Preparing a Perfect Interview

PreparingaPerfectInterview

PreparingaPerfectInterview

Hiringdecisionsare among themostimperativedecisionsa humanresourcepersonnelwillneedto makein their capacity as leaders in an organization. Interviewsare among themosteffectivewaysof identifyingthemostaptcandidatesof fillingdifferentpostswithin an organization.Interviewsare an exceptionaltoolin theselectionandplacementprocesswhendoneappropriatelyandcan be problematicifnot donecorrectly(Armstrong,2007). Interviewsin thecontextof recruitment andselectioninthe employmentprocessentailsexchangeof informationbetween theinterviewers andthecandidates.In thisprocesseverycandidateis offeredwith an opportunityto sellthemselves to theemployingorganization,andthemanagementwith a chanceto sellthepostswithin theorganization.Numerouselementsshould be consideredandthoroughlyevaluatedforhumanresourcepersonnelto be in a positionto identifythemostaptcandidatesfora givenjobopportunity.Theseelementsshould be ‘job-related’andimpregnable.Immenseconsiderationshould be accordedto education,workexperience,awards,trainingandperformanceappraisal(Gomez-Mejia,Balkin &amp Cardy, 2010). Thispaperwillseekto discusstheimportantelementsthat constituteaperfectinterviewin selectingthemostaptcandidatesfordifferentpositionswithin an organization.

Elementsof a an Excellent Interview

Althoughmostselectionjudgmentsarebasedon informationderivedfrom personalinterviews,anyresearchers believethatitis one of themostinvalidandunreliablemethodsof conductingan interview(Armstrong,2007). Structured interviewshavebeenidentifiedas themostreliableandeffectivewayof jobselectionandplacement.Unstructuredinterviewsareproneto biasandsubjectivity andhencetheir validityis significantly lowerthan structured interviews.In structureinterview,awrittensetof questionsisusedto gathercrucialinformationfrom thecandidates(Natasha&ampOscar, 2001). Theuseof similarquestions,trainedinterviewpanelandratingmethodto allcandidatescontributