English Composition 2 Unit I Assignment

ENGLISH COMPOSITION 2 UNIT I ASSIGNMENT 5English Composition 2 Unit IAssignmentAuthorInstitution

EnglishComposition 2 Unit I Assignment

TopicInventory

  1. Academic

Personalinterest: Technology

StudiesAcademic subject: Pros and Cons of Technology in Academic Research

Possibletopics:

  • “How to avoid misleading information on the internet”

  • “Has the internet made our mind lazy?”

  • “How the internet has broken the boundaries of information distribution”

  1. Scientific Subject

Personalinterest: Cars

Academicsubject: Eco-engineering

Possibleacademic topic:

      • “Is the cost of Hybrid vehicles worth the results (a cleaner planet)?”

      • “Are Hydrogen Cars safer?”

      • “Are gasoline cars cheap but expensive to the environment”

  1. Social issue

Personalinterest: Unwanted Pregnancies

Academicsubject: Abortion

Possibleacademic topic:

  • “Religious views on abortion”

  • “Social behaviors that can lead to unwanted pregnancies”

  • “Health risks as a result of abortion”

  • Is birth control essentially abortion?
  1. Cultural background

Personalinterest: The Holocaust

AcademicSubject The children of the Holocaust

Possibleacademic topic:

  • “Development and Execution”

  • “Methods for mass murder”

  • “Key players in the Children’s Survival”

ControllingIdea Statement

Oncepregnant, the only alternative to get rid of the pregnancy is throughabortion. Pregnancy is sometimes unavoidable. However, a person candecrease the chances dealing with unwanted pregnancy issues bypracticing various forms of contraception. Most methods are havingprotected sex. Additionally, there are options like emergencycontraception for use after unprotected sex. There are many sideeffects that only few people are aware of concerning abortion. Manywomen are not aware of these side effects. Researchers have investedenormous time and money in developing safer methods of dealing withthe medical complications that come because of medical procedures.Nonetheless, even with improved technology, there are still cases ofphysical side effects that eventually lead to negative psychologicalside effects. Researchers are developing nonlethal methods ofpreventing and terminating unwanted pregnancies. Consequently, womenwill not have to bear unwanted pregnancies and the unborn do not haveto lose their potential lives. For instance, there are numerous waysof avoiding unwanted pregnancies. One can choose to abstain or use ofvarious contraceptives (Reiman, 1999).

ShortProposal

Aperson should consider adoption before procuring an abortion. Thereare allot of people who would love to take care of a child, but theycannot conceive due to various reasons. These people would appreciatea child obtained legally and provide for it even better than a realparent would have done. Moreover, abortion is a legalized murder. Alife is lost every time a successful abortion happens. Nevertheless,abortion never stops being murder. Those who say it is justified incases of rape or incest are not saying it is not murder in thosecases.

Theypresume that in those cases the execution is reasonable. In addition,they claim that the mother did not agree to the approval of thebaby`s conception. Hence, the society should not force the mother tobear a child she never asked for. Besides, the baby`s right to lifeis more essential than the mother`s purported &quotright to choose.&quotHowever, for the case of some pro-lifers who believe that the motherhas a right to choose, none of them says it is not still murder. Ipropose better access to birth control, less societal stigma forsingle mothers and more social support. Birth control andself-control are key issues (Reiman, 1999).

Reference

Reiman,J. H. (1999). Abortionand the ways we value human life.Lanham, Md: Rowman &amp Littlefield.

The Economy of Burundi

THE ECONOMY OF BURUNDI 4

TheEconomy of Burundi

TheEconomy of Burundi

Overthe years, the Burundi’s economy has been characterized byunderdevelopment due to unchecked balance of trade. In October 2003,there was a trade deficit of 85931.90 million, this averaged to-95417.77 million for the year 2000 to 2013. In fact, the highestbalance of trade reached its peak at -31731.30 million BIF in 2010and the lowest recorded was in December 2008 at -402562.30 millionBIF (Agency, C. I., 2013).

Infact, Burundi’s economic growth is restricted by the trade deficitsince the country runs in selling its capital assets or borrowingfrom other countries. Consequently, this hampers economic growth andincrease the national debt. Similarly, the country experiencesinflationary pressure, which yield poverty, inequality, and lack ofinfrastructure (Vervisch, Vlassenroot, &amp Braeckman, 2013).Balanced trade would ensure that Burundi’s flow of money and tradeare at equilibrium that will guarantee the creation of jobs since thegovernment will be able to support its economy without borrowing.

Thehigh equilibria can be regarded as a trade surplus where countryexports more than its import, and the low equilibria is during tradedeficit where the country imports are more than exports.Essentially, not many countries are able to deviate from lowequilibria since resources are scarce, and no single country canproduce all what they require. In addition, when the country is undertrade surplus it enjoys a net inflow in terms of monetary payment.Therefore, this generates aggregate income which facilitate saving,investment, consumption and tax revenue.

Specifically,Burundian economy requires expenditure policies to shift its economyto higher equilibrium. Those policies should levy tariffs on imports,which will increase prices for imported good compared to domesticallyproduced goods. Therefore, the domestic producers will beencouraged to produce more, and this will make the deficit fall inthe current account. Secondly, the devaluation of the exchange ratewill make export cheaper and imports relatively expensive.

References

Agency,C. I. (2013).&nbspTheCIA World Factbook 2014.New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.

Vervisch,T. G. A., Vlassenroot, K., &amp Braeckman, J. (2013). Livelihoods,power, and food insecurity: Adaptation of social capital portfoliosin protracted crises-case study Burundi.&nbspDisasters,&nbsp37(2), 267-292.

CSR and Ethical Standards in Business Corporations-General Motors Case

CSRand Ethical Standards in Business Corporations-General Motors Case

Modernbusiness organizations are bound by CSR and business ethics, whichset the standards of operation for businesses. Although there arelegal standards to protect businesses and consumers, CSR and ethicalstandards are internal regulation mechanisms for businesses that keepcompanies in check. Legal standards are the oldest mode of operationthat was meant to protect businesses and consumers (Coda&amp Palgrave Connect, 2010).The two are so important that most businesses have made them part oftheir strategic goals.

Crisismanagement

Thecase of General Motors’ defective ignition system and the reactionof the company to the crisis was a case of how organizations canhandle crisis that arise from their activities. The decision torecall 12.8 million cars across the world was an accommodative crisismanagement method, where management accepts responsibility and setsout to fix the problem (Pollock,2014).GM took the ethical responsibility to correct the problem as part ofa crisis management action in order to protect the company and itsinterest. The decision was made since the company could have lost itscustomers, who are the most important stakeholders.

However,the decision to compensate only 13 injured consumers was a proactivemethod of handling the crisis. According to a lawsuit against thecompany, the engineers were aware of the ignition problem, that wouldhave cost very little to repair. The fact that documents in thepossession of management revealed such knowledge indicated that thecompany acted in negligence and ought to face legal consequences forthe resulting accidents. The company stands to lose on its socialcapital with its primary stakeholders who are the clients (Mellahi,Frynas &amp Finlay, 2005).Given that management knew about the defective ignitions and refusedto compensate other victims of the problem demonstrates that thecompany has poor ethical standards.

Legalloopholes

GeneralMotors also failed in its legal obligation of ensuring that itsproducts met the required manufacturing standards of the ignitionsystem. The purpose is to protect consumers from defective goods thatcan result in danger to them (Coda&amp Palgrave Connect, 2010).The laws also protect companies from legal problems due to defectivegoods. General Motors, however, failed to meet its legal obligationsof ensuring that the ignition system was up to the legalmanufacturing standards (Pollock,2014).This amounts to negligence as the company failed in its socialobligation of ensuring that manufacturing standards were up to healthand safety standards.

Theresultant recall of 12.8 million cars to repair the defectiveignition systems was a way of avoiding court systems, which arecostly and have long standing business consequences. General Motorsmay have, however, lost customer trust as it emerged that themanagement was aware of the manufacturing problem. Customers usuallylose faith as it appears that such a company placed profits ahead ofcustomer safety. The problem was a case of misconduct that furthersthe organization’s agenda, as the lawsuit against the companyrevealed that the company would have incurred a cost of only fiftyseven cents to fix each ignition that was found faulty (Isidore,2014).This was an ethical misstep on GM that eroded customers’ faith inthe company.

Responseto the crisis

Thecompany’s reaction to the crisis requires immediate action toensure that it restores its customers’ faith. The company mustfirst ensure that it reveals all the information regarding the crisisand acknowledges liability for the ignition problem. Thisdemonstrates high moral responsibility and dedication to correct aknown problem. According to corporate governance structures, anyresponsible company is supposed to ensure that it adheres to ethicalstandards that guide how directors protect the needs of the companyand customers (Isidore,2014).Directors have an ethical duty of loyalty, which holds themaccountable to the interests of both the company and stakeholders(Mellahi,Frynas &amp Finlay, 2005).GM’s case demonstrated that the directors failed on this duty asthey were aware of the problem with the ignition.

Thefact that the management chose to stay blind to the ignition problemis a shareholder model of corporate governance in which the directorsare only concerned with maximizing the profits of investors (Pollock,2014).This explains why there are legal guides as to the corporategovernance structures of companies by the state. The idea is toprotect consumers from companies with narrow CSR structures as theirpurpose is to maximize on profits at the expense of its primarystakeholders (Mellahi,Frynas &amp Finlay, 2005).The pledge by the management of GM that they would ensure that thiscrisis does not occur again while recalling faulty cars is anindication that the company is now committed to ethical standards soas to protect its market share.

Inconclusion, CSR and ethical standards are the new guides on howcompanies relate to their primary and secondary stakeholders.However, there are legal and corporate governance structures that aremeant to protect both the business and its customers. The legal andcorporate governance structures were developed after it emerged thata free market was open to abuses, and this would have resulted inhealth and safety problems. However, each company has an ethicalobligation to ensure that it serves its customers well while stayingcompetitive.

