding weight reduction diets ofany type: regardless on the constitution of diet, if the quantity ofcalories taken is surpassed by the energy generated by the body for aperiod, there have to be a proportional loss of weight (Iacobellis,2009). Low-carbohydrate diets will typically achieve this effect,chiefly in the short term. Via the exclusion of carbohydrate sources,several low-carbohydrate diets contain much as 500 lesser caloriesobtainable for consumption each week (Sears, 2010). The greater lossof weight is achieved via the amplified diuresis, which is thegeneration of urine, since a low-carbohydrate diet will trigger theproduction of glycogen from the muscles of the body and the liver.The exploitation of glycogen, made into glucose, needs water, andwaste products in urine form are the final consequence. After a twoto three weeks’ time, the body will become steady in its currentlow-carbohydrate condition (Suzanne, 2013).
Thereis a relationship between the function of every energy system and theexploitation of carbohydrate stores. In an occasion such as a 31-min(50 km) cycling race or a cross-country ski contest, the amount ofpreferred energy to run from the starting point will be incited bythe anaerobic alactic structure, by means of the readily obtainableATP reserve (Shephard, 2011). As the competition progresses, thecontestant will retrieve energy from the aerobically a sprint finishor steep hill will utilize the anaerobic lactic process.
Thedemands of carbohydrate for particular sports are also considered intraining. A grown-up distance runner exercising at a pace ofseven-minute a mile will roughly burn 920 calories in every hour. Acyclist with comparable characteristics exercising at 16 mph speedwill expect to utilize 680 calories (Dunne & Slater, 2006).Lactate is the byproduct of the energy utilization by the body at thetime of exercise when depletion of oxygen occurs in the consumptionof converted glycogen into adenosine triphosphate, lactate is abyproduct. This contributes to the ineffectiveness and a slothfulperformance (Stone et al., 2010).
Itis critical to realize the long–term welfare and performance of anathlete, he must be committed to replenishing glycogen stores insidethe body via proper carbohydrate consumption after a competition ortraining period. This is because those processes responsible forreabsorb of carbohydrates occur instantly after exercise (Fritz,2013). In training or competition period, complex carbohydratereserves that can be easily utilized are energy gels and barsnevertheless, products that have significant volumes glucose andfructose should be evaded, since they bring about a sugar surge thatdoes not assist in carbohydrate processing into helpful glycogenstored fuels (Coulston & Boushey, 2008).
Theconstraint of carbohydrates, for instance, fruits, grains andvegetables have repercussions for both athletes and non-athletes.These provisions are the best supply for various body`s non-caloricnutritional needs. These include calcium, iron, magnesium, andelements of the B-complex vitamins (Bowden, 2004). Low-carbohydratediet leads to the escalated generation of uric acid, with lastingrepercussions for the healthy working of the kidneys. Lowcarbohydrate foods also are likely to bring the risk of long-run bonemaintenance deficiencies, since calcium is not well made into thebone-building cells. This may cause osteoporosis (Anssi, 2014).
Thelow-carbohydrate diets that have high-fat levels and low-carbohydrateformulation may generate other health issues for the users. High-fatfoods will primarily lead to the amplified generation of low-densitylipoproteins- cholesterol that causes the accumulation of plaque inblood vessels and leads to the impairment of the whole cardiovascularsystem (Bean, 2009).
Asportsperson must proceed with great caution before starting on alow-carbohydrate diet program. However, in a temporary basis, in acautiously managed environment, a sportsperson might attain a weightloss objective through the adjustment of the carbohydrate constituentof the diet (Maughan & Burke, 2008). In most circumstances, theloss of weight can be attained through careful consideration ofoverall caloric consumption, without giving up on nutritional needsor endangering long-term harm to the body (Luca, 2013).
Awell-stated exception to this belief is the technique used by someendurance athletes, mainly marathon runners, to cause amplifiedability to amass carbohydrates. Long mileage runners drawing near acompetition may limit their carbohydrate uptake for a period whilepreserving their training levels (McDonald, 2013). The sportspersonsthen start a practice called "carbo loading," where theyconsume enormous amounts of carbohydrates. The body then stores themin its depleted glycogen reserves (Safran et al., 2012). This is donefor the desired result during competition.
This information was got from extensive research ranging fromhistorical facts, scientific blogs, and books, news from trendingissues in sports and even from famous experimentation.
Forthe purposes of researching for this paper, various strategies wereapplied to ensure that the controversy was extensively covered. Awide range of sources were utilized, which included the internet,books, articles and journals, which were extremely useful puttingtogether the above literature. The use of sports nutrition books fromthe local libraries was also extremely useful in gathering theinformation relating to the discussed topic. The references listclearly indicates all the sources that were utilized in gathering theinformation contained in the paper.
Fromthese sources, the paper’s credibility is guaranteed as having thenecessary facts and explanations to the theory of low carbohydratediets in checking on one`s weight especially among sports people. Forinstance, the history of Greece Olympics and how they maintained alow-carbohydrate diet but insisted on meat and also in the natives ofNorth America who participated in lacrosse equally checked on theircarbohydrate diet as well. Therefore, the idea of low-carbohydratediet among athletes in order to boost their performance in today’ssports becomes a scientific fact. Nonetheless, this dietaryrestriction is only applicable and useful for a short-term course butdangerous in the long-term.
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