Organizational Review

ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW 19

OrganizationalReview

Abstract

Emotionalintelligence describes the capacity to identify, control and evaluateemotions. Although some researchers claim that emotional intelligenceis learnt, while other researchers claim that it is usually an inborncharacteristic. According to John Mayer &amp Peter Salovey,emotional intelligence is a subset of social intelligence, whichinvolves the capacity of monitoring a person’s own and otherindividuals’ feelings and emotions, discriminating amid them andusing this information in guiding an individual’s own thinking andactions. According to Mayer and Salovey, there are four branches ofemotional intelligence perceiving emotions, reasoning with emotions,understanding emotions, and managing emotions. The initial step infathoming emotions entails accurately perceiving them. In most cases,this involves comprehending nonverbal signals like facial expressionsand body language. The next step entails the use of emotions inpromoting thinking and the cognitive activity. The emotions thatindividuals perceive usually carry varied meanings. In case anindividual expresses angry emotions, the observer needs to interpretwhat causes the anger and what it may mean. In this assignment,workplace emotional intelligence will be discussed. Besides, primalleadership will also be discussed. In regard to the workplaceenvironment, the use of emotional intelligence at General Motors thatI experienced will be analyzed.

Accordingto Goleman, emotional intelligence should embrace two features ofintelligence. The first entails understanding oneself, his/her goals,responses, intentions, behavior and all. The second aspect entailsunderstanding others together with their feelings. In understandingemotional intelligence, Goleman identifies five domains that areassociated with emotional intelligence these include knowing one’semotions, managing own emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing andcomprehending other individuals’ emotions, and managingrelationships (Goleman, 1995). Emotional intelligence holds and drawsfrom various other branches of emotional, communication, andbehavioral theories such as transactional Analysis, empathy, andNeuro-Linguistic Programming. Through developing the emotionalintelligence in the above mentioned areas and the five emotionalintelligence domains, individuals become more successful andproductive in whatever they undertake, and help others in becomingmore successful and productive. The process and results of emotionalintelligence development contain various elements that are known tomitigate stress for organizations and individuals by enhancingrelationships and understanding, decreasing conflict, and increasingcontinuity, stability and harmony. In different organizations,emotional intelligence is considered as a critical aspect since ithelps in enhancing the success of an organization through motivatingemployees.

Greatleaders usually move their followers. They usually ignite theirpassion and motivate the best in them. When the followers attempt toexplain why such leaders are so effective, they speak of vision,strategy, or even powerful ideas. However, the veracity is moreprimal since great leaders work through emotions. Regardless whatleaders desire to do whether it is developing strategy or mobilizinggroups to action, their success is usually determined by how theyaccomplish it. Even though the leaders get everything else right, incase leaders fail in the primal duty of taking emotions in theappropriate direction, nothing will work well as it should. Emotionalintelligence is exceedingly crucial in an organization since it helpsin determining the kind of leader that employees in an organizationcan identify with (Goleman, 1995). For instance, this was seen in theworkplace environment in General Motors, when one of the supervisorstold his juniors that he was not interested with their ideasconcerning the best way to effectively streamline delivery services.This made the entire group under the supervisor fail to report theirfindings in the area of their specialization. When the generalmanager intervened, he understood the situation and changed thesupervisor. The new supervisor was a leader who welcomed the idea ofevery person in his team this made the group under the newsupervisor the best performer in the organization. The new supervisorhad the capacity to relate and manage the emotions of his juniors,which made it possible to succeed in his supervisory role.