Generic Strategies and SWOT Analysis

GENERIC STRATEGIES AND SWOT ANALYSIS 6

GenericStrategies and SWOT Analysis

GenericStrategies and SWOT Analysis

ManulifeFinancial Inc is a company that offers financial solutions tocompanies in America, and Asia. Manulife Financial is based inCanada, and it offers a variety of financial services that to itsclients. The company’s strengths lie in the decentralizedoperations, where brands are customized to fit in each local area ofoperation. Localization strengthens brands as they solve localproblems, and this makes them responsive to customer needs.Decentralization also facilitates quick responses to client needs,and this endears the company to clients. A major weakness for thecompany is the lack of widespread services in Asia and otherdeveloping countries. Asian markets and other developing countriesare the new frontiers for any business that wishes to grow rapidly.However, Manulife Financial Inc is concentrated in Canada, and thislimits the potential growth of the company. The company ought tocapitalize on developing markets for growth.

SWOTanalysis for Chinese Firework

Chinesefireworks have been more than just a livelihood for the peopleLiuyang. Most people of Liuyang know how to make fireworks as it istheir source of livelihood. The company’s biggest strength is thatthe founder assembled a strong base of skilled manpower so that thecompany would launch on a high quality base, which would secure itsmarket share in the future. The founder used skilled manpower toproduce quality fireworks. The next strength was the location of themanufacturing company, where it was located in the area where the rawmaterials were readily available. This reduced the cost of productionand thus the fireworks were affordable from the inception of thecompany. Finally, the company was the first international exporterwith a large market share. The company accounted for the exportationof 60% of the world’s fireworks, which cemented its marketpresence.

Liuyang’sgreatest weakness is the over reliance on cheap labor from Chineseworkers who are often willing to work under poor working conditions.This is problematic in a world that is increasingly demanding forbetter working conditions as part of CSR. This has caused the companyto lose its manpower to other companies that offer better workingconditions. Additionally, the company faces a lot of competition fromother upcoming companies and this has shrunk its profit margin. Manysmall companies are emerging as the production of fireworks is notexpensive, and this has reduced the market share for Liuyang. Thecompany also lacks proper safety standards, and this has reduced itsmarket share as customers cannot trust its products.

Liuyanghas a great opportunity for penetrating the Canadian market as thegovernment of Canada lifted a ban on Chinese fireworks in 2009.Considering that Liuyang is the world’s largest fireworks exporter,the company stands to solidify its presence in the Canadian market,which has a huge potential. Locally, Beijing also lifted a fireworksban that had curtailed the sale of fireworks in the region. Thisoffers a massive market opportunity for Liuyang. The Chinesegovernment also regulated the price of fireworks and this hasstabilized prices due to low price competition. Liuyang can now focuson improving quality so as to gain more customers.

Thebiggest threat to Liuyang is the increase in labor wages while themarket continues to face increased entrance of new players in themarket. The increasing wage and reduced profits threaten to make thecompany less profitable, which can lead to its collapse. Liuyang alsofaces stiff competition due to new technologies such as laser beams,which are capable of having different sound effects. The newtechnology is more appealing as the sound- effects can be customizedto the needs of the clients.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

  1. Use of skilled manpower to produce quality fireworks

  2. The company was located in the area where the raw materials were readily available. This made the fireworks cheap.

  3. The company was the first international exporter with a large market share of about 60%

  1. Over reliance on cheap labor from Chinese workers who are often willing to work under poor working conditions.

  2. Competition from other upcoming companies, which has shrunk the profit margin.

  3. Lacks proper safety standards

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

  1. Penetrating the Canadian market as the government of Canada lifted a ban on Chinese fireworks in 2009.

  2. Beijing also lifted a fireworks ban that had curtailed the sale of fireworks in the region. This offers a massive market opportunity for Liuyang.

  3. The Chinese government also regulated the price of fireworks and this has stabilized prices due to low price competition.

  1. The increase in labor wages while the market continues to face increased entrance of new players in the market.

  2. Competition due to new technologies such as laser beams, which are capable of having different sound effects.

Film and Reading Reaction

FILM AND READING REACTION 7

The movie is “Guess Who”, which was a 2005 production by directorKevin Rodney Sullivan. The academic article is “Guess Who’s BeenComing to Dinner? Trends in Interracial Marriage over the 20thCentury” (Fryer, 2007).

Summary and Analysis

Guess Who features a black female, Theresa and a white male,Simon as the central characters. As the female’s parents celebratetheir wedding anniversary, she plans to surprise them by attendingthe event in the company of Simon. Theresa also plans to make publictheir engagement. Percy and Marilyn, Theresa’s parents are excitedabout the news, but are unaware that Simon is white. Upon meeting,Percy’s disappointment is obvious and so is his determination toseparate the lovers. He is successful in separating them, but laterre-unites them after realizing that Simon sacrificed his job to marryTheresa. The movie is a remake of “Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner,1967”. The disparity is merely in the reverse of characters. The1967 film features a white female introducing a black male as thelover.

Although the film is about love, it intends at depicting the themesof interracial marriage and racial affairs. Year 2005 is a periodwhen most individuals have become open to accepting interracialmarriages. However, it is apparent that though families may raisetheir children to avoid racial discrimination, few parents are opento the idea of their children getting married to someone of anotherrace. Percy, as a domineering father is a perfect illustration ofracial relations between blacks and whites. He also brings out thetheme of interracial marriage and challenges interracial couplesface, by refusing to accept Theresa’s choice of Simon just becausehe is white. Simon’s employer further enhances the intricacies ininterracial marriage, by compelling him to quit his job because heopts to marry a black woman.

The historical era in Guess Who is one where black-whiteequality is a long way from being realized in America. Althoughstrides towards equality in sectors like politics and economics areobvious, minimal integration is notable in interracial marriages(Fryer, 2007). It is a historical depiction of the anti-miscegenationapparent in American community. Blacks and whites interracial unionsare a founded forbidden act dating back to the slavery period. In the60s, race was used to separate civilians thus, marrying a black wastaboo, as all blacks were regarded as slaves. Over the years,progress has been achieved apparent in the ban on laws likemiscegenation and acceptance of black-white marriages. However, alot still needs to be achieved in altering people’s attitudesconcerning racial relations, which can be blamed on the history ofracial prejudice in America.

Semiotics develops the film’s themes. They also enhanceunderstanding of major issues that the director intends tocommunicate. The message in Guess Who is that racial relationsare still a sensitive issue. People may suppose that strides havebeen made towards eliminating racial prejudice. Sullivan intends todemonstrate that when directly confronted by the issue inherentracial views become public. White male love towards a black female isthe archetype. It dates back to when white slave masters loved theirblack female slaves. The interracial relationship symbolizes thehistorical and current depiction of undesirable bonds. Percysymbolizes an older generation, which still thinks people should notmarry outside their races. The motifs are race associations andromance. Romance is a central idea bringing out the issue of race.

American Cultural Anxieties

American cultural anxieties as depicted in the film arise from race.In Guess Who, Sullivan focuses on the love narrative betweenTheresa and Simon. Although the main message is on the intricacyindividuals in interracial marriage or sex face, the director doesnot make it apparent as a theme. Instead, he employs characters toindirectly bring out the issue. Such a measure highlights culturalanxieties, whereby, Americans suppose to have made strides ineliminating racism. However, civilians are still afraid of marryingfrom a different race, parents are apprehensive of their childrenengaging in interracial sex. This is apparent when Percy tries to geta hotel room for Simon, and eventually having to sleep on the couch,after finding him in a compromising setting with Theresa.

Fryer (2007) argues, “Marrying across racial lines is a rare event,even today”. The author’s argument is that, though at this era,people may suppose racial prejudice is a historical issue, it stillraises cultural anxieties. The argument supports the film’scontent. As a rework, the movie demonstrates the still widespreadbiased views of individuals from different races. The contemporaryfilm seems to escape historic depictions of race relations. GuessWho features a couple that is free to marry regardless of theirdifferent races. They are not socially restricted by law tointermarry, as would have been the case in the 60s. However, thecultural anxiety of Percy does impede the happiness in the couple.Percy is determined to demonstrate to Theresa that a black male is abetter partner. He lacks any valid claim to dispute Simon, other thanhim being white. Percy’s cultural beliefs and worries concerningwhites influence his reaction towards Simon.

Currently, American cultural anxieties lie in the endeavors to refutethat racism is deeper than color disparities. Guess Who issuch an illustration depicting an interracial marriage arising fromaltered social status. “The types of individuals who choose tointermarry have changed as the social and economic statuses of racialgroups have shifted over time” (Fryer, 2007). Theresa’s parentsare from an upper class, implying that they have not been subjectedto any form of racial discrimination or faced racial obstacles. Theyhave attained the social status that allows them to associate withAmericans of all races. However, they still view Simon as animperfect match because of his skin color. Nevertheless, skin coloris not to blame here, as the viewer may think. It is the intrinsicprejudice for interracial marriage. Despite teaching their daughterthe values of equality, it is merely intended on a social level andnothing deeper like marriage. It becomes apparent that Americans areopen to the idea of socially interacting and associating with blacks,but when it further generates to romantic relationships, then racebecomes an issue.

Depiction of Interracial Sex and Marriage, Gender and Race

The controversies surrounding interracial sex and marriage arehistorical. The film tackles the disparities amid the older people’straditional refutation and the young population’s liberal approvalof miscegenation. Percy is from an older generation and probablywitnessed interracial marriage challenges in the 60s. He may havewitnessed a period when interracial sex and unions were viewed astaboo. This has shaped his view on interracial unions, which he wouldnot desire for the daughter. Such an ideology is difficult to change,as Percy will always view whites through his historical experiences.Contrary, Theresa has been raised in a more accepting society whereshe has been treated as an equal to individuals of all races. Thus,her choice of partner is not restricted by race.

