PICO Burning Question


PICO:Burning Question

Thecrisis of schizophrenia disorder

Schizophreniais a long-term mental disorder, which could be either chronic orcharacterized with recurrent episodes that cause severe illness. Inaddition to the patient, the condition significantly influences bothfamily members and close friends of the sick person. Personssuffering from the psychotic disorder have strange social conduct andinability for identifying the real things. Some of the commonsymptoms associated with the disease include auditory hallucinations,false beliefs, reduced emotional expression and social engagement,inactivity, and unclear or confused thinking (Schmidt&amp Brown, 2012). The health care professionals diagnose the disease usingindividuals’ reported experiences, as well as observed manners. Theearly environment, genetics, social and psychological processes aresome of the major predisposing factors to the disorder. Someprescription and recreational drugs may cause or enhanceschizophrenic symptoms. This research hypothesizes that schizophrenicpatients taking anti-psychotic medications and consistent follow upcommunication, in addition to standard care, offers the besttreatment for patients suffering from the disorder (Beck&amp Rector, 2008).

Identificationof burning question using PICO

Inschizophrenic patients taking antipsychotic medications, isconsistent follow-up communication, in addition to standard care,more effective in increasing patient medication adherence whencompared with standard care alone?

Comparisonand contrast between Evidence based practice (EBP) models.

Prolongedexposure (PE) Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorders is acognitive-behavioral treatment schedule for adult men as well as,women who have gone through either single or aggregate continuoustraumas and have posttraumatic stress disorder (PSTD). The programcomprises of a course of individual therapies designated to helpclients in processing traumatic events and reduce their PSTDsymptoms, as well as depression, anger, and general anxiety.Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) in community-basedintervention for adolescents, mainly, those between twelve andseventeen years old is mainly used (Schmidt&amp Brown, 2012).The patients who opt to use MTFC have severe chronic delinquency thatmostly affects their family members. Youth, for instance, are relatedto MTFC after failure of mental health organizations. The main agendaof MTFC is successfully helping patients in their communities whileadvising the communities concerned about suitable solutions they canundertake when dealing with certain disorders (Barker,2009).

TheMultidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) and Prolonged Exposure(PE) Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorders are related. Thesimilarity is that both of them involve the society members inrescuing chronic patients who seems to be hardly recovering from adisorder. On the other hand, the treatment methods are also havedifferences based on the target patients. The MTFC targets juveniles,but PE treatment is designed to encompass adults as well (Barker,2009).On the other hand, the treatment programs are related in that aschizophrenic disorder patient can be referred to both ProlongedExposure (PE) Therapies for Posttraumatic Stress Disorders andMultidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) as the individual couldmay require using the MTFC therapy during childhood, and thencontinue with the PE duringadulthood. Both EBPs involve the societyin the treatment programs. Many therapists treat schizophrenicpatients using both of these treatment methods (Beck&amp Rector, 2008).


Literaturesearch is crucial in the development of the burning question.Computer database searches are the most efficient compared topublished studies. Several methods are applicable in enhancingliterature search efficiency. One of the methods is qualitativeresearch. Qualitative research is important as it takes intoconsideration aspects of perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs, as wellas other uncontrolled observational characteristics. Schizophrenicdisorder symptoms affect both the patients and their families. Eachpatient has a varied opinion on the best way for dealing with givencircumstances (Schmidt&amp Brown, 2012). Cohortstudies/ case studies can be done to establish causes of thepersistent schizophrenic condition. Discrepancies in the inclusionof the history are resolved by discussing and peer-reviewing theresults of the case studies (Polifko, 2010). Through systematicreviews of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the burningquestion above can be formulated. RCTs should be devised to determinethe effectiveness for anti-psychotic treatment (DiCenso, 2005). Forthe search term to be to be successful, key search terms have to beused in the database. Some of the best describing search terms thatshould be incorporated in the burning question about schizophreniainclude, schizophrenic patients, anti-psychotic medications, standardcare, and alternatives to medication (Beck&amp Rector, 2008).

Levelof evidence and grades of recommendations on the search of theburning question

Fromthe burning question above, level of evidence has been noticed. Forissues of therapy and treatment of schizophrenia disorder, thehighest level of evidence is a systematic review of the randomizedcontrolled trials or an individual randomized controlled trial. Onthe other hand, for the effects of the anti-psychotic medications,the highest possible level of evidence is a systematic review of thecohort studies (Barker,2009).The grade of recommendations that aided in the search for the burningquestion is grade (A), meaning there is a sustaining evidence torecommend that a new pattern of care should be undertaken to increasepatient adherence. The limitation of the burning question is that itdoes not uphold expert opinion. It only relies on personalexperience. The possible refinement to address the issue is todiscard elements of subjectivity and uphold objectivity in research(Schmidt&amp Brown, 2012).


Insummary, schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that may be eitherchronic or composed of recurrent episodes. Individuals suffering fromthe disease have abnormal behaviors social behaviors since their mindcannot differentiate between the real and assumed things. Some ofthe major symptoms persons suffering from the disease portray includeconfused thinking, reducedemotional expression and social engagement, confused thinking andfalse beliefs. Accordingto the burning question above, schizophrenia disorder can beaddressed through incorporating the society in the treatment program,as well as prescribing anti-psychotic medications to the patients. Various treatment approaches are recommended for distinct patient aswell (Beck&amp Rector, 2008).For example, the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) issuitable for juveniles while Prolonged exposure (PE). The strategiesapplied in the above discussion have an impact on clinical practice,such that, clinical experts will get the knowledge of acquiringrelevant information on the most suitable way for addressing theproblem (Schmidt&amp Brown, 2012).The above purpose can be entirely accomplished through formulating areasonable burning question in the relevant area of focus such asschizophrenic disorder. On the other hand, the EBP model provides ananalyzed route concerning the option clinical experts shouldundertake in dealing with a specific disorder (Barker,2009).The burning question condenses everything about a particular disorderand the clinical experts will manage a specific issue as outlined inthe burning question.Thispaper supports the thesis of the paper thatschizophrenic patients taking anti-psychotic medications andconsistent follow up communication, in addition to standard care,offers the best treatment for patients suffering from the disorder(Beck&amp Rector, 2008).


Insummary, schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that may be eitherchronic or composed of recurrent episodes. Persons suffering from thedisorder have false beliefs that make them to have abnormalbehaviors. The disease could be passed through genetics, althoughsome prescription and recreational drugs may enhance some symptoms ofthe disorder. Therapy is suitable for both young and adult patientswho have suffered the disorder over a long time. Through literaturesearch, health care professionals have developed a variety oftreatment approaches such as the Multidimensional Treatment FosterCare (MTFC) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapies among others. Mosttreatment approaches direct patients to use individual EBP models.The models may include involvement of the community itself whileencouraging clinical practice to do more research on suitable methodsfor assisting schizophrenic patients. When there is a holisticcombination effort of the society members and clinical experts,schizophrenic disorder patients will have a reason to smile, as theywill get an instant solution to their problems when they want it.


Beck,A., &amp Rector, N. (2008). Schizophrenia:Cognitive Theory, Research, and Therapy.New York: Guilford Publications.DiCenso,A. (2005). Evidence-basednursing: A guide to clinical practice.St. Louis, Mo. London: Mosby.Schmidt,N. A., &amp Brown, J. M. (2012). Evidence-basedpractice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research.Sudbury, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning. Barker,J. (2009). Evidence-BasedPractice for Nurses.London: SAGE.Polifko,K. A. (2010). Thepractice environment of nursing: Issues &amp trends.Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.