PoliticalParticipation crises in Britain Politics
Scholarshave researched in the field of Democratic peace. Literature has beendocumented to clearly outline the theory of Democratic peace. Thetheory dates back the days of Immanuel Kant in his perpetual peacework. From the earlier works, it is evident that democracies cannotgo into war against each other though there may lack an empiricalevidence on the future of the theory. The most influencing thing whenpredicting the future of the Democratic Peace theory is the behaviorsof the different proponents of groups (Cole, 2006). According toKant, the international peace is based on the interaction between thestates and the Republican government as noted in al his works.
Whendiscussing this topic of democratic peace, the following should beput into considerations the structural explanation where all electedleaders is not expected to lose in any war for sake their voters(Sharma, 2002). The normative explanation states that democracieswill exhibit the norms of their respective domestic democracies andthey will have an expectation that others will follow them. Finally,there is the power transition theory explanation, which states thatthere do not exist fights between and among democracies aboutterritories. Democracy should be applied in all avenues of governanceand equality should be observed (Mcewen, 2005).
Democraticavenues should be respected by all the entire population of any givennation. An observable factor in the British democracy is the changein the voter turn-out. Institutions serving the general public havebeen degraded. Additionally, there have been instances of sideliningof people in the running the institutions. Almost every singlecitizen in the British territory has lacked confidence in the variousset institutions (Jacobs,2007). Evidenceis clearly seen in the conduction of elections whereby people do notparticipate. Differentauthors of the democratic peace theory reviews back to the work ofKant that was put in his 1795 essay on perpetual peace (Mcewen,2005). Every scholar basis their work on that essay and then tries tolook for any correlation between governance and decision making underthe democratic rule. Doyle, for example puts into place the peacefulco-existence theorem between and among democracies. There also existswar against non-liberal and democratic relations among states.
Thevarious groups of people portray different views in matters relatedto participation in democracy. Participation in political functionsis correlated to the gender of those participating (Backhouse, 2010).Men have been portrayed to be very active in political anddevelopment matters as compared to their female counterparts. Thishas an origin in the level of trust with the government in itshandling of social issues. Political institutions have been degradedin terms of their status by those who hold those offices (Sharma,2002). Politics have also been illustrated as a business for a fewselected groups of people in the society. This results to inequalitywhich undermines the legitimacy of the social institution.
Ethicalissues have also an influence in the political scenes and also thegeneral conduct of a public officer (Mcewen, 2005). There is arelationship between the citizenship law abiding levels and theethical standards of that group of people. Cases of publicdissatisfaction in the running of the government have beenexperienced in the various sectors of governance. This includes thelaw enforcement office. Members of the public have lost faith in thisarea of governance because of the many disappointments they havefaced. To restore the harmony and unity, a lot of open forums shouldbe conducted and members of public should be encouraged toparticipate (Sharma, 2002). When this happens, there would be apeaceful coexistence.
Trustand confidence levels in the citizens can be explained through thestudy of morality theories. In understanding the theory of morality,two broad sets of theories are developed. The theories areconsequentialist and non-consequentialist. The consequentialisttheory determines the moral right or wrong of an action.Non-consequentialist theory basis the judgment of morality of good orwrong on the action by a person (Sharma, 2002). It does not rely onthe consequence from the action. A happy world is a result of thehappiness of its people. Ethics affect an individual’s career pathin life. It also affects the behavior of a person in an organization.As it is said human being is a social animal, one must interact withpeople in the day to day activities. The way one behaves in public isinfluenced by the moral beliefs of that person (Mcewen, 2005).
Socialclasses have resulted to the decline of the community integration.The government has lost trust in developmental issues and mattersrelated to economic growth. The activities leading to theproductivity of a nation are related to economics (Mcewen,2005).It is measurable with time from the changes experienced. This measurehas no quantifiable measure in the success of the lives of thecitizens. Economic development refers to the tangible increase in percapita income which is associated with the improvement in quality oflife. Economic development is measured using factors such as level ofadult literacy as well as life expectancy levels (Sharma,2002).The group associated with managerial positions in organizations haveshied off the democratic process of electing political leaders.
Exclusionin the electoral processes is based on various factors such as socialclass, the education level of a person among others. Inequalities inthe society are the norm that results from the poor governancestructures (Mcewen,2005).This has been extended at workplace and people feel alienated fromthe government running. However, it is advisable for the governmentto advocate for equality. Theprovision of equal opportunities at the workplace is a sociallyjustice factor. All employers should make sure that employeetreatment is paramount. This not only fosters good business practicesbut also promotes harmony and team work in the workplace. Those whosupport the case of strategic business borrow from the idea of equalopportunity. Equal opportunity is a fundamental need for thebusiness, and it boosts the competitive advantage (Sharma, 2002).
Womenand young generation have been isolated from political events andprocesses. This alienation has resulted to the low interest among thetwo groups in the governance matters. Although some of thecontributing factors to alienation are within themselves, it ishowever, evident that women are not given a chance to expressthemselves (Bennister,2012). Thisis a source of democratic crisis and the end result is poorgovernance structures. Women oppose their fellow from taking publicoffices and also engaging in political matters.
Anotherarea of public dismal is the way the police institution is governed. The glory of the police institution has been lost due to the variousactions of disappointments. Members of the public have showed lessconcern in the way this institution is run and managed. There aremany cases of corruption and delayed justice. To restore the glory,general public participation in recommendations should be encouraged.Transparency and accountability should be improved through the theoryof stewardship management (Sharma,2002). When all this is done, crime rates will decrease and also thepublic will regain their faith in this institution.