Guess Who is additionally a depiction of issues concerninggender and race as perceived by society. The film attempts to reduceobservations on race. However, it highlights the intricacies peopleof different races encounter on a daily basis. Fryer (2007) in hisanalysis of the film’s content depicts a society that supposes tohave progressed from race related prejudice, yet race progresses tobe central in social endeavors. He employs illustrations of religionwhere people congregate based on race. In churches, it is more likelythat the churchgoers are from the same area and race. Anotherillustration is apparent in neighborhoods, where people are morelikely to live in the same environment as those from their ethnicity.

The issue of gender is apparent in the downgrading of Theresa to asupporting character. It is common in many films, which seem todisregard the relevance of female characters, rather placingrelevance to males. The central relationship in Guess Who isamid Percy and Simon. Their disagreement over marrying Theresa iscentral and solved via differences between the actors and thefemales. Marilyn and Theresa merely support the roles of Percy andSimon respectively. This raises the issue of gender, as women aredepicted as less important in their roles in many Hollywood movies.

Reference

Fryer, R. G. (2007). Trends in Interracial Marriage over the 20thCentury. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(2), 71-90.

Effective Communication

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 6

EffectiveCommunication

MichelleCruz

FortisCollege

EffectiveCommunication

Technologyhas been so advantageous to individuals in the 21st century. It haschanged the way people communicate. The type of communication, today,is basic people send a short quick message or ignore others by justa click of a button. Technology has helped people become intelligentand faster, however at the expense of personal contact. People usethe computer to communicate on social networks like Facebook ratherthan planning an evening out with a group of friends. Skype isbecoming popular and people hangout via a computer screen.Interacting with people with different types of technology at homecan be efficient however, it can have adverse effects oninterpersonal relationships.

Tobegin with, technology is a reliable source of communication but itcan create an outer casing in a person. This casing causes people tocreate a distance from the outside world. Moreover, people start tobe dependent of small gadgets to communicate with others. Thesegadgets allow a person to be connected but also disconnected at thesame time, because a person does not have to talk to the person(Kovalchick &amp Dawson, 2004). Texting can affect how peopleinteract face to face. Most people would start to become anti-socialand will only be able to open up behind a cell phone screen. Inaddition, when a person is texting, he or she can misinterpret whatthe other person is trying to say, and this can create chaos in acorrelation (Burnard, 1997).

Forthe past few years, everything was designed to be more convenient forpeople, such as new generation iPods, faster phones and computers.Technology allows people to communicate, in a way, that they couldnot communicate in person (Kovalchick &amp Dawson, 2004). A personwould rather text someone in the next room and does not have to walkten feet from his or her comfort zone. Using technology can allowindividuals to express themselves in ways they have never before. Forinstance, some people can text the person they have a crush on andtell them exactly how they feel, but they would never be able to dothis in person (Guffey &amp Almonte, 2009).

Theway people portray themselves through a text message is not the sameway they portray themselves in a much real situation (Trevallion &ampStrazzari, 2003). People, tend to be very social in a text messages,where else, they can be extremely shy in person. If relationshipswere based on a text conversation, all relationships would be builton a false level. The author asserts that texting is the coward wayof saying how a person feels without the need of facing someone faceto face (Kovalchick &amp Dawson, 2004).

Technologyis convenient. For instance, texting rapidly replaces cell phonecalls between romantic partners. Although it seems instantlygratifying, in the end it could be unhealthy to some relationships.Since people have the access of calling others from their cell phonesat any time, they never get a chance to sit down and communicate withtheir loved ones since they are too busy texting. The accessibilitythat technology gives people can hurt relationships with others(Burnard, 1997).

Forcase, if a partner does not give a phone call to a girlfriend inseveral days and she knows that the only reason he will not call isthat he does not want to, this can be a source of conflict. Parentscan also get upset if their children call them once a week and theform of communication is texting instead of visiting them. Nowadayspeople would rather have a texting war for hours than go outside andsee a ray of sunlight or use their car to visit anyone (Guffey &ampAlmonte, 2009).

Technologysupports effective communication in numerous ways. For example, itenables a person to communicate faster with receive response within ashorter period. In this point of view, technology has madecommunication easier and time efficient. In addition, technologyenables a person to save and retrieve contacts of family, friends andbusiness associates in seconds (Kovalchick &amp Dawson, 2004).Moreover, technology has enabled people to operate their officeduties without necessarily being in an office. For instance, managerscan follow up and give orders to their business operations while theyare on a trip in a foreign country. This means that technology’srole in effective communication has enabled fast development and lesstime to market (Burnard, 1997).

Additionally,technology has enabled efficient data transfer. Through transfer ofdata, information is comprehended much better since there is evidenceto back up the information. For example, when a person is sellinggoods, he or she can email the photos of the goods to a potentialbuyer for clarification before the goods are delivered. It can bevery tedious to deliver goods and have to take the goods back due toa misunderstanding of the customer’s quotation, yet this could beavoided if sample photos were sent to the customer for clarification(Guffey &amp Almonte, 2009).

Mostimportantly, technology has enabled real-time communication. Thisgives people a feeling that they are communicating with the otherparty in person despite the distance. As well, technology breaks thefeeling of being distant to loved ones. Parents can inquire andcommunicate to their children when they are away from home(Trevallion &amp Strazzari, 2003). As people enjoy effectivecommunicate offered by technology, there are additional things to beglad of, for instance, the internet has given a platform where peoplecan ask questions to millions of people worldwide who are willing tohelp. Simply put, with technology, people can communicate aboutanything anywhere, anytime, and one can develop a business linewithout needing a real office (Burnard, 1997).

Onthe other hand, technology has hindered effective communication in anumber of ways. A growing world based on technology reduces theamount of time spent with other people in real life. Likewise,technology has hindered effective communication as anyone can uploadinformation that might not be accurate (Guffey &amp Almonte, 2009).Moreover, Social skills writing skills are demolished as people tendto use shortened words or slang on social media and while messaging.Additionally, communicating over a distance might degrade the humanapproach to relations. Technology has also made peoples mind lazy asa person can ignore some parts of information and jump directly tothe interesting part of his or her choice (Kovalchick &amp Dawson,2004).

Inconclusion, technology allows people to communicate in a way thatthey could not communicate in person. However, People are so used tobeing glued to their phones that even when there sharing time withsomeone in person they are still on their phones texting. A cellphone although tiny creates an enormous gap between a person andtheir loved ones. People need to learn to drop their fancy devicesand focus on the most important things in life, and that is spendingquality time with their loved ones instead of using technology toescape.

References

Burnard,P. (1997). Effectivecommunication skills for health professionals.Cheltenham, U.K: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.

Guffey,M. E., &amp Almonte, R. (2009). Essentialsof business communication.Toronto: Nelson Education.

Kovalchick,A., &amp Dawson, K. (2004). Educationand technology: An encyclopedia.Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Trevallion,D., &amp Strazzari, S. (2003). Designand technology.Glebe, N.S.W: Pascal Press.

Capstone Case Vacco v. Quill

CAPSTONE CASE VACCO V. QUILL 3

CapstoneCase Vacco v. Quill

CapstoneCase Vacco v. Quill

Vaccov. Quill represents a landmark ruling by the United States SupremeCourt on the right to die. In the case, Dr. Timothy E. Quillalongside other physicians and three terminally ill patients aimed atchallenging the constitutionality pertaining to the New York State’sban imposed on physician-assisted suicide. As much as the ban hadallowed patients to decline life-saving treatment, it criminalizedthe assistance that physicians may offer patients to attempt suicideor decline suicide even in instances where the patients were inimmense pain or suffering from terminal illness. In this case, theSupreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality ofthe ban on physician assisted suicide and stated that the preventionof physicians from helping their patients even those that are inimmense pain or terminally ill was a legitimate state interest thatwas within the state’s authority to regulate (Schmalleger et al,2010). The court ruled that the state had a legitimate interest inthe protection of medical ethics, prevention of euthanasia,protection of the terminally ill and disabled from prejudice that mayencourage them to cut short their lives and the preservation of humanlife (Biggs, 2000). As much as the court acknowledged the difficultywith which the task came, it made a distinction between the decliningof lifesaving treatment and assisted suicide (Schmalleger et al,2010). It noted that later incorporates some criminal elementspertaining to intent and causation, which the former does not.Irrespective of the nobility of the physician’s motives, he or sheshould not assist, hasten or deliberately cause a patient’s death(Schmalleger et al, 2010). I think that the distinction made isconsiderably valid. The assistance given to a patient to commitsuicide would essentially mean that the physician is the cause of thedeath and indeed, intends to end the life of the patient.

References

Biggs,H. (2000). Euthanasia,death with dignity and the law.Oxford: Hart.

Schmalleger,F., Hall, D. E. &amp Dolatowski, J. J. (2010). Criminal law today(4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Learning.

Talisman Energy Inc.

TalismanEnergy Inc.

StudentName’s

TalismanEnergy Inc.

WhoWe Are

TalismanEnergy Inc. is a global company dealing with natural gas productionand exploration and was founded in the year 1992 (Christensen,1996).Its headquarters is in Calgary, Alberta in Canada. It operatesworldwide and the operation areas includes Canada(B.C., Alberta, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Quebec) and the United Statesof America (Pennsylvania, New York, Texas ) in North AmericaColombia, South America Algeria in North Africa United Kingdom andNorway in Europe Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea,East Timor and Australia in the Far East and Kurdistan in the MiddleEast. It has also constructed offshore Beatrice Wind FarmDemonstrator in Scotland’s North Sea. Ithas achieved this status through exploring and acquiring land leaseholding and assets in addition to mergers. It proactively operates toenable engagement of its business interest with the wishes orconcepts of communities where they operate since natural gasproduction for it to be successful entails cooperation amongconcerned parties (Haggett,2013).

