Political Theory



Anysociety believes in its own set of governing and morality. Law has anexposition on what can be done and what cannot be done, whereasmorality expounds the concept of what should be done and what shouldnot be done. The concept of democracy in the society is a burningissue and has had controversy among people. There are those whoadvocate democracy while others do not uphold it. The context of theconcept of law varies from one nation to another. For instance, inAmerica it is guided by the universal principle of individual bill ofrights and also the system of proper accountability whereas in aplace like UK the principle concept is that of non-discriminatory lawand fair judicial system (Klosko 2013).

Politicslife contains many facets in the way it is being handled. Advocatesfor civil rights have faced drastic opposition from those who are inpolitical power. Civil right is the freedom and any form of benefitthat should be enjoyed by a person (Klosko 2013). All the benefits incivil rights are geared towards the attainment of political rightsfor personal gain. An individual person will fight for his/her civiland political rights to ensure fairness and protection from thegovernment. Civil rights also act as a protection form fromdiscrimination of all natures. For civil rights to be attained, thesystem of government should be fair to all. There should be justicein the judicial system, and not partisan role should be taken by thecourts (Heywood 2004).

Affirmativeaction is a way of addressing all the social injustices conducted inthe past (Heywood 2004). It also helps protection of such socialinjustices from taking place in the modern society. These injusticesinclude discrimination based on color or gender among others (Klosko2013). To some extent the civil rights hold the affirmative action onits centre stage but not as a priority. Equal opportunity, on theother hand, is the most sophisticated way of addressing all theinjustice be it economic or social in the society. Equal opportunityapproach is a form of applying justice in the distribution ofnational resources. It propagates the importance of incorporating allthe citizens from all the regions in the governance. When the threeconcepts are tested on their viability, equal opportunity approachwill take the lead. This is so because it incorporates both the civilrights and the affirmative action concepts.

Responseto student one answer

Anexposition in the argument reflects a gap in the informationcollected and explained. The concept of civil rights has beenoverlooked by the student. No single definition has been explainedabout what civil rights are, and their position in relation toaffirmative action. However, it is notable that the definition foraffirmative action is given, and various relevant illustrations givento support the answer. Additionally, the concept of equal employmentopportunity is discussed, and illustrations given concerning all theareas it has been applied. There is a consensus between the variousexpositions about the concept of affirmative action and equalemployment opportunity (Klosko 2013). Another agreeable point is thefact that equal employment opportunity is the best policy to beadopted.

Responseto student two answers

Theargument omits the concept of civil rights and the position betweencivil rights and affirmative action. Moreover, there is an in-depthexposition of the concept of affirmative action with cleardefinitions and illustrations given. The origin of affirmative actionis also explained and the various ways to promote the affirmativeaction. The discussion also analyzes the concept of equal opportunityin a broad way. There are proper definitions of the various conceptsdiscussed and also the source of social injustice in the society isdiscussed. Recommendations on how to achieve equal employmentopportunity are discussed. However, the contrast appears in thedefinition of the relationship between affirmative action and equalopportunity. It has emerged that both concepts are interrelated andcannot work on exceptions (Heywood 2004).


Heywood,A. (2004). Politicaltheory: An introduction.Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Klosko,G. (2013). Historyof political theory: Volume 2.Oxford: Oxford University Press.