Whilemost individuals know that the mood a leader and the way he affectsthe mood of others is critical to an organization, emotions areusually viewed as immeasurable to argue about in a significantmanner however, study in the area of emotions has produced dedicatedinsights into how to quantify the effect of the emotion of a leaderand how the most excellent leaders have found successful ways offathoming and enhancing the manner they take their own and otherindividuals’ emotions (Huy, 1999). Comprehending the commandingfunction of emotions in the workplace places the most excellentleaders at a distance from the rest. For instance, comparing the twosupervisors in General Motors, there is a clear distinction amid thetwo supervisors. The old supervisor did not have the capacity ofrelating with the emotions of junior workers, but the new supervisorwas capable of relating with the emotions of junior workers. Thecapacity of the new supervisor being capable of relating with theemotions of junior workers made the fresh supervisor have a betterleadership qualification compared to the old supervisor. Leadersshould not just be involved in tangibles like better businessoutcomes and the preservation of talent, but should also engage inthe intangibles like providing higher morale, commitment andmotivation. Therefore, leaders should be in the frontline inproviding and managing emotions of his or her followers. Without anappropriate management of emotions, there is a likelihood of workersor followers becoming disillusioned. A leader, who is capable ofusing emotional intelligence, achieves success in an organizationsince he is capable of motivating employees, leading to high moraleamong employees. On the other hand, in instances, where a leader isnot capable of using emotional intelligence in his or her leadership,there is a likelihood of the leader failing to achieve success sincethe employees are not motivated, which makes attaining of successimpossible. Through the new supervisor welcoming the ideas concerningthe efficient way of delivering services, he was capable of achievingsuccess since the junior employees became motivated. Motivationemerges as a significant aspect in realizing success since, whenemployees become motivated, they can work efficiently.

Theemotional task of a leader is primal since it is both the novel andthe most significant conduct of headship. Leaders have forever playeda primal emotional role. There is no doubt that humankind’soriginal leaders earned their place in vast part since their headshipwas emotionally convincing. In cultures and throughout history, theboss in any human grouping entails the one to whom the group looksfor clarity and assurance when facing threat or uncertainty or whenthere is a task to be performed. The leader usually takes theresponsibility of the team’s emotional steer. In modern entities,this primal emotional task remains foremost amid the different tasksof leadership of driving the combined emotions in an affirmativedirection and getting rid of the smog generated by toxic emotions.This emotional chore applies to headship everywhere. In GeneralMotors, it was possible to depict that excellent leaders have theability to relate with the emotions of others through providingemotional guidance. This was depicted by the general manager’s roleof leading through examples on how to control one’s emotions insome work situations. For instance, the general manager was capableof providing emotional guidance through facilitating trainingprograms that helped in understanding and controlling one’semotions.

Basically,in any group, the head has the maximal power of swaying everyone’semotions. In case emotions of individuals become pushed towards therange of eagerness, performance is likely to become soar. In caseindividuals become driven towards anxiety and rancor, they willbecome thrown off stride. This depicts another significant aspect ofprimal leadership. The effects broaden past ensuring that a taskbecomes well done. Besides, followers usually look upon a head forcompassionate emotional connection. The entire headship includes thisprimordial dimension, for worse or better. When heads drive emotionsin a positive manner, as it was with the second supervisor at theGeneral Motors, they pass everyone’s best input. The key to makingprimordial headship work to every person’s benefit lies in theheadship capabilities of emotional intelligence. Leaders that exploitthe benefits of primordial leadership steer the emotions of thefollowers in the right direction.

Emotionalintelligence is exceedingly critical since it enhances anindividual’s capacity to lead others. A person may not dwell in thesame position or in the same job throughout his or her career becauseof using emotional intelligence. Most people desire moving up in theorganizations that they work for, which requires emotionalintelligence. Good leaders have found excellent ways of handlingtheir own emotions and those of others (Goleman, 1995). Comprehendingthe commanding task of emotions in the workplace is vital in settinggreat leaders from the rest. Therefore, emotional intelligence issignificant for the growth of leaders. Besides, emotionalintelligence is critical since it helps in enhancing thecommunication of individuals. The more individuals become aware oftheir own reactions, the better they become in identifying thefeelings of others this makes communication easier amid individuals.When a person has the capacity of identifying his or her owntriggers, he or she becomes better equipped while dealing with otherindividuals. On the other hand, emotional intelligence is criticalsince it helps in expanding an individual’s conflict managementskills. Learning how to diffuse a difficult circumstance by oneselfwhile in meetings with other individuals is critical in making onedevelop and expand conflict management skills. Emotional intelligencemakes an individual view conflict in terms of an innovativecircumstance. In General Motors, it was apparent that emotionalintelligence is critical in expanding a leader’s conflict since thegeneral manager was capable of dealing with different conflicts thatemerged within the organization. For instance, when there was aconflict amid employees, the general manager was always in a positionto contain the situation.

