Inthe United Nations charter on the promotion of peace and security,the Security Council is the fundamental body in making that visiontrue[CITATION Kaz98 p 3 l 1033 ].Globalsecurity is an important necessity that encourages developmenteconomically and socially through enhancement of a proper governance.It is the mandate of the Security Council to inquire when and wherethe UN peacekeeping operation should come in. It operates disasterand crisis control mechanisms around the world on an individual casebasis. Several factors are accounted for in relation to internationalrelations and diplomatic measures. In case of conflict, mediation bythe UN officials is a vital necessity that should be enhanced. Themeasures taken before making a decision on the intervention for apeace operation includes:
Whether ceasefire exists in the region in place and the parties are committed to the peace process aimed at reaching a political settlement.
Whether there is existence of the relevant political goal and whether it is possible for its manifestation in the mandate.
Whether there exist a precise mandate to be undertaken by the UN operation are formulated.
Whether there are safety measures for the UN security personnel. That includes the particular reasonable guarantees are obtainable from the main parties or factions in respect to their safety of the security of UN personnel.
Thechanging duty of the United Nations is as follows: Conflict andprevention, women, peace and collective security, disarmamentexercises, peace building and negotiations, and the development ofnew diplomatic arrangement that promote peace, stability and thewelfare among others.
In1948, the UN Security Council made its first peace keeping anddiplomatic intervention to end the Israel-Arab war through the moveby the UNSC formulation of the armistice agreement. From that time,there has been 64 peacekeeping missions, of which the majority ofthem have been successful. They are aimed at meeting the resolutionfor peace between the rivals. Revisiting the cold war, whichparalyzed the role the UNSC played in creating solutions where warhas been evident. Many conflicts ended either through direct UNmediation or by the efforts of others acting in UN support.
Dueto increased conflict especially in the African countries, the UNconsiders using the military personnel under the command by the UN.They are expected to behave in a non-partisan manner in reference tothe regional conflict. The success of the mission of the forces isdependent on the nature of conflict. For example, they do notexperience success especially in regions where one side is theaggressor. The authority of peacekeeping is given by the UN for aperiod ranging between 3-6 months which is renewable depending on thesituation. The most memorable instance where peace keeping missionshave taken place is the Darfur region, DRC conflict and Sierra Leone
Countriesdo turn to the UN when violence and conflict emerges in the hope thatits claims would be considered and valued by the internationalcommunity. When such controversy has reached a crisis point becominga threat to the international peace it may come before the UN on theinitiative of the appropriate organs[CITATION Akr11 p 780 l 1033 ].The resolutions of conflict depend on contact, discussion andnegotiation. The UN has been most useful as an informal meetingground. The permanent delegates of the member-states have theopportunity to meet an obtrusively, without embarrassing publicityand initial talks on issues dividing their countries. On numerousoccasions those who held the office of secretary general used theirinfluence to promote solutions and assist in the settlement ofdisputes when all other avenuesseemed closed. The most successful intervention of the millennium iswhen Koffi Anan, who is the former UN Secretary General, ledmediation talks to save Kenya’s 2007 Post-election violence thatled to creation of grand coalition government led by the winningparty and the opposition[ CITATION Bau13 l 1033 ].
Itremains one of the highest objectives of the UN. In today’s world,prevention action extends well beyond additional preventive diplomacythat is involved in a broad presentation of UN entities workingacross a wide range of disciplines[CITATION Van00 p 17 l 1033 ].Poverty eradication anddevelopment, human rights in association with the rule of law,elections and development of democratic institutions that takecontrol of small arms.
Protection of Women and Children
Whenwomen a minority of combatants and perpetrators of war, theyincreasingly suffer the greatest arm, the UN security councilrecognizes that including gender and women`s perspectives in decisionmaking can strengthen prospects for sustainable peace in theunanimous adoption of resolutions relating to women, peace andsecurity. These remarkable resolution mechanisms will specificallyaddress the current situation of women in cases of armed conflictwhere they call for their involvement at all levels of decisionmaking on conflict resolution and peace building[ CITATION Uni10 l 1033 ].
Disarmamentexercises by the UN have been a major step towards achieving peaceresolution in war torn regions especially involving armed conflict.That is aimed at influencing the number of such weapons used in therival parties and eventually destroying chemical and nuclear weapons.The use of biological weapons is banned by the Security Council dueits massive nature of destruction such weapons could cause. Thetreaty commonly known as non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is oneof the most universal of all multilateral disarmament that wascarried out in 1970[CITATION UNW l 1033 ].
Theconflict occurrence in the recent years has caused the UN to focus asnever before on peace building efforts to reduce the country’sdanger of lapsing or relapsing to a conflict base by formulatingstrong national capacities for the conflict management and resolutionmechanisms and to set the foundation for sustaining peace anddevelopment. Building lasting peace in war torn societies is amongthe most daunting challenges for global peace and security. The UNestablishes the peace building commissioning in 2005 to betteranticipate and respond to challenges of peace building. [CITATION UNO06 l 1033 ]
TheUnited Nations clearly bears the responsibility of internationalpeace and in ensuring that the security of member states is of greatconsiderations. As a body with different agencies its agencies have acore mandate in the maintenance of international peace and security.This is shown clearly by the above explanations. However, role of theUN in the maintenance of peace and security, international wide keepson changing due to technological advancement.