Politicianshave ventured in sport activities in the promotion of their campaignsand also to fulfill their political ambitions. The resultant effectis commercializing the discipline of sports and thus erosion ofmorals and ethics. Transparency in the conduction of activities ofthis nature should be encouraged. The level of transparency andopenness in conducting of World Cup games should be applied ininternational politics. There is a big following for the footballclubs as compared to the international politics. Politicians shouldchange the way of addressing issues to borrow a leaf from sports. Insome cases, sports bring political rivals together and thuscohesiveness of members of society (Sharma, 2002).
Publicparticipation and restoration of trust can only happen if thegovernment raises the transparency levels. The participation of thepublic in the various government programs encourages a coherentrelationship between the two groups. There is a mutual trust andbenefit in the aforementioned relationship (Sharma, 2002). When thegovernment is transparent in its affairs, the general public willhave increased levels of confidence. This will facilitate the fastpenetration of the governance as people will highly accepted the newideas of governance. Another possible result of the relationship isthe mutual understanding among the citizens. There is the existenceof peace and harmony since all the members of the public feel thatthey are part of the government of the present day (Mcewen, 2005).
Publicinstitutions should be reevaluated to enhance confidence levels ofthe electorates. The recommended changes should be in line with therequirements of the entire population. The various troublesencountered with the law enforcement officers is an emerging issuesthat affects governance. There should be a sharing of materialinformation between the members of the public and law enforcementgroup. All the complaints witnessed in this sector of governanceshould be eliminated through public participation forums (King,2010). Proper training is another area of concern to facilitate thegovernance levels. Additionally, emphasis should be focused onmodernization of the infrastructure used by the members of lawenforcement team (Sharma, 2002). Research should be conducted toidentify the various tools to be bought all geared towards goodgovernance for the citizens.
Thepolitical environment in which well respected politicians, opposedideologies and close contest among parties exists is likely toencourage involvement to a greater degree than the sleazy, stale,and centrally converged present state of affairs (Clarke, 2012). Theexisting state of affairs then, can be said to be generating a crisisof involvement in British elections, nonetheless, as mentioned beforein this essay political involvement is not limited to elections only.There is proof to hint that the electorate has relocated from thecustomary forms of involvement to more unorthodox types ofparticipation (Sharma, 2002). This would hint a transformation in thenature of involvement, instead of something as severe as a crisis.
Asurge in interest group memberships has been an example of such formsof unconventional political involvement that reveals divergence ofinvolvement rather than crisis (Huntington, 2006). As parties’political orientations have become more and more centralized, and theparties have formulated policies that they expect will offend alittle number of supporters, interest group memberships haveestablished as they are an efficient alternative means via whichpeople try to manipulate the government (Mcewen, 2005). A numberof these groups presently out do political parties themselves inmemberships. The National Trust group, for instance, has a membershipof more than 3,500,000 people. Resulting from this large membershipvolume and proficiency of the organization in the upkeep of Britain’ssites of historical importance and the countryside the group hasadded control over the government compared to any other individualmembers (Sharma, 2002).
TheNational Trust hence can consult and lobby with the government onissues that its members agree on. Admittedly, a proposition has beenmade that the democracy or participation of such groups cannot alwaysbe guaranteed (Clarke, 2012). Once the members are cleared foradmission, the incentive to attempt any additional participation isnot necessary instead, political functions are entrusted to those inthe upper hierarchy of the group. In the same way, those further upthe ladder frequently have more control on the direction of policythan the ordinary members. Nevertheless, it is not a must thatmembers should continue paying the fee but would stop paying if theconcerns of the group started differing seriously from the member’sinterests (Rosenthal, 2011). In addition, whilst ordinary members maynot be mainly actively engaged with their respective groups, theystill receive updates and newsletters and other similar privileges atconsistent intervals for being a member.
Theachievement of groups in encouraging involvement can be seen via thefact that only about two percent of the citizens had memberships ofpolitical parties in the year 2004 while nearly a third wereprojected to be members of such groups in the very same year (Adcock,2007). These groups are perfect platforms from which to penetrate thegovernment when they are big enough in membership volume and evenprior to their expansion they are still able to arouse public andmedia support for their campaigns (Clarke, 2012). Consequently, theyplay a significant role in formulating the political agenda andmaking sure that governments honor to their promises.
DemocraticPeace theory is the behaviors of the different proponents of groups.According to Kant, the international peace is based on theinteraction between the states and the Republican government as notedin al his works. Anobservable factor in the British democracy is the change in the voterturn-out. Many people have lost their trust in the variousinstitutions. Additionally, there have been instances of sideliningof people in the running the institutions. Almost every singlecitizen in the British territory has lacked confidence in the variousset institutions. Publicinstitutions should be reevaluated to enhance confidence levels ofthe electorates. Public participation and restoration of trust canonly happen if the government raises the transparency levels.Government has also come to the rescue of law enforcement authoritiesthrough the provision of all the material needed for smooth runningof these agencies. Torestore the glory, general public participation in recommendationsshould be encouraged. Transparency and accountability should beimproved through the theory of stewardship management.The government in its duty to promote the governance should ensurethe modernization of the facilities. These are the facilities thatare used to boost security problems and thus raise the confidence ofthe citizens.
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