Everypublic official, regulator, landowner, supplier, employee orcontractor is important for its success. Talisman energy Inc iscommitted to the development of a mutual long term beneficialrelationship in order to develop a positive long lasting impact onthe lives of the local community.

WHATIT DOES

Theaffordable, clean and abundant natural gas is essential for meetingenergy needs since Talisman Energy Inc is endowed with key energysources and natural gas which meet the demands of up to quarter ofthe world’s energy needs.

TalismanEnergy Inc has had wide experience in drilling of very deephorizontal wells in. As noted by Christensen,(1996),Talisman energy Inc adheres to legal safety and environmental codesof conduct which also involves minding the environmental issues andcoming up with the efforts to reduce adverse impacts on theenvironment.

TalismanEnergy Inc is aware that the best environmental policy identifiesprevention as the first undertaking. It has had excellentenvironmental protection track record since 1992 and its strongcommitment on environmental protection is highly attributed to thisachievement.

Thenature of its business always brings Talisman Energy Inc into contactwith other people across the regions where operations are carriedout. It is committed to operating with every person in an honest,fair and in an open manner.

Vision

Manycompanies develop a vision statement which describes the company andpeople when all the strategies have been fully implemented. Somecompanies also use the vision statement as a source of motivation

Talismandoesn’t have a vision statement but has listed its values asdescribed below. These values can be used to develop vision statementwhich is to create sustainable commercial success through continuousimprovement, building trust with all stakeholders through integrity,teamwork and valuing our people.

MissionStatement

Talismanmission Statement which has been updated reflects the direction ofnew business. The Mission Statement reads as follows: To deliver acompetitive and sustainable rate of return to shareholders bydeveloping, acquiring and exploring for oil, gas and alternativeenergy resources vital to the world`s health and welfare. TalismanEnergy Inc strives to do this in an environmentally responsible way,while reducing market price volatility.

Talismanenergy Inc has values which describes how it is and how it works. Itsvision and mission states what it believes and what it stands for. Inaddition it reflects its corporate culture and organization insight.Wholly, its values depict how it acts and expectation for treatmentas a Talisman team.

Thefollowing values or objectives have been outlined to supplement theachievement of its mission and mission.

Safety&nbsp

Talismanobjective is to develop the best working conditions where it won’tcreate any harm to various parties. It has taken safety as thefirst priority since when the operations outcomes and safety comesinto conflict the employees tend to select safety. Thus Talisman ishas made efforts to support this selection and provides resourcesimportant to acquire safety in the working environment.

Passion&nbsp

Talismanenergy inspires others through the passion it shows out for its work.

Itbelieves that by being passionate in its undertakings and for thecompany, it will achieve high productivity and success. It feelshappy and succeeds in what it does and feels enthusiastic about it.

Results&nbsp

Ithas a bias for results and takes measures to streamline things and bedone efficiently, to create value for its shareholders.&nbspItbelieves that for the effective results to be achieved it needs tocome up a vision, set priorities and implement SMART action plans. Itis purpose driven and is accountable for timely and high qualityoutcomes

Respect&nbsp

Talismanenergy Inc takes time to appreciate other stakeholder’s ideas andtreat them with respect. It values diversity of its workforce andstakeholders and values the strengths of others. It respectsothers through treating them with courtesy, listening and dignity.

Inexecuting and planning for its activities it considers theenvironment, by respecting it aiming to reduce the effect of itsoperations.

Excellence&nbsp

Talismanstrives to achieve excellence in what it does and how it does. Itinvolves handwork, innovation, being smart and demonstration oftechnicality, professionalism and problem solving skills. It strivesto maintain improvement in order to achieve excellence.

Teamwork&nbsp

Talismanworks together effectively to deliver results which goes beyond onescapabilities. Through working together superior results are achieved.The common and clear goals support teamwork. it is aware that forteamwork to be realized it has to be rooted in trust and needs toaccept and needs to provide, ask for aids and give advice as well asfeedback.

Honestcommunication&nbsp

Talismanshows courage in speaking honestly and supporting others to performthe same. Talisman provides honest and truthful communication anddiscloses all matters affecting it to all stakeholders. Theinformation is disseminated up, down and across all the organization.It speaks the truth even through the message passed is difficult andmay be the conversation is uncomfortable.

Goal &amp Strategy

Talisman’energy Inc strategic objectives are as follows

  • To develop sustainable growth in the north America region in addition to Norway and southeast Asia

  • To develop exploration portfolio to enable renewals through exploring for hydrocarbons with time

  • To bring these together with other sources of money in addition to focusing on the portfolio

Thestrategic objectives were developed to reduce the F and D or findingand development costs and increase life index reserve with time. TheF and D will be brought down through

  • Unconventional gas business model lowers the F and D costs unlike the conventional gas business model

  • It is planning to expand its activity in areas where F and D is lower for instance southeast Asia.

  • It will need to shift the exploration to larger prospects in order to lower it.

EXTERNALANALYSIS

Instrategic analysis the framework which is taken into consideration atfirst is the macro level and assists in the assessment of externalenvironment of a company, the ways through which it impacts onindustry development and how it impacts on the value of a company.The PESTEL analysis has six aspects

ThePolitical aspects

Itaffects the natural gas and petroleum industry.

Manycountries around the globe impacts on the industry’s players,because they are oil and gas resources or hydrocarbon reserves. Bycontrolling these reserves enables the governments to make saleconcessions to various companies hence provide them with rights toexplore and produce oil in the enclosed geographical area in a giventime. In addition the government is able to favor the local oilcompanies and lock out the foreign companies in the process. Anotherinfluential body is OPEC or the Organization of the PetroleumExporting Countries which control nearly 75% of the world’s oilresource. The geopolitical effects will enhance since oil resource isgetting depleted (Haggett,2013).

Theinternal political and broad geopolitical risks will tend to limitthe investment in many countries despite best policies and goodeconomy incentives. Civil conflicts, wars, strikes, nationalizationregulatory environment and expropriation will result to disruptionand discouragement of operations and investments since it is commonin oil producing countries. For example, there is no country whichhas had guts to invest in Iraq despite its richness in oil. Thegeopolitical stress in Middle East has always kept off the foreigninvestors. Also, as added byChristensen,(1996), the resistance in Mexico which could have issued the privatecompanies with greater roles has also diverted the investors. Thesepolitical aspects negate the development of oil companies.

Thedecisions by world politicians to develop cleaner sources of energyas a result of climate change will immensely affect the petroleumindustry. The treaties such as the Kyoto protocol, which developscommitments to bind countries legally to decline the green housegases can result in reduction of profitability and adversely affectthe growth opportunities.

EconomyAspect

Oilindustry is more interdependent with the world economy. The worldeconomy depends on oil supply at a price and the world economy isimportant for the development of oil industry. This can be understoodsince the oil demand is driven by the growth of the economy, andincreasing worldwide population. When the economy fall the demand foroil also decreases. The financial and economic crisis had a greateffect on oil markets. Currently the demand for oil is on a downhilltrend as a result of decreasing demand for oil in OECD or thosecountries whose economies had been recessed. In 2009 the impressionwas not positive due to lowered demand for oil and also decreasingprices which fall from $147 in 2008 to $50 per barrel in 2009(Haggett,2013).

Thedemand for oil in the developing countries is however perceived toincre3ase in coming decades it will increase in developing countriescharacterized by high growth in GDP for example India and china. Oilhas a good characteristic in that it is inelastic i.e. it takes alonger period of time for the consumers and businesses to react tochanges in its price which is an advantage to oil companies.

Apartfrom market demand and GDP, the value of a dollar also affects oiland petroleum industry as an economic aspect. Oil is traded in dollarcurrency worldwide. For example when the oil price soared in 2008,the dollar value was down at that period. This is as a result ofexchange rates. The producers of oil sell oil in dollar currency andare always faced with exchange rates between dollar and a nationalcurrency. Therefore when the dollar gets weak, the petroleum marketincreases the oil price since producers are allowed to sell at thesame price as before in their currencies after the dollar into owncurrency. This is attributed to good management of the economy of USAalongside the dollar to provide oil price stability and increaseprofitability of oil.

Socio-CulturalAspect

Socio-culturalaspect determines the beliefs, lifestyles and beliefs of thesocieties worldwide with oil companies. These forces also enable thesocieties to select or chose a given type of energy (Maharaj,2011).Despite the fact that the demand for energy especially oil isincreasing, the share of oil as a total energy consumed worldwide hasbeen declining three decades for instance in 1980s it stood at 45%and currently it stands at 35%. The trend will go on if green sourcesof energy increase their share. Emergence of global warming caused alot of fears the social responsibilities and considerations ofgovernments and societies paved way for exploitation and search foralternative sources of energy like hydroelectric power, bio fuels,solar energy and wind (Haggett,2013).

Inorder to take measures, many people have begun focusing on the healthliving surrounding and are more concerned about the environment.Environmentally friendly and new fuels have been developed and alsoproduction cost has been declining hence the use of oil and naturalgas energy is likely to be disfavored (Maharaj,2011).

Thesocial responsibly of companies also affects the oil industry throughtheir image. Hence a lot of companies have put across during theirannual reports that they are well involved in the development whichis sustainable in areas or societies they operate. Talisman forexample has invested in various social, cultural and environmentalactivities and agrees that it is depleting natural resources whichare part of societies’ heritage therefore it has a duty to beaccountable to the society. Also it assists the local societiesthrough investment in education to create skilled labor throughfinancing and training activities which motivates local suppliers(Maharaj,2011).