EmotionalIntelligence &amp Change Management

Humansusually enjoy identifying with routine however, they can becomethrown the moment the routine becomes threatened. This makes change avital consideration in an organization. Change usually entailsshifting away from the routine. Emotional intelligence is criticalfor change management. A debate exists concerning the reactions,which individual employees have towards change. Although there existsa long tradition of researchers that argue that employees tend toresist organizational change in general, Dent &amp Goldberg are ofthe opinion that the term resistance must be removed from theliterature because it does not mirror the complex interactions, whichoccur during change. Through the examination of organizationalbehavior, researchers have come to identify change as having thepotential of eliciting a wide range of emotions whether the change isa minor re-organization or a major restructure (Mayer et al, 2000).Change may be perceived as a challenge or even an opportunity and cantrigger positive emotions such as enthusiasm, excitement andcreativity. On the other hand, change can also be threatening anddevelop negative emotions such as fear, anger, cynicism, anxiety,withdrawal, and resentment. Change usually poses important challengesboth to those affected by the change and those implementing it. However, management theory focuses on cognitive issues like cognitivedissonance during change. The conclusion of this focus entailsconsideration of resolutions in handling attitudes to change, ratherthan considering emotional reactions. A meager body of research,which has examined the role of emotions in time of organizationalchange, has vastly focused on emotional responses like stress andbehavior such as low organizational commitment and withdrawal,thereby ignoring the emotive processes, which provoke such outcomes.

Anindividual’s adjustment to organizational change should incorporateboth cognitive and emotional factors. Literature shows that verylittle empirical or theoretical work has been carried out examiningthe significance of emotional intelligence in assisting individualsin dealing with organizational change. For example, Jordan et al(2002) have an opinion that emotionally intelligent persons copebetter with job insecurity, which may or may not be the outcome oforganizational change. On the other hand, Ashkanasy et al (2004)present the benefits of emotionally intelligent individuals inhandling stress in the workplace. Besides, they identify one of thecauses of stress as organizational change. According to the Huy’stheoretical model, emotional intelligence is crucial duringorganizational change. According to this model, emotionalintelligence helps individuals in adapting to and facilitatingchanges in mobilization, receptivity and learning during change.Furthermore, literature search indicates that there are no otheracademic studies, which investigate the association amid emotionalintelligence and change related behaviors and none that tend to linkemotional intelligence to the tenets of the learning organization.

Individualsthat have the capacity of managing and making sense of theirindividual and other’s emotions during the time of organizationalchange are capable of influencing social relationship results andcontribute to the change process. Such individuals will usually beunder less stress during the time of organizational change due totheir capacity to be aware of their emotions and their capacity ofcontrolling their emotions. Besides, as managers, they will also holda better position of mitigating stress and anxiety that may accompanyorganizational change because they are capable of reading theemotions of others and taking actions of managing those emotionsbefore attitudes become affected. This was evidenced in the GeneralMotors, where the general manager of the organization had thecapacity of making sense of his own and other workers’ emotionsduring organizational change. This was evidenced, when theorganization wanted to mitigate the operation cost. Since the generalmanager had the capacity of making sense of his own and otherworkers’ emotions, he was capable of realizing the change processthrough initiating and implementing the change process withoutstressing the employees. Some of the executives had come up with theidea of retrenching some employees in an attempt to mitigate theoperation cost of the organization however, the general manager wascapable of realizing the change process by the use economies ofscale. This eliminated the stress that could become associated withthe change process. On the other hand, the general manager was underless stress during the change process because he knew that theoutcomes of the change process were not going to affect the employeesnegatively.

