is a subsystem in the organizational system which is tasked with theresponsibility of directing other subsystems in the organization.Through management, direction is provided, emphasis is laid onestablishment of a strategy, goals and other policies for the entireorganization. The study of organizational management dates back tothe period of pre-scientific management period (Before, 1900).Earliest evidence of management of workers and behavioral study isprovided by the Chinese and Mesopotamians’ accounts (Rainey, 2010).Another case of early management is a well structured communicationin the Roman Empire. Radical changes were experienced during the 19thcentury which brought about the scientific management (1900-1945).The problem of managing people is a perennial one and thus it callsfor the development of a synthesized structure of knowledge to handleit the resulting effect is the birth of management.
Thefailure of the early management structures led to the revolution thatbrought change in management. It is between 1856 and 1915 that thefirst scientific theory of management was developed (Rainey, 2010).Fredrick Taylor, who was a mechanical engineer in the United States,was the father figure behind the theory. Scientific theory refers tothe process of applying scientific methods and analysis procedures toimprove the functioning of the organization. The theory focuses onthe actual physical units produced by workers in the organization.The theory emphasized use of science in the management of all thetasks and also interaction of the people (Samson, 2011).
is an art that entails getting things done through people. Anexpounded stand on management is the process of planning, organizing,leading and controlling the efforts of the organizational members andusing all the available resources to achieve the organizational goals(Samson, 2011). Additionally, it may refer to the process of groupingtogether organizational materials and the available human resourcegeared towards the maximum utilization of the scarce resource for thebenefit of the organization. The paramount keys in management areefficiency and effectiveness (Rainey, 2010). is amultidimensional concept that comprises the coordination of severalactivities in an organization. It is also persuasive in nature asmanagers are bound to be inspiring to their teams.
Implementationof management calls for the inter-relationship of the variousdisciplines and departments in an organization. being aprocess heavily relies on a proper definition of the variousstructures in its implementation (Samson, 2011). Organizationalstructures are designed in a way to reflect the organizational goalsand objectives. Planning is the principal key factor in managementimplementation. It involves making of decisions on what plan ofaction to be followed having considered all the options available andtheir resulting consequences (Rainey, 2010). Strategic planningencompasses the process of top management establishing both the shortand long term goals. It is through his function that managementimplementation process gets the definite direction.
Forany implementation to be successful, proper action plan should betaken. This involves the clarification of the organizationalsituations at hand and also the commitment level of the variousresources available (Samson, 2011). It is through this function ofplanning that all the organizational members are involved thusachieving the implementation goal of good management. Implementationof management cannot be successful if there are crisis and lack ofcoordination. To eliminate these uncertainties, managementimplementation process should focus on planning (Lau 2005). This willshift the focus to the objectives of the organization and thusincrease organizational effectiveness. All this is geared towardsproper implementation of management.
Anotherway of implementing management efficiently is through craftingvision, mission and objectives. This is achieved through a processcalled strategic management that entail the forming of strategicvision, setting objectives, crafting a strategy and implementing thestrategy crafted (Lau, 2005). A vision statement reflects themanagement’s aspirations for the organization and its associatedbusiness (Samson, 2011). It is chiefly concerned with ‘where theorganization is going’. A well-crafted vision statement willenhance the success of the implementation of management. On the otherhand, a mission statement principally deals with defining who theorganization is and what it does. These two key ingredients ensurethat management remains on track and thus its implementation isachieved fully.
‘Theorganization is viewed as a system and comprises inter-relationshipwith the external environment’ (Lau, 2005). Synergism conceptproposes that the interaction of an organization with other systemsresults to greater effects that when it operates on its own. Theseinteractions with the external environment make the organization facethe environmental dynamism (Rainey, 2010). Contingency theory ofmanagement expounds the concept of contingent running of theorganization. It is principally guided by the fact that many of thechanges that happen to managers today are as a result, of theunforeseeable uncertainties.
Modernworld trends are characterized by digitization of the many activitiesof a business. There is correlation relationship between theorganization and the people through the help of digital platforms(Hinchcliffe, 2012). Information technology has enabled business tohave a competitive edge compared to their rivals. These changes haveaffected the management since some of the infrastructures used in theorganization are obsolete. Organizations are going digital inplatforms such as social media in the wake of keeping up with thecompetition. Digital challenges have been experienced inorganizations with few generation X and Y members (Lau, 2005). Thiscalls for the management to invest in training of their staff as wellhiring new staffs that are well up in digital ways. The effects arecostly to the organization and thus lowers the organizationalprofits.