Technology

Thenatural gas and oil industry is technologically driven since researchand technology has a great role in solving energy demand andchallenges worldwide. It is an important aspect from exploration tillit is refined. Improved technology and innovation has enabled theextraction of large amount of gas and oil and extract the preservedreserves which were deemed exhausted. This has permitted theprofitability of oilfields which currently exist.

Theadvances in technology have enabled successful extraction andexploration of deep water reservoirs which are very hard to reach andin most reservoirs technology is still developed. An instance of suchreservoir is the oil field discovered in Brazilian shore recentlycalled Tupi reservoir. Talisman has been committed to advance thetechnology over the last four years and it as successful in liftingthe first oil from Tupi in may 2009.

Throughemployment of modern technology to local oil fields and explore, theoil companies can acquire comparative advantage. Thus technology iscrucial for the development in the downstream and midstream sectors.For instance, in the midstream sector, there is pipelinestransporting oil under the water at a great pressure with depth whilein downstream, it is used to optimize refining process of petroleumwith different quality which improves the margins of companies. Theoutlook is that technology will affect the development of oilindustry in the future and specifically its long term sustainability.This can be attributed to hydrocarbons getting depleted and newdiscoveries are met at great depths which recently had not beenexploited profitably and technologically.

Environmentalaspect

Throughoutthe development and exploration processes environmental issuesaffects the gas and oil industry which is perceived to be the highestemitter of pollutants to the environment. For instance there isalways complains of oil spillage in seas and oceans. There is no oilcompany which can be said it has never been involved in suchemission.

Itis important that polluters compensates for the environmental damagesthey cause. In addition, when concession rights are negotiated, thedetails and ways of cleaning affected areas should also be clarified(Maharaj,2011).

Companiesneed to allocate some portions of their profits in restoration andremediation of environment when inactive sites are cleaned. Theinactive sites includes waste disposal sites, service stations, oiland natural gas fields, chemical plans, refineries, terminals andnatural gas processing plants.

Allthese are burden to profitability of a company. Restriction on theenvironment also involves investment in technology to minimizepollution to very low levels. However, special care needs to be takencare of for safety of products, quality of products and means oftransportation of hydrocarbons possessing risks (Maharaj,2011).

Throughthis means the pollution of environment will be prevented and also tomaintain good reputation and the sustainability of petroleum industrythrough satisfaction of stakeholders and consumers, causing valuecreation for the shareholders.

Legalaspect

Thelegal aspect of the macro environment also shapes the industry. Thisindustry is subjected to tough regulations ranging from imposition ofdrilling obligations, environmental health and safety regulations anddecommissioning of oil fields regulations.

Thehydrocarbon products are also sold in regulated markets. In addition,a lot of companies are faced with difficulties in paying theconcession fees and taxes and royalties on petroleum which are veryhigh as compared to fees paid for other activities commercially.There is also unpredictability on changes to various regulations andlaws whereby companies may have to stop operations or get faced withadditional costs.

Nevertheless,the main legal concern which affects companies is as a result ofcompliance with obligations, laws and regulations pertaining toclimate change and environment. There is also local, state, nationaland international regulations pertaining the products, activities andoperations. Fuel specifications, programs on climate change andregulations on emissions will impact the production, profitabilityand sale of petroleum and natural gas. The environmental laws entailscompanies to provide remedy for damages on environment beforepetroleum pollutants or chemicals are disposed or released to theenvironment.

Macro-environmentaltrends

Dwindlingresource bases

Therehas been a lot of prediction concerning availability of naturalresources like oil and natural gases in the future and it will behard to get, develop and produce and as a result it will lead to highprices of oil and natural gas. The Department of Energy has projectedthat oil prices could raise to around $34 and $96 per barrel by theyear 2030.

RegulatoryForces

TheUnited States Government has been motivating private sector todevelop alternative sources of energy by offering them withincentives and grants. The Department of Energy initiated and awardedEnergy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC) which has been alwaysoffered to the private industry in order to explore and to developenergy efficient and alternative energy projects.

Thegovernment usually pays for any new project developed generating orsaving energy but the private company’s tries to develop thenecessary technology. It also provides the incentives to oil businessand private sector through reduction of taxes charged.

EnergyPolicy Act of 2005 issues tax break on alternative sources of energyproduction. Also in the policy is the automobile industry usingbiodiesel fuel and electric power.

Effectsof the Environment and Regulations

Talismanenergy Inc is an independent oil and exploration company. It dependson finding and development of natural gas and oil reserves.Decreasing natural gas reserve and accessible oil fields with highcost of extraction will increase the profit margins in the further.It is common that in future the oil and gas business is going todecrease. If price will go higher, people will move away from fossilfuel. The regulatory environment provides incentives to consumers andbusiness so that it avoid use of fossil fuels and ensure technologyand infrastructure are made available before change is affected.

Competitive/ Industry Analysis –Porter’s Five Forces

Todevelop a profitable competitive advantage or strategy, a companyneeds to view the competitive structure of its industry by looking atthe competitive forces since profitability of a company is influencedthrough industry profitability. In this case, strategists incorporate sector offer advice on the incorporation of Porter’sIndustry Analysis framework. This explains competitive environmentthrough five competitive forces. According to Porter’s framework,for example, competition results from producers of same products,suppliers of substitute’s products and new entrants in the market.A Company maintains high rate of returns due to barriers to entry orif the company has more advantages over the competitors. Thisanalysis permits investigation on the competitiveness in petroleumindustry which affects profitability sustainability of oil companiesin the future.

Threatof New Entrants

Threatof new entrants is the force brought by the new competitors in theindustry which affects the profits of a company. However, the threatposed by new entrants in the oil industry is small even though theindustry is attractive and high barriers to entry explain this.

First,there are a lot of capital required for the activities done by oilcompanies which are stationed in upstream, midstream and downstreamoperations of the industry. Large up-front investments are needed inoil fields development and setting facilities for production. Thecosts made here is difficult to be provided by every company.Development of oil fields, for instance, costs a lot of billiondollars in accessible reserves in Middle East to $50bn, in Brazilianoffshore Tupi field which is situated 4000meters below the seabed insalt layer and needs very complicated technology to extract.

Accordingto the International Energy Agency (IEA, 2008) report, the cost perunit in upstream oil industry have been increasing over the last tenyears averaging increases of 90% between 2000 and 2007.this involvescost of exploration, drilling, skilled services, scientific research,energy and materials, oil fields services, which create barriers tonew entrants.

Anotherbarrier is the economies of scale. As a result of increased unit costin the exploration and production of oil, bigger companies andrefineries who afford to maximize economies of scale will onlysurvive. This concept will complicate matters for the new entrantssince they will have few less number of oil reserves and may not haveinvested in foreign countries. Not investing in foreign countriesaffects a lot of oil rich countries except from Norway, Brazil andUS.

Securingdistribution channels access also causes barriers to entry by newcompetitors. Always national and international oil companies areusually characterized by well developed distribution channels indownstream or upstream or both sectors.

Pipelines,distribution stores and gas stations or both are modes ofdistribution. It is always costly and needs a lot of time to buildcreating hindrance for new competitors. Nonetheless, the greatesthindrance of new entrants is as a result of disadvantages notdependent on economy factors that are from national policies whichsupport national companies through unique ways. The natural gas andoil are resources belonging to the state and the government has totalownership hence it tends to issue access to raw materials only tocompanies operating nationally. A lot of oil rich countries permitother companies to exploit oil fields but through partnering with agiven national company.

Knowledgeand experience are important since technology is employed in findingaccess to inaccessible oil reserves. The recently discovered oilfields found offshore in Brazil, for example, special drillingtechnology are required and this technology is never possessed bymain international oil companies. Talisman energy inc. has also beeninvolved in such exploration since its formation and therefore itpossess competitive advantage over other similar related companies inthe industry.

BargainingPower of Buyers

Buyersinfluence profitability of oil industry since they did the prices ordictate for more high quality services through bargaining inpartnership with competitors. Nonetheless, in the petroleum industrythe price of oil is derived at a global level according to theeconomic relationship between oil supply and demand.

Thespecific global price of oil is the price of light crude which istraded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). In opposition tothis, oil is traded at global price and between two parties over thecounter. Concerning this, the ability to pay is the lone bargainingpower possessed by buyers. Oil buyers usually turns up national oilcompanies, distributers, refiners, traders, marketers and majorinternational companies. Sometimes, countries are treated as buyers.There are bigger consumers of oil such as Japan, china, US and UEwhich consumes more than half of total world oil production and thesecountries tends to exert a lot of pressure on bargaining power byvarying the demand of oil.

Despitethe fact that many countries are currently switching the dependenceof fossil fuels to the renewable energies, the dependence of fossilfuels will still be relied upon to satisfy the energy needs in futurewhere the demand is expected to increase especially in the industryand transportation.

Thereis evidence that largest buyers of oil through quantity demandedexert bargaining power in the market. Bargaining power is alsocontributed by the undifferentiated and standard product and buyersnot exposed to switching costs. These conditions don’t give thebargaining power to buyers because the product in the industry iscrucial for buyer’s services or products and buyers themselves arenot a threat in volumes purchased.

BargainingPower of Suppliers

Thesuppliers can have damage on the returns of future industry throughreducing quality of products or services or raising the price.Companies like talisman energy have a lot of suppliers from oil filedsuppliers, engineering suppliers, pipeline installations, equipmentand materials, scientific researchers and engineers and fielddevelopment management. Oil producing countries which are alsoreferred to as suppliers are the main component in the industry andown a lot of bargaining power. Currently the OPEC nations are theones mandated to nationalize the production of oil within theirdisposal and take and own all the business from larger oilcorporations.