Akresh, R, Verwimp and Bundervoet. "Civil War, Crop Failure and Child Stunting in Rwanda, Economic Development and Cultural Change." Crisis States Centre (2011): 777–810. Print .
Bau, Valentina. "Five years on: identity and Kenya`s post-election violence." 18 January 2013. http://www.opendemocracy.net. Web . 21 June 2014.
Harvey, J. Langholtz. The Psychology of . Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. Web.
Kazi, Ashfaq, Ahmed. United Nations Peace Keeping operation “Its Present Day Effectiveness and Limitation. Mirpur: MDS Paper, Defence Services Command and staff College, 1998. Print .
Oliver, Ramsbotham and Woodhouse Tom. and Conflict Resolution. London : Routledge, , 2013 . Web.
Tom, Woodhouse and Ramsbotham Oliver. and Conflict Resolution. New York : Psychology Press, 2000. Web.
UN Women. Press release: UN Security Council adopts new resolution, urges women’s full inclusion in peace talks and transitional justice – See more at: http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/10/press-release-on-adoption-of-wps-resolution#sthash.Qjq5ul2q.dpuf. 18 October 2013 . Web . 21 June 2014.
United States Institute of Peace. What is U.N. Security Council Resolution 1325 and Why is it so Critical Today? 23 November 2010. Web . 21 June 2014.
UNODA. Secretary-General`s Mechanism for investigation of alleged use of chemical and biological weapons. 20 September 2006. Web. 21 June 2014.
Van-der-Merwe, H.W. Peacemaking in South Africa: A life in conflict resolution. Cape Town: Tafelberg., 2000. Print .
Akresh,R, Verwimp and Bundervoet. "Civil War, Crop Failure and ChildStunting in Rwanda, Economic Development and Cultural Change."CrisisStates Centre (2011):777–810. Print .
Thejournal focuses on how exogenous shocks at birth lead to worse healthoutcomes in the short-run several years after the shock. Inparticular, we look at the effect of civil conflicts and cropfailures on the health of Rwandan children born between 1987 and1991. It explains on the events that led to the Rwandan genocide andhow mediation helped resolve the violence.
Bau,Valentina. "Five years on: identity and Kenya`s post-electionviolence." 18 January 2013. http://www.opendemocracy.net.Web . 21 June 2014.
Akreshevaluates at the circumstances that led to emergence of Kenyanpost-election violence that left scores of people dead and hundredsof thousands displaced from their homes due to political and economicinequalities. Mediation talks by former UN Secretary General Dr.Koffi Annan led to resolution for peace.
Harvey,J. Langholtz. ThePsychology of .Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. Web.
Dr.Harvey Langholtz is the Executive Director of the Peace OperationsTraining Institute. He is responsible for the development anddistribution of standard courses on UN peacekeeping and relatedtopics. The authors focus on the removal of the emotional barriers onthe road to ending international conflicts. Although the analysis isa general analysis of processes of reconciliation, the models and theresearch findings are situated inside the context of the strugglebetween Israelis and Palestinians.
Kazi,Ashfaq, Ahmed. UnitedNations Peace Keeping operation “Its Present Day Effectiveness andLimitation.Mirpur: MDS Paper, Defence Services Command and staff College, 1998.Print .
Theauthors of the resource intends to create a well-illustratedstructure of role of the UN in peacekeeping pointing out to thenecessities and factors to consider. Peace is a vital growth anddevelopment as highlighted in the context of international order andsecurity.
Oliver,Ramsbotham and Woodhouse Tom. and Conflict Resolution.London : Routledge, , 2013 . Web.
Oliverand Woodhouse are key drivers towards peace and security in theglobe. Their approach and perception of peace goes far much abovejust creating solution to setting out structures to prevent violence.
Tom,Woodhouse and Ramsbotham Oliver. and Conflict Resolution.New York : Psychology Press, 2000. Web.
Theauthors point out to the need for peace and conflict resolutionmechanisms that are necessary in the world. They get broader approachfrom a global perspective and the regulations required in the entireconcept of peace and reconciliation in war torn regions.
UNWomen. Pressrelease: UN Security Council adopts new resolution, urges women’sfull inclusion in peace talks and transitional justice – See more at:http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/10/press-release-on-adoption-of-wps-resolution#sthash.Qjq5ul2q.dpuf.18 October 2013 . Web . 21 June 2014.
Thewebsite addresses on the issues of peace through introduction of theneeds of women and children who are the major victims of abuse intimes of conflict or war. They are marginalized and affected most bywar hence the need to promote peace.
UnitedStates Institute of Peace. Whatis U.N. Security Council Resolution 1325 and Why is it so CriticalToday?23 November 2010. Web . 21 June 2014.
UnitedStates Institute of Peace advocates for a peaceful world throughcreating an institution that concentrates on global teachings onpeace and involvement in being a solution and use of the UNmechanisms to create peace to war regions.
UNODA.Secretary-General`sMechanism for investigation of alleged use of chemical and biologicalweapons.20 September 2006. Web. 21 June 2014.
UNODAinvestigates into the ways in which the former or current UNofficials have used their positions in the promotion of peace in theworld. They revisit the peacekeeping missions and promotion of globalpeace interests.
Van-der-Merwe,H.W. Peacemakingin South Africa: A life in conflict resolution.Cape Town: Tafelberg., 2000. Print .
Theimmediate observations and justifications given by the author reliesmore on the South African peace development and emphasis. The life ofconflict resolution is a divine calling where they are expected toadvocate for peace where it does not exist.