Technologyis the main source of management challenges as it changesdrastically. For instance, organizational competition has expandedfrom the domestic market to international (Hinchcliffe, 2012).Globalization has largely contributed to this aspect of businessmanagement. Information is shared in all platforms and thus posesdangers of leaking organizational secrets to the competitors. A lotof capital investment is required in this field of management to curbprobable challenge that may emerge. Businesses have invested heavilyin information technology platforms (Bolman, 2013). Onlinetransactions have increased the revenue of businesses and thecustomer base.
Themanagement experiences difficulties concerning the top levelmanagement staffs who want to quit. Most of them complain of the lackof work life balance (Daft 2010). The top most employees of theorganization are faced with the challenge of maintaining workschedules and happy families. There is also the employee turnoverstirred by competitors’ poaching. This is accelerated by the factthat many employees want to have their own start-ups. The externalenvironment also contributes towards this menace.
Outsourcinghas emerged as another challenge to the management of a modern firm.Many organizations opt to contract other manufacturing firms to helpthem in the process of producing products (Bolman, 2013). Thebusiness community has viewed this trend as an emerging issue thatcall for critical analysis. There are various productions outsourcingprocess in an organization. Modern business management and especiallyin the manufacturing sector have been involved in outsourcing ofbusiness services. It has emerged that the cost-benefit analysis inmany cases advocates business outsourcing.
Legislationwhich is new poses another challenge to the management. It is beyondthe management’s control in matters relating to legislation. One ofthe common legislation that affects management is the minimum wage.Minimum wages refer to the least hourly pay to a person. It may alsorefer to the lowest pay per day for those who are paid on a dailybasis, or also the least minimum monthly pay for those who are paidon a monthly basis (Daft, 2010). This matter has been on the debateamong many economists some of whom support it while others oppose. Itis argued that higher minimum wages are likely to raise the livingstandards of the employees. It is also argued that higher minimumwages lower the poverty levels of the workers. On the contrary,raising the minimum wage affect the profitability level of manyorganizations and this poses a danger to the management as well asthe shareholders (Bolman, 2013).
Managerialskills call for a proper action to counter the above experiencedproblems. This leads to Stewardship Hypothesis which is based onagency theory: the separation of ownership and control motivates theowners to incur costs to monitor the activity of the managers (Lau,2005). One of these controls is the hiring of competent managementstaff. The management should also adopt a policy of tapping the beststaff to join their team from the industry. Experienced staff shouldbe motivated to remain in the organization and pass on theirexpertise to future generations (Daft, 2010).
Moreover,clear guidelines should be given to all the employees to avoid casesof confusion and ambiguity in attending to their duties. This willhelp in enhancing proper work program and thus avoid cases ofcollision in responsibilities. Many of the staff who want to leavework complain of lack of work-life balance. To curb this, thereshould be a proper schedule for a work-life balance for all employeesat all levels in the organization (Lau, 2005). should holdgroup discussions with employees to get to know their problems.
Successis witnessed in a system whereby incentives are awarded to theemployees. Vroom Expectancy Theory (1960) lay emphasis on therelationship between effort in terms of performance and the resultingreward. The theory stipulates that there is a force that makes theemployee apply more effort so as to enhance performance therebyresulting into rewards. This theory should be applied in all theorganizations and thus resulting into high performances.
TheSWOT analysis should be carried out before making the decision ofoutsourcing any business practice. This managerial trait should beembraced by all managers so as to critically analyze the industryrequirements (Lau, 2005). There are various reasons why companiesoutsource business processes through third parties. One major reasonis to evade certain costs of production and manufacturing. Regulationby government policies is one of the leading reasons for business tooutsource their services. Companies opt to operate in those countrieswhere the regulation levels are low and would not affect themanufacturing process. The level of government taxation also affectsthe decision of the management to outsource its services. High taxesare unfavorable for business practices and thus will encourageoutsourcing.
Delegationis paramount in managerial duties of running an organization. Thisprinciple is guided by the decentralization aspect of management(Daft, 2010). This will encourage openness and trust among theemployees and the top management. Free flow of communication with nogive specific chain of command should be encouraged within theorganization. This system of management is advantageous becausedifferent people are endowed with different skills. Additionally,there should be a shared control and spirit of co-ownership of thetask being performed (Bolman, 2013). The effects will be highlymotivated employees who have the desire to perform.
Teamplayer spirit and value for others are other traits that managersshould embrace in their day to day running of organizations. Equityat any given level of organization management is a key factor tosuccess. Stacy Adams Equity Theory (1965) states that, there is aninfluence from the feelings as equity and fairness (Bolman, 2013).Employees should be made to feel equal to another through the variousincentive programs adopted. The policy of trust and openness is a keyto promoting equity and fairness at the workplace (Samson, 2011).Employees should be allowed to make complaints in case a problem inthe various systems adopted by the organizational management. Equityis also achieved where employees are encouraged to work as a team topromote cohesion and integration.