Emotionallyintelligent leaders have the capacity of helping others in managingdifficult change. Emotional intelligent usually contributes tosuccessful change management

  • Through creating emotional maturity

  • Through increasing social intelligence

  • Through enhancing interpersonal communication

  • Through helping in managing emotions

  • As a technique of handling stress

  • Through influencing leadership styles

  • Through successfully managing resistance to change

Accordingto Mayer &amp Salovey (1997), emotional intelligence is not usuallyfixed for life and it may become enhanced through suitable training.Proper coaching can enhance the effectiveness of low emotionallyintelligent individuals or teams in order to make their performancefunctionally identical to the performance of high emotionallyintelligent individuals or teams. Therefore, emotions generatedduring the change process of an organization can be managed throughproviding workers with the necessary skills in regulating thoseemotions. Emotional intelligence enhancement programs can be a meansthrough which managers can provide workers with extra skills incoping with organizational change. This was depicted in GeneralMotors organization through the general manager providing emotionalintelligence enhancement skills. These enhancement programs werecritical to the organization since they helped in improving theperformance of individuals that had low emotional intelligence.Indeed, the programs helped in making the performance of lowemotionally intelligent individuals identical to the performance ofhigh emotionally intelligent individuals (Skinner et al, 2002). Forinstance, at some point, the low emotionally intelligent individualswere not capable of resolving conflicts amid themselves and otheremployees however, through the manager organizing emotionalintelligence enhancement programs, these individuals were capable ofresolving conflicts amid them and other workers. This was anindication that emotional intelligence could become enhanced throughan appropriate training.

Emotionalintelligence has the potential of predicting a range of interpersonalqualities in an organization, which may contribute to effectiveorganizational change. For example, Jordan &amp Troth (2002) showthat the varied components of emotional intelligence are usually moreclosely lined up with collaborative conflict resolution methodscompared to competition or avoidance. Collaboration may be associatedwith a range of skills, which are useful for employees and managementduring the change process. These entail skills like leadership style,mediation skills, and using social networks in the workplace. In theGeneral Motors, it was learnt that emotional intelligence wascritical in the creation of social networks within the organization.This was realized through the organization supporting emotionalintelligence programs. Through the programs, it was learnt that thecreation of social networks within the organization was madefeasible. Prior to commencing the emotional enhancement programs,most employees were not capable of establishing social networkswithin the organization. However, after the enhancement programs,employees were capable of creating social networks within theorganization.

Emotionalintelligence is usually associated with job satisfaction. Accordingto researchers, it has been considered that workers having higheremotional intelligence are likely to have higher job satisfactionthe converse is true. The reason behind this is because employeeshaving higher emotional intelligence are capable of developingstrategies of overcoming the feasible consequences that may arisefrom stress, while workers having less emotional intelligence are notcapable of overcoming or handling stressful situations. While workingin the research and development unit in General Motors, I came tolearn that emotional intelligence was exceedingly critical indetermining job satisfaction. When I entered in the department, I wasnot capable of handling stressful situations in the workplace, whichled to job dissatisfaction in the R&ampD department however, aftera few weeks of training in emotional intelligence, I was in aposition to deal with workplace stress. This helped in becomingsatisfied in the workplace.

Besides,employees having higher emotional intelligence are capable ofinfluencing the emotions of other workers in a manner that they arecapable of boosting their own morale and the morale of coworkers.Before, the emotional intelligence training, I had low emotionalintelligence since I was not capable of influencing the otheremployees in a manner that boosted their morale. This made the moralethat I had go down however, through the emotional intelligencetrainings, I was capable of developing higher emotional intelligence,which helped in influencing the emotions of other coworkers. This ledto boosting of own and coworkers’ morale. Therefore, emotionalintelligence is usually critical in influencing the morale of workersthat is critical for realizing success in an organization.

Asan employee in the R&ampD unit in the General Motors, I saw the needof emotional intelligence in the improvement of communication amidother employees. When I joined the organization, I was poor incommunication since I could not relate with all employees of theorganization, and particularly in the unit that I was working in.However, as I went through emotional intelligence training, I gainedthe capacity to communicate since I could relate and communicate withother workers in the department effectively. This was feasible due togaining of higher emotional intelligence after the training programs.Hence, emotional intelligence is exceedingly critical inn enhancingan individual’s communication (Wong &amp Law, 2002). Because oflow emotional intelligence, I was not capable of giving feedback asrequired, but this came to change after I gained high emotionalintelligence since I was capable of providing the required feedbackto different coworkers. The emotional intelligence training programshelped in gaining social awareness, which was critical in theestablishment of relationships in the workplace. In addition, theprograms were critical ins helping in the management of socialrelationships. This enhanced the communication skills I had prior tojoining the organization.