OPECowns two-thirds of the oil reserves which have been proven globally.With cheapest means of producing oil, they thus will have highbargaining power to oil corporations. The bargaining power of OPEC iswitnessed only when oil-fields concession rights are being granted tointernational companies. In the past years when the price of oil wasrising the OPEC members or oil rich countries were found to be meanto foreign investors or companies. However, the bargaining powerchanged in 2009 when the price of oil dropped three times as from2008. Later when prices dropped drastically to $50 per barrel a lotof countries explored and found oil reserves but in smallerquantities uneconomical to be extracted by themselves and have beenlooking for assistance from international companies. Theinternational oil companies possess advantage since they haveknowledge, expertise and experience to develop fields which areaccessible (Haggett,2013). These multinational oil companies have large economies ofscale or a lot of capital and are able to take their operations toany part of the world and make oil deals with oil producers atfavorable terms.

Thepower is distributed to favor supplying countries and also it isdistributed to favor oil companies at the aspect of other remainingsuppliers in the industry. This is simply because oil industry hasmany small sub-suppliers from different industries. They are notenhanced and provided that big oil corporations have a lot of largevolume buyers and high amount of profits and hence reduce theirbargaining power. The oil companies are positioned to select the bestsuppliers to provide their businesses with the best quality ofmaterials and services supplies. Engineers and scientific researcherscomponent is also important in oil industry since they are the one’spossessed with knowledge and are able to develop technology used forextraction. Majority of oil companies are faced with difficulties ofobtaining enough of this qualified labor force.

Petroleumbusiness is cyclical and has lost its attractiveness hence theuniversity graduates have not been interested so far with thisindustry which provides them the bargaining power to oil companies.The general outlook of bargaining power distribution betweensuppliers and oil companies is that it is dependent on the type ofthe supplier. Taking a look at the suppliers of services andmaterials provides an impression that large oil companies exertbargaining power as a result of their position. But the picture isunique when taking a look at the oil fields suppliers with OPECmembers as for instance, which owns a lot of oil reserves easilyaccessible. Their policies can move out of business when theircurrent oil reserves dries out.

Threatof Substitute Products and Services

Thesubstitute products and services reduce the profits of companies andtheir value creation sources. But oil is the main source of energyand is not replaceable in some sectors categorically in industry andtransportation. It is going to stay to be the dominant source ofenergy till and after 2030. This is simply because oil is cheap ascompared to other types of fuel. When the exploitation and drillingtechnology gets more sophisticated and is going to outpace the costsof depletion, oil is going to be the cheapest energy source infuture. The oil substitutes become a threat if the price of oil willincrease drastically. The oil substitutes which are mostly used arein the following order coals, natural gas, renewable energy sourceslike solar energy and wind, hydropower and bio-fuels and nuclearenergy. Governments all over the world have begun changing theirperceptions on fossil fuels and the damages or pollutions it causeson the earth. This aspect is the most serious threat on petroleumproducts since the world is moving towards incorporation of greensources of energy.

Basedon Energy Information Administration natural gases substitute islikely to have a higher growth rate than oil. The natural gas willget high share of the market in the commercial, industrial andresidential sectors. This will good news to Talisman since itproduces oil as well as natural gas because they are always foundtogether. It will be effected since natural gas don’t have greatadverse in the environment since it emits less amount of green housegases and thus cannot CO2taxes to its price. In comparison it emits 40% less CO2thanoil and 78% less than coal.

Coalconsumption will fall in total energy share since its raw materialsare only found only in few countries and are also complex and foundfar away from main markets. In addition the coal cost of exploitationis expected to increase in future as a result of environmentalregulations like Kyoto protocol.

Therenewable energy for instance hydrogen, hydropower, and wind areprojected to increase in the market share in coming years.Nonetheless, without future planning as per the government policies,geared at declining CO2emissiononto the environment, adoption of renewable energies on a large scaleis going to be slow. If these energy sources will have high cost ofproduction, it won’t be competitive economically as compared tofossil fuels. However, the potentiality of such fuels should not bealliterated because a lot of world governments have activelyadvocated for the utilization of green energy sources.

Theexpansion of nuclear energy has been difficult in OECD countriesbecause it is more expensive option for generating electricity incomparison coal or natural gas. In addition, there is oppositionagainst exploitation of nuclear energy in some parts of the world

Becauseof environmental safety concerns, waste disposal of radioactiveelements and nuclear weapon proliferations. Thus use of nuclearenergy as a substitute is questionable. In the coming two decades ithas been projected that the worlds demand for energy is going toskyrocket in all types of energies. Also petroleum will go on leadingin the energy industry onwards but the alternative sources of energyis intensively sought more environmentally friendly sources of energywill pose a threat to petroleum industry. Therefore petroleumcompanies needs to focus on renewable energy sources. Talisman energyInc is an instance of oil companies which is increasing theproduction and research on bio-fuels.

Intensityof Rivalry among Competitors

Rivalryis initiated when competitors get pressure or endeavors to gaincomparative advantage in the industry. The competitive environment inpetroleum industry has few major players and various small playersfeatured with less power. Major competitors despite representing theinternational companies with little oil control but are enlightenedwith technology while the national oil companies which own 88% ofworld’s oil reserves in 2007 have put little focus on thetechnology.

First,most of such national oil firms are members of OPEC operating assingle entity or cartel declining the rivalry or competition. Butrivalry is getting heightened with big oil producers since the desireto replace the fields which are getting depleted exerts pressure,taking in mind the difficulties of exploring for new reserves. Thischallenge has made major producers to shift to mergers, acquisitionsand alliance formations, as a means of dealing with competitionrivalry or constraints (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Secondly,the industry which grows slowly also heightens rivalry amongcompetitors. The research which was done recently showed that gas andoil exploration is always fruitless and is easy to access and theirsupplies won’t be going alongside the demand. Since 2000, the onlyfive of the largest oil corporations have replaced 82% of oilreserves they consumed. In addition, no new refinery has been openedin US in the last twenty years.

Intheory, when there is high barriers to exit enables companies in theindustry to rival despite below average rates of returns. Highbarriers to exit is common in refineries businesses or downstreamsector but is lower in upstream sector of the industry where thefield concession rights is renounced easily as a result ofcompetitors interest to enhance new fields.

Otherfactor which contributes to competitor’s rivalry in oil industryincludes high storage costs or fixed costs and lack ofdifferentiation of oil and gas. High storage costs or fixed costscannot affects the big companies since they have advantage due toeconomies of scale and this leads to consolidation (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Thepicture shown is that competitor rivalry is significantly immensewhich is explained by lots of companies trying to replace depleted ordry oil resources. New oil fields are hard to exploit hence this taskis difficult and it requires costly and sophisticated technology. TheOPEC members have adopted protection and restriction policies towardsexploitation of oil fields. The world oil industry suggests negativetrend in the sustainability of company’s profitability. But thisdoesn’t apply to Talisman.

Talismanenergy Inc has privileges to access more oil resources. It dominateshome market, getting involved in production of alternative fuels likebio-fuels and oil and leads in extraction of oil found deep in theworld. These ensure that it has a competitive advantage over thecompetitors and get share3holders’s sustainable value. But being aninternational player, talisman’s profitability is vulnerable tobargaining power and threats from rivals or competitors.

SWOTAnalysis.

SWOT Analysis

Strength

  1. Talisman energy inc has a lot of exploitation upstream operations in which it develop, produce, transport and market crude oil which aids it in gaining competitive advantage

  2. It has its operations in various countries like North Africa, Australia, North Sea and Southeast Asia.

  3. It has got more than 3000 employees which all have a lot of experience in petroleum industry

  4. It is at high position to own the shale gas resource in USA which is an upcoming sector in unconventional source of natural gas

  5. In Canada it is among the largest companies dealing with energy

Weakness

  1. Sometimes it depends on third parties to gain access to some assets and this sometimes affect the financial operations

  2. It is characterized by limited scale and is outpaced by larger competitors in terms of revenue, employees and dominance of international market.

Opportunity

  1. Recently it announced new gas and oil projects and has allocated a lot of capital plans to be funded by cash from operation activities, sales of assets and the potential of its balance sheet

  1. It has joint together to venture with companies such as Sinopec and Mitsubishi. It has also made agreements such as Kurdistan and PETRONAS agreements which will enable it expand the operations and explores more oil internationally hence give Talisman more growth opportunities and will be able to increase its revenue generation

  2. It has closed or divests its noncore assets in Poland, British Columbia and Peru for it to be committed on main business and enhance its market position.

Threats

  1. It has been affected by the natural gas and crude oil fluctuation in their prices. This has had negative effects on its financial conditions, operation, its oil and natural gas reserve value, expenditure level of gas and oil development and exploration.

  2. There has been fierce competition from other competitors in the market and these competitors are larger in terms of dominance and revenue hence this will make Talisman lose its share in the market.

  3. There are sometimes occurrences of hazards and this will result in loss of skilled personnel or injury, damage of property, degradation of environment, additional cost of remedying incidents, investigation and penalties and being liable to third parties, therefore it increases the operation costs and reduces profit margins.

  4. Strict state laws and environmental regulations will have negative impact on the talisman’s operations through increased costs, affecting development frameworks, declining revenue and flow of cash from oil and gas sale, will reduce its liquidity.

Opportunities

Acquisitionsand agreements

TalismanEnergy Company has expanded its geographic diversification by meansof agreements and acquisitions. In 2008, one of its subsidiariesobtained all the shares of

CNOOCWiriagar Overseas at a cost of $212.5 million and this subsidiary hada 3.06% interest in the Tangguh LNG Project (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Thisproject is situated in West Papua, Indonesia, and has a lot of oilwells at offshore, pipelines, production facilities, and plantfacilities with a capacity of 7.6 million tons per year. In additionother two subsidiaries made and agreement Kurdistan regionalgovernment in Iraq and was interested in K44 and K39 in that order.Again in 2098 it announced that it made agreement with FEI FortunaShale to be interested in US properties belonging to Hallwood. It wasmeant that upon its completion Fortuna should have acquired 1/3interest of assets belonging to Hallwood in addition to properties inLouisiana, Texas and Arkansan at an acreage of 108000. Suchagreements enables talisman to increase its growth opportunities andincrease its revenue.