Industryknowledge and training is a paramount factor to be considered bymanagement in their running of the organization (Daft, 2010). Thereshould be designed on the job trainings to equip various employeeswith the necessary skills to perform their duties. Managers shouldattend seminars and conferences to have a broader view of the wholeindustry functioning (Lau, 2005). should also invest inresearch and development to remain at a competitive edge compared totheir competitors. IT infrastructures in the organization should beupgraded as per the requirement of the industry. Finally, but not theleast managers should embrace the dynamism of social media in theirrunning of the organization.
ScenarioAnalysis-Manager in 5 Years’ Time
Theorganization of focus is Toys ‘R’ us. It is in the industry ofretailing (toy and baby specialty stores) and operates globally withmore than 1600 stores. The vision of the company is to put joy in thehearts of kids and a smile on the parents’ face. The organizationhas distinct commitments under the ‘R’ slogan. It details theteam, customers, shareholders and community. In five year’s time, Iwould like to hold the position of a social media strategist. Theposition will entail integrating the modern digital platforms withthe old systems of handling management.
Socialmedia in an organization operating in the Twenty-first century is akey function to the success. Businesses have experienced IT dynamismsome getting to the level of almost becoming obsolete (Hinchcliffe,2012). This scenario makes it a noble task to appreciate the changingworld in aspects and especially in edging out the best tactics insocial media. Our organization of study deals with baby productswhich need to be part of the everyday life. To achieve this role,proper social media infrastructure should be laid down.
Toenhance the skills of the managerial role, social media strategistshould have the basics of management study. Proper educationaltraining on management should be undertaken to improve thetheoretical skills. Social media skills are gained from the everydaylife especially when the person involved has a passion for this area(Hinchcliffe, 2012). However, to remain on the top of the industry asa competitive candidate, one needs to take a course in social mediaand also accompany it with a course in Public relations.
Asocial media manager is someone who should have the social skills ofrelating with different people. Communications skill is another areaof specialization that one requires to invest. In contrast, to theformal communication social media strategist uses language accordingto the target audience (Hinchcliffe, 2012). It is, therefore,paramount for an individual to familiarize themselves with thevarious developments in the field of social media communication. Toys‘R’ Us company should have a proper avenue for socialinteraction. As a person in charge of the department, a social mediastrategist should come up with a clearly defined interactionplatform.
Asocial media strategist should posses among others the following:
Informationalcharacter role- this involves the proper dissemination of thenecessary information to the general public (Daft, 2010). One has tobe precise and avoid instances of ambiguity which make cause aninformational gap among the customers. Communications skill is,therefore, paramount. There is also the role of a liaison leader whobridges the information gap between the organization and the industryrequirement (Hinchcliffe, 2012). One is supposed to possess theprofessional ethics. Ethics affects the behavior of a person in anorganization. As it is said human being is a social animal, one mustinteract with people in the day to day activities.
Stepsrequired to strengthen skills and be successful in the dream job areas follow:
Trainingin all aspects of management is a compulsory field to sharpen themanagerial skills (Daft, 2010). Environmental analysis should beconducted to determine the requirement of the position. One is alsobound to set a clear vision in order to strive to achieve the goal(Samson, 2011). Scanning of the industry’s operations is anotherstep towards strengthening the managerial skills. Basic training incommunications is necessary. This entails report writing, publicspeaking and also proper debating skills. There is also a requirementof one being professional in the handling of the task. This can beenhanced through proper certifications from the various professionalbodies.
Anorganization is an open system that has to focus on the eventshappening in their operational environment. Any action of change inthe environment should be interpreted correctly to understand theinter-relationship existing between the organization and theenvironments. The radical changes in technological advancement shouldbe embraced by the organization for it to remain competitive.Investments should be directed towards social media sites which havebecome the norm of the modern world. There is also the importance ofincorporating all the generations in decision making process. Propermanagement implementation calls for proper planning which encompassescrafting of both vision and mission statements. Environmentalscanning is a paramount factor in the determination of the success ofany managerial practice. When properly implemented, it would resultto increased productivity of a given organization.
Bolman,L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2013). Reframingorganizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership.
Daft,R. L. (2010). .Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Hinchcliffe,D., & Kim, P. (2012). Socialbusiness by design: Transformative social media strategies for theconnected company.
Lau,L. K. (2005). Managingbusiness with SAP: Planning, implementation, and evaluation. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub.
Rainey,D. L. (2010). Enterprise-widestrategic management: Achieving sustainable success throughleadership, strategies, and value creation.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Samson,D., & Daft, R. L. (2011). .South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage Learning.