PrimalLeadership Styles in General Motors

Inthe General Motor, different leadership styles were used by theleaders. One of the leadership styles used by the leaders was thevisionary style. This style entailed leaders, who moved employeestowards a common vision of the organization. They told employeeswhere to go however, they did not show how to get to the desiredplace. This was critical since it helped the employees to becomemotivated, making them struggle forward. The visionary leadershipstyle involved leaders that shared information openly, which gaveknowledge power to employees. This leadership style worked well inthe organization for some employees, but did not work well for someemployees. The style worked well for employees that did not have any,or had little experience in the workplace. This is because, thevisionary style provided motivation to employees of strugglingtowards meeting organization targets. However, the style did not workwell for experienced employees since they lacked motivation of movingforward as they knew how to attain the targets of the organization.However, the visionary style worked best in the organization amidemployees, when a new direction was needed in the organization forinstance, when a new research direction was required in the R&ampDunit, leaders preferred using this style as it provided motivation toemployees as they struggled in understanding the new direction. Thisstyle was significant to the organization as it set free in takingcalculated risks, creating innovations, and experimenting.

Thecoaching style was another leadership style that was used by theleaders in General Motor. This style was utilized by leaders thatfocused on developing employees of the organization towards the setgoals. This was usually done through leaders providing informationconcerning how to enhance the performance to employees. This helpedin providing a connection amid the goals of employees and those ofthe organization. This style worked well with employees that showedinitiative and desired to have more professional development. Forinstance, the style worked well for employees that desired to becomefuture leaders and trainers. On the other hand, the style did notwork well for some employee especially, those employees thatperceived coaching as a way of micromanaging an employee. The styledid not work well in such a situation because it undermined theself-confidence of an employee. This style is good, when a leaderwants to delegate challenging assignments and when a leader desiresto demonstrate faith, which demands justification. This leads toelevated levels of loyalty. This leadership style was best amongemployees that desired to build long run capabilities. The style wassignificant as it helped employees in gaining knowledge concerningstrengths and weaknesses of the actions involved in attainingorganizational goals.

Theother style used by leaders in the General Motors was the affiliativestyle. This style was used by leaders, who emphasized on the value ofteam work. This style works by creating harmony within a groupthrough connecting employees to each other. This style was used byleaders in the organization, when they desired to strengthen teamharmony amid employees, increasing their morale, enhancingcommunication or repairing broken trust in the organization. Forinstance, in General Motors, leaders used this style in a number ofoccasions. One occasion entails, when a new employee entered in theorganization. In order to make the employee become accustomed to theteam works in the organization. Besides, this style was significantduring the entrant of a new employee as it helped in creating harmonyand connecting new employees to the existing ones. This leadershipstyle should not be used in an organization alone as its emphasis onteam praise can permit poor performance in an organization asinappropriate performance can go uncorrected because employees maytend to perceive that mediocrity is tolerated. In most cases, theorganization used to use this style along with visionary style. Inaddition, the organization used this style in healing rifts amidemployees and getting through stressful scenarios.

Democraticstyle entails another leadership style that was used in theorganization. This style focuses on employees’ skills andknowledge, and creating a group commitment to the organizationalgoals. This style works best in situations, where the direction ofthe organization is unclear. In such a scenario, the leader attemptsto tap the wisdom of the group collectively. The leaders of GeneralMotor used this style in understanding the direction it should takeconcerning new production lines. Employees provided the leaders withvaried information, which represented their own thinking concerningthe production lines, while the leaders chose the best alternatives.As a democratic leader, one has to listen to both the good and badnews concerning a certain input presented by employees. When thisstyle is done badly, it seems like there is a lot of listening withlittle successful action. The style is best utilized in gainingbuy-in or in situations, where simple inputs are required and aleader is uncertain. In addition, this style may become disastrousduring crisis, where urgent events require quick decisions.

