Multiple Choice Questions


MultipleChoice Questions


Q1-thedifferences between `modernity` and `postmodernity`. Now, most of uswill have some vague sense of what we mean by modernity. But as asociologist, how do we understand this period called `modernity`?

Sociologistsunderstand modernity as the period extending from approximately 1860and the 1950s.

Whatcaused it?

Thepost-medieval modernity was caused by the adoption of theindustrialization, capitalism, the secularization, nation-state andits relevant institutions, rationalization, and distinct types ofvarieties. Andwhat in the world is `postmodernity`?

Postmodernityrefers to the assessment of the modern era grand narratives, theconsciousness that the narratives serve in masking instabilities andcontradictions that are innate in every social practice ororganization (Verhoeven, 1994).

Whatexactly is different about this period called postmodernity from thatwhich we call `modernity`?

Modernityis mainly based on bringing out order out of a chaotic situationwhile postmodernism involves evaluation of major narratives, and theconsciousness that the narratives accomplish in masking theinstabilities and contradictions that naturally occur in every socialpractice or organization (Verhoeven, 1994).

Canyou think of some aspects of everyday life, which can be classifiedas `postmodern`? Television,opera, classical music, ballet, genre films, and trashy novels orpulp fiction

Q2-Pleasediscuss what you have come to understand (or are unsure) about`ethnomethodology`.

Thisis a strategy that people apply use in order to understand the socialorders individuals use in understanding the world through evaluatingtheir accounts and assessment of their regular life experiences(Verhoeven, 1994).

Whatdoes it involve?

Itinvolves critical evaluation of individuals’ perspective, attitude,and feeling towards the day-to-day activities they experienceregularly.

Isthere a distinction that we can make between ethnomethodology and`ethnography`?

Ethnomethodologyinvolves the study of an individual attitude towards a society fromtheir personal perspective while ethnography involves the study of athe culture of a society from the viewpoint of the concerned subject(Verhoeven, 1994).

Howdoes Sassateli (1999) use this approach favoured by Goffman (1959),within her study of gyms?

Throughobserving and interviewing gym enthusiasts on the reasons thatmotivate them to maintain a constant training routine while otherscannot attend the gym on daily basis.

Whydo you think she chose this particular approach over other possibleresearch methods?

Herobjective understood the personal logic and reasoning that makepeople opt to practicing certain behaviors. Therefore, Goffman (1959)ethnomethodology concept of investigating personal motivation formaintaining a given routine was the most efficient for evaluatingindividual enthusiasm for attending the gym regularly.

Q3-*Tryto describe the image and how it is assembled.

Theimage is symbolic. The man pictured on the brand seems like he is setand ready to start a race, just like the brand states “Boss inMotion”. *Outline the key signifiers in this image, both related andnon-related.

  • The gentleman has assumed a preparation stance for starting a race

  • The green background is similar to the traffic green light that permits cars to move

  • The man appears a capable athletic

Doyou think the meaning generated by these signifiers is primarilysymbolic? indexical? or iconic?

Theyare primarily symbolic since they create a definite image

*What are the connotations ™ associated with these signifiers forexample, sophistication, sexual allure, masculinity, or femininity?

Masculinity– the image of a handsome shirtless man, who is prepared to embarkon a race *To what extent do you think the image in question signifies in apolysemic manner?

Theimage is polysemic because it uses a fine-looking man to indicatethat the fragrance is for classy men. The man has an athletephysique, as well as appears set to start racing, which implies thatthe target customers are the updated men.

Doesthe image play with semiotic or social convention?

Semiotic– target clients are supposed to derive the meaning and value ofthe fragrance from just looking at the image.


Verhoeven,L. (1994). Functionalliteracy: Theoretical issues and educational implications.Amsterdam [u.a.: Benjamins.