Newoil and gas production

Newgas and oil exploration by talisman energy Inc has enable it toincrease its gas and oil productions. In 2008 Vietnam 46/02 which isa subsidiary for talisman produced the first oil from Song Doc field.Production from five wells was expected to be 25000 bbls/d in early2009.three other wells were being drilled. In that period it wasestimated that its share of approved reserves in the Song Doc fieldwas around 6000000 barrels (mmbbls) and the reserves which had beenproved reaching 3mmbbls (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Alsoin 2009, it produced the first gas in Rev Field Norway and it wasexpected to produce 100mmcf/d of gas in addition to 6000bbls/d ofcondensed and natural gas liquids in two sea wells. In the same yearRev East well which was a third party was expected to be takenon-stream. At the end of 2007, Talisman share of probable and provedreserves in Rev Field was at 26 million boe while the proved reserveswere at 16million boe. Norge which is also one of its subsidiarieshad 70% interest in the field while Petoro had 30%. The oil and gastransported through a pipeline to Armada in UK. Thus, new productionpursued will increase the Talisman output hence increasing itsrevenues (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Threats

Economicslowdown in the US and Eurozone

Themain markets for Talisman are US and European Union. The economicslowdown in 2009 dealt a major blow to Talisman and affected it totoady. In 2007, the growth rate in US reduced from 2% to 1.1% in 2008and was expected to reach 1.6% in 2009. In Eurozone, the GDP reducedfrom 2.6% to 1% in 2008 and was also expected to reach 2% in 2009.This slowdown exerted pressure on company’s revenue and affectsdevelopment in the industry hence affects the talisman’s demand forproducts.

Environmentalregulation

Dueto oil pollution act of 1990 and Port State Control initiative, morestrict regulations have been enacted and adopted. As a result suchregulations lead to more costs channeled for pollution damages.Henceforth all companies in oil and gas industry have been subjectedto stringent environmental regulations. The storage and distributionfacilities have been strictly complying with regulations which havebeen changing from time to time. Such compliance makes Talisman incura lot of costs hence have adverse effect on its profits margins.

Saturationof resources

Theoilreserveshave been maturing especially in North America and has been leadingto increase in operation cost and replacement cost. Thus bigcompanies have been finding challenges in increasing the productionsince production has been declining in such mature oil fields. Inaddition, production from natural gas reserves in Canada has alsobeen decreasing. Despite the fact that Mackenzie valley reservesdevelopment was to boost gas reserves the overall decliningproduction is a major threat to many oil companies including the furthermore, offshore exploration and presentreserves are getting more mature and saturated. In the past there hasbeen dry holes being drilled in succession. Such saturation affectsthe operation of the company

SWOTAnalysis Table

Strengths

Strongmarket position

Talismanenergy inc is an international independent oil and gas company whoseoperations is mainly on exploitation, marketing, development,transportation and production of natural gas liquid and crude oil.Its three main areas are North Sea, North America and Southeast Asia.In North America it’s a leading explore of gas and possessunconventional potential for gas. In North Sea it has 40 oilfieldsand a large acreage for exploitation in Norway. In Southeast Asia, ithas long life reserves of natural gas and large acreage forexploration. Thus strong position of market enables increases theshare in the market.

Diversifiedgeographical presence

Talismanenergy Inc has diversified geographic presence and does theexploration, development and production in the following areas in theworld North America, the North Sea, Southeast Asia and Australia,North Africa, and Trinidad and Tobago. Its operations are carried outin the following 5 geographic segments North America, UK,Scandinavia, Southeast Asia, and others (consisting of North Africa,Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, Peru, and Qatar).As a result of thatdiversified presence, it produced 452000 barrels of oil per day in2008. Of this,

189,000boe/d was from North America, 117,000 boe/d was from the UK segment,33,000 boe/d was from the Scandinavia, 92,000 boe/d was fromSoutheast Asia, and 21,000 boe/d from other parts of the world. Thusdiversified presence enables a company to decline the risks frombusiness which might arise from another area or geography (Haggett,2013).

Weaknesses

Lackof scale

Talismanlacks the required scale to outpace larger players in oil and gasindustry. Majority of its rivals are larger in terms of revenue,employees and dominance in Europe and other markets. BritishPetroleum is one of its key competitors and generates revenue ofapproximately $288,950million, employs 97,600 people as by 2007. Exxon Mobil Corporation isalso one of its competitor and generates revenue of $390,328 millionand employs 81,000 2007. But, Talisman generated C$7,919 million in2008, and employed 2,600 people. Thus this is a problem for Talismansince as a result of small operation scale it will tend shy away fromcompetition (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Highdebt

Talismanhas been having a lot of debt. In 2008 it had total debt of C$3,949million. Despite the fact that, it decreased by 9% from 2007 whichwas an outstanding amount of CAD$4,341 million, this amount is stillhigh. This will make its ability to get financing difficult and alsosatisfy obligation (Haggett,2013).

GENERICSTRATEGY

Costleadership strategy

Talismancan use the cost leadership strategy whereby, it wins share of themarket by attracting the price sensitive customers through charginglowest price in market. It need to operate at the lowest cost aspossible as it offers the lowest price and maintains profitability.

Firstof all it will need to acquire high asset turnover. To achieve thisfixed cost need to be spread in more service or product units to leadto lower unit cost. This means it takes advantage of scale ofeconomies. In all industries, mass production of products is a mainstrategy in itself. Mass production or output need and leads to bigshare in the market and initiate barriers to competitors who have notgotten the economies of scale.

Secondlyit needs to achieve low direct and indirect operating costs. Thiswill be through issuing great volume of standard products andreducing personalization and customization of service. The cost ofproduction is kept low through use of few components, standardcomponents and limiting models. Also overheads will be kept lowthrough payment of low wages, building facilities in areas with lowrent rates, and initiating culture which is cost conscious. Thisstrategy will be maintained through lots of cost reduction throughcost production control, outsourcing, increasing use of assets andreducing costs on advertising, distribution and R and D (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Thirdly,the supply and procurement chain needs to be controlled to lead tolower costs. This can be met by selling oil and gas in bulk to offerdiscounts, generate competitive contact bidding, and squeezesuppliers’ price. Procurement advantages may also result fromaccessing raw materials and backward integrations (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

However,talisman needs to take into consideration that cost leadershipstrategy has some disadvantages since it is characterized by littleroyalty of customers since customers who are price sensitive mayswitch when substitutes which are lowly priced is availed in themarket. Having reputation as cost leader can also lead to low qualityproducts which may be hard to brand it again if it movesdifferentiation strategy (Trish &ampMatt, 2012).

Differentiationstrategy

Talismanwill need to differentiate it’s in order to compete well.Differentiation is recommended where the targeted consumers are notsensitive to price, the market is not saturated and competitive,consumers have certain needs which are underserved and the companypossess uncommon capabilities and resources which are able to satisfytheir needs in means which are hard to be copied. Intellectualproperty patents and different expertise technically, talentedpersonnel and innovation processes will be employed by TalismanEnergy inc. it will be sure of successful differentiation when itwill accomplish the premium prices of its products and services,increase revenue per unit or increase the loyalty of its consumers tobuying its service or product. Differentiation calls forprofitability if the total price for the product is more that totalexpenses to get the product or service. It is also ineffective if itsunique brand is copied by its rivals. A brand management which issuccessful leads to conceived uniqueness despite the similarities ofproducts (Pratima &amp Natalie,2009).

&nbspVariantson the Differentiation Strategy

Talismanenergy Inc can employ the shareholdervalue model which stipulates for timing and using specializedknowledge to develop differentiation advantages so long as theknowledge is still unique. Its suggestion is that consumers maypurchase a product or a service from a given company in order toaccess the unique or uncommon knowledge. It has an advantage in thatit is static instead of being dynamic since purchasing is a onceevent (Trish &amp Matt, 2012).

&nbsp Talismanenergy Inc can also employ the unlimitedresources model which calls foruse of mass resources which enables the company to outpacecompetitors through differentiation strategy. Since it has a lot ofresources it will be able to manage risks and also maintain theprofits easily than companies with few resources although this offersthe short term advantage. It will go on developing continuousinnovation in order to sustain its competition position (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Focusleadership

Thisdimension explains how companies need to compete as per thedifferentiation and cost leadership. Talisman energy company mayprefer to join competition in mass market characterized by broadscope or a market with narrow scope thus competition can bedifferentiation or cost leadership (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

IfTalisman will adopt narrow focus it will focus on few markets whichare termed segmentation. These are different groups having specialneed. Offering oil low prices or offering differentiated oil serviceswill need to depend on the resources belonging to it. If efforts inthe market will focus on narrow segments of market and employing themarketing mix to such markets, the needs of that market will be met(Trish &amp Matt, 2012).Talisman will thus achieve competitive advantage as a result ofinnovation and marketing instead of efficiency (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009). Talisman energy Inc willtarget markets which are likely to be availed with substitutes or inmarkets with weak competition to gain above investment returns.

Byadoption of broad focus, talisman energy Inc need to identify theneed and want of the mass market and initiate competition based onprice at a lower cost of differentiation in terms of customization,quality and brand but it will need to do this taking intoconsideration the capabilities and the resources available (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

.

DISCUSSION&amp RECOMMENDATIONS

RecommendedStrategies

Fromanalysis of Talisman SWOT we came across with a lot of problems andbelow are the strategies recommended to improve its performanceefficiency.

Weakness

HighDebt

Todecline the talisman debt Talisman needs to concentrate on strategicareas and exit non strategic areas. It needs to sell non-strategicareas to enhance cash flow and thereby decline amount of debt (Trish&amp Matt, 2012).