Besides,pace-setting was another style that was utilized by the organizationin providing leadership. This style focuses on the leader buildingexciting and challenging goals for employees and leaders expectexcellence and usually exemplify it themselves. In this style,leaders usually identify poor performing employees and demand morefrom such employees. In General Motors, leaders used to buildexciting and challenging goals for employees in the R&ampDdepartment. For instance, employees in the department were to showtheir innovativeness every year by creating or generating somethingthat was totally different from the existing ones. This helped inmaking the employees remain innovative throughout their stay in theR&ampD unit. The non-performing employees are usually identified bythe management and employees that are non-performers given warning sothat they improve their performance. Leaders that use this style areusually low in guidance and expect employees to know what is expectedof them. Leaders usually obtain short term outcomes however, in thelongs term, this style may lead to decline and exhaustion. When thisstyle lacks emotional intelligence, it becomes done badly. This stylecan best be utilized for outcomes from competent and motivated team.The style was used sparingly by the organization as it sometimes madeemployees feel as if they were failures.

Onthe other hand, General Motors also used the commanding style inleadership. A leader that utilizes this style soothes fear and offersclear directions through her/his powerful position, commanding andexpects full compliance. In this style, no agreement amid the leaderand employees is required the leader has the full authorityregarding what needs to be done, which employees should not question.Leaders that use this style need emotional self-control in order torealize success. This style is usually best utilized during crisis,when there is a need to have unquestioned action and when employeesare not ready to respond to any other style. Since this style rarelyuses praises and employs criticism, it is exceedingly difficult torealize organizational success through using this style. Besides, itis exceedingly difficult to realize success when using this stylebecause it undercuts job satisfaction and morale. Therefore, it isonly successful during a crisis. Leaders in General Motors rarelyused this style because it was perceived as ineffective. However,whenever employees became unruly concerning an issue, this style wasusually employed.

&nbspTrainingStrategy to Implement Emotional Intelligence Training into theWorkplace

Inorder to implement emotional intelligence training into theworkplace, it is critical for the organization to put some strategiesinto existence. One of the strategies entails carrying out aself-awareness strategy among its employees. This will help theorganization in determining if all its employees require training inself-awareness. In this strategy, every employee should be in aposition to understand what and who pushes his/her buttons,understand whether he/she can seek feedback from other employees, andbe capable of observing the ripple effect from his/her emotions.Through this strategy, the organization will be capable ofunderstanding the level of self-awareness for every employee, whichis critical in the implementation of emotional intelligence training.Another strategy entails understanding the social awareness of theemployees. This is also critical since it will help the organizationin determining whether its employees require training in socialawareness. The other strategy entails emotional management andrelationship management. Through understanding the capacity ofemployees to manage relationships and emotions, the organization willa clear implementation on emotion intelligence training since it willunderstand the number of employees that need the training and thetechniques that can be employed successfully.

Conclusion

Emotionalintelligence is one of the most critical aspects in an organizationsince it usually determines the success of an organization. Thus,every organization needs to consider emotional intelligence in itsoperations, be it for leaders or employees organizations should putemotional intelligence as a significant aspect. According to JohnMayer &amp Peter Salovey, emotional intelligence is a subset ofsocial intelligence, which involves the capacity of monitoring aperson’s own and other individuals’ feelings and emotions,discriminating amid them and using this information in guiding anindividual’s own thinking and actions. Emotions are usually viewedas immeasurable to argue about in a significant manner however,study in the area of emotions has produced dedicated insights intohow to quantify the effect of the emotion of a leader and how themost excellent leaders have found successful ways of fathoming andenhancing the manner they take their own and other individuals’emotions (Huy, 1999). Comprehending the commanding function ofemotions in the workplace places the most excellent leaders at adistance from the rest. Emotional intelligence is critical for changemanagement. A debate exists concerning the reactions, whichindividual employees have towards change. Although there exists along tradition of researchers that argue that employees tend toresist organizational change in general, Dent &amp Goldberg are ofthe opinion that the term resistance must be removed from theliterature because it does not mirror the complex interactions, whichoccur during change. Different leadership styles can be employed byleaders these include democratic, commanding, pace-setting,coaching, affiliative, and visionary.

References

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Mayer,JD, Salovey, P &amp Caruso, DR. (2000).‘Competing Models ofEmotional Intelligence’, in R Sternberg (ed.) Handbookof Intelligence.New York: Cambridge.

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Wong,C &amp Law, KS. (2002). ‘Theeffects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performanceand attitude:An exploratory study’, Leadership Quarterly, 13 (3), 243-274.