Neurobiology

NEUROBIOLOGY 4

Author’sname

InstitutionAffiliation

Neurologicaldisorders are diseases affecting the central and peripheral nervoussystem. Although neurological disorders are increasingly widespread,they are poorly understood in the society. Physicians should educatethe populace about the range of these disorders, their treatment andintervention (Schlaepfer &amp Nemeroff, 2012). Whether one hasdevelopment disorder or delay, early identification is essential forachieving the best possible results.

Themost common neurological disorders include mental retardation,Cerebral Palsy and Autism spectrum disorders. Neurodevelopmentaldisorder refers to the impairment of the central nervous system thatcontrols the brain’s functions. This affects the memory, emotionsand self-control. Sometimes this condition is mistaken for Autismspectrum disorder (Schlaepfer &amp Nemeroff, 2012). Causes ofNeurodevelopmental disorder are metabolic diseases, nutrition, traumaand environmental factors.

Cerebralpalsy has been identified as a disorder that emanates from braindamage. This occurs before, during and after birth. It affects muscleand body movement. The symptoms experienced include hearing andvisual impairments, seizures and mental retardation. Childrensuffering from this disorder are unable to walk, talk or even eat.Although this disorder is permanent, therapy helps to improve thecondition. Disorders associated with this condition include traumaticbrain disorder.

Spiritualpractices and prayers have beneficial effects to mental health. Theneural basis of these effects is being identified and differentimaging approaches have elucidated the neural basis of thesemeditative practices (Schlaepfer &amp Nemeroff, 2012). The evidencebased on studies replete with methodological constraints, pointstoward the involvement of prefrontal cortices. The data available onmeditation focus mainly on activated frontal network. Activation ofthe frontal cortex gives rise to meditation. The change inneurotransmitter contributes to the amelioration of anxiety anddepressive symptomatology and explains the psychogenic property ofmeditation. This highlights the involvement of numerous neuralstructures, neurophysiologic and Neurochemical alterations observedin meditative practices.

Reference

Schlaepfer,T. E., &amp Nemeroff, C. B. (2012). of psychiatric disorders.Edinburgh: Elsevier.