Lackof scale

Togain edge in competition from bigger oil companies like BritishPetroleum, it needs to employ differentiation strategy. MichaelPorter differentiation strategies are comes about when a companyprovides services at the similar price as competitors. By doing thistalisman will get a sustainable competitive advantages if processesof value creation is not imitated by other companies (Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

Threat

Economicslowdown in the US and Euro zone

Thebest means is to improve the efficiency. Talisman energy Inc duringeconomic crisis needed to concentrate on bottom line. The production,energy utilization is recommended to be made effective.

Environmentalregulations

Asa result of strict and frequent changes of oil pollution actstalisman energy Inc incurs high cost in complying with the act. Tosolve this it need to develop a strategy by coming up with a team tomonitor this compliance process in order to avert changes. Changeswhich might occur without proper planning will lead to higher cost.

Saturationof resources

Thiswill impact on the operation of Talisman energy inc. to avert this itneeds to focus on portfolio strategy. Talisman need to focus on areaswith high exploration and exit the areas which have been depleted(Pratima&amp Natalie, 2009).

References

Carlisle,T. (2000). Calgary Oil Firm Talisman Pays Painful Price for SudanInvestment. TheWall Street Journal. August17

Christensen,M. (1996). TalismanEnergy Inc..Toronto: Midland Walwyn Research.

Haggett,S. (2013).Talisman Energy shares surge as Carl Icahn acquires stake.Retrieved From,http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/07/us-talisman-icahn-idUSBRE9960VR20131007

Maharaj,A. (2011). Canadaleads global interest in CSR.Retrieved From,http://www.corporatesecretary.com/articles/compliance-ethics-csr/11972/canada-leads-global-interest-csr/

Pratima,B. &amp Natalie, S. (2009). TalismanEnergy Inc.: The Decision to Enter Iraq.Ivey Publishing.

Trish,G. &amp Matt, S. (2012). The Community Obligations of Canadian OilCompanies: A Case Study of Talisman in the Sudan. Vol.Iss: 4,pp.231 – 261.

Gordon`s Park

StudentName’s

Gordon’sPark

Thisis a story about the effects of poverty in a community as discussedby parks after going on a research at catacumba in favela with hiscolleague Mr. Gallo (Park 96). Parks main research however was toresearch on a father who lives in a poverty stricken environment, toknow about his income, political views, friends, religion, ideas andfrustrations but he ends up concentrating more on a 12 year old boy(Park 96) who seems to be carrying on the burden of his entirefamily. At first as you read through the story, you might end upthinking that the 12 year old boy whose name is flavio is the breadwinner of the family. The young boy does all the household choreswhereas, there are other children in the house. But being thefirstborn in that home he has no option but to perform these dutiesdiligently since he’s afraid that failure to do this, he will endup being scolded as we note where he tells his sibling to check onthe beans and make sure that they don’t get burned since hisparents will come and scold him.

Flavio’sfamily is in such a poor and desperate situation because of povertysuch that he is forced to work even when he is not feeling well.Therefore, being the firstborn in that family he is forced bycircumstances to perform all the duties of a parent when his parentsare not around. This shows that poverty discriminates even the sick.Flavio’s neighborhood does not help his situation in any wayeither. He carries water up a slope which is quite tiresome for a boyhis age. The water he gets is not enough as we see him using it toclean the rice, then the baby and his other siblings. The water isthen sprinkled on the floor of course bearing in mind that it is notclean by the time it reaches that point therefore creating a healthhazard for that family (Park 96). As he goes back to his apartment,he realizes the kind of comfort he lives in since he sees that even acorner of his house is big compared to that of flavios family house(Park 98).As park and his colleague move around the neighborhood thefollowing day, they observe that there is stench all over the placeof rotting things mixed with smoke. Park describes how someone can bewrithing in poverty, worry, overwork even physical illness and stillharbor hope in his heart (Park 99).

Inresponse to William Morrison’s post, I totally agree with his viewson parks findings. First I agree with the fact that he views park assomeone with humanity. This is supported by the fact that after hegoes home after his first visit to catacumba, he thinks about thekind of house flavio’s family live in and feels pity on them. Parkalso decides to take flavio to see a doctor the following day so thathe can be checked on his illness. It is also true that the poorpeople view the outsiders as people with bad intentions and that iswhy they react negatively when park tries to capture a funeralprocession with his camera. However, they don’t mind the stranger’spresence in their community as long as they are not interruptingtheir routine life or trying to involve the outsiders of what theyare going through. No matter how much love you give the poor peopleor how much you offer yourself to them, it will never be enough. Theirony of this story however is the part where the sculpture ofChrist’s back is facing catacumba slopes, as if meaning they havebeen forsaken (Park 101).

WorksCited

GordonParks. Descritpive Flavio’ Home.

Current Event

CurrentEvent

StudentName’s

CurrentEvent

Choosingthe

Thetopic chosen for this paper is the event on the development andrelease of National Teacher Preparation Standards on SexualityEducation. The event took place in the United States, whereby sexeducators came together, prepared, and released the sex educationstandards. The event was published on ScienceDaily on June 15, 2014.The aim of the report was to address policy and support to promotesexuality education in order to lessen risky sexual acts amongst theteenagers.

Describingthe

Accordingto current findings by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 80percent of young people aged between 15 and 17 years lack recognizedsex education prior to engaging in first time sexual intercourse. Thefinding represents an overlooked chance for community members as wellas sex educators in providing teenagers with the required instrumentsand skills to formulate efficient decisions regarding sex. Accordingto the report, it is significant to prepare tutors efficiently asthis would help them in providing superior sexuality education.Provision of quality education is essential in lessening teenagepregnancy and the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)which have become rampant in the current time. In addition to this,it enhances relationships, communication, as well as sexual health.The sexuality education standards are seen as a platform of anexceptional cohesion attempt in preparing undergraduate studentspursuing health and physical education to offer premium and inclusivesexuality education which is culturally, developmentally, and ageappropriate.

Sexualityeducation in the United States is offered at high school levels andit is incorporated in the health curriculum. Both America’s tutorsand parents participate greatly in offering teenagers with therequired information to safeguard both the future and their health.Some of the professional areas addressed by the standards encompasscontent knowledge, professional disposition, and assessment andimplementation amongst others. The standards would enable preparationprograms for the teachers to guide instruction, curriculum, as wellas evaluation decisions amongst students pursuing degree programs whoin turn would undertake the role of instructing sexuality education.

Theevent took place in the United States and it was the initial timewhen particular standards for tutors were developed with the aim ofteaching matters related to sexuality. The development of thestandards is an element of the continuing Future of Sex EducationInitiative. It is a countrywide project aimed at enhancing sexeducation of the teenagers. The persons involved were sex educatorswho were responsible in developing the standards.

Analyzingthe in terms of Sociological Concepts

Socialconstructionism is a sociological theory that scrutinizes thedevelopment of equally created knowledge regarding the world(Macionis, 2012). According to the theory, implication, meaning andunderstanding are developed in coordination with other persons(Macionis, 2012). A major element of social constructionism is thatlanguage plays a major role in assisting individuals constructreality. The topic under investigation can be analyzed in terms ofsocial constructionism considering that it is a social issueaffecting the entire society. Developing standards on sexualityeducation entails creating knowledge on how the young persons wouldobtain quality and relevant information to help model sex behavior.Social constructionism focuses on how such knowledge can be createdjointly.

Socialstratification entails classifying persons into groups on the basisof common socio-economic conditions (Macionis, 2012). It is a systemthrough which individuals are ranked in hierarchy by the society. Inthis case, it has been shown that a large percentage of the teenagersaged between 15 and 17 years lack the knowledge of sex educationprior to engaging in their initial sexual act. Classifying this groupof persons and ranking it as a first priority triggered the need todevelop preparation standards for teachers which would assist themteach sexuality education more effectively (Barr et al. 2014).

Socialcontrol is the political and societal systems which standardize groupand personal behavior (Macionis, 2012). As a result, individuals areable to abide by the rules formulated by a certain social group,state, as well as the society in general. In this case, formulatingthe National Teacher Preparation Standards for sexuality educationcan be said to be a societal mechanism in controlling and preventingteenage pregnancies as well as STDs.

Valuesare delineated as an extensive preference regarding suitable guidingprinciples (Macionis, 2012). They mirror an individual’s sense ofwhat is wrong or right. There are various kinds of valuesencompassing moral, ethical, ideological, aesthetic, and socialvalues. In this case, values are significant in explaining sexualityeducation. Certainly, values play a major role when teenagers engagein early sexual behaviors. The development of standards on sexualityeducation is key in encouraging moral values among the teenagers.

Structuralfunctionalism is defined as a structure of generating theory thatperceives the society as a multifaceted structure with various partsworking together with the aim of enhancing stability (Macionis,2012). The society is addressed in terms of its various constituentcomponents including customs, norms, institutions and traditions. Thesociety in general is shaped by these social structures. Certainly,the development of the standards would enable teaching institutionsto effectively offer sexuality education to teenagers and this wouldcontribute greatly in shaping the society (Barr et al. 2014).

Socialstructure is delineated as the social arrangements which emerge anddetermine individual behaviors in a society (Macionis, 2012). In thiscase, the emergent of National Teacher Preparation Standards can beseen as a framework of shaping teenage behaviors in the Americansociety.

References

Barr,E.M., Goldfarb, E. S., Russell, S., Seabert, D., Wallen, M. &ampWilson, K. L. (2014). Improving sexuality education: The developmentof Teacher-Preparation Standards. Journalof School Health, 84 (6): 396.

Macionis,J. J. (2012). Sociology(14th Ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Universityof North Florida. (2014, June 9). Both teens, teachers not gettingsex-ed training: New standards needed?. ScienceDaily.Retrieved June 15, 2014 fromhttp://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140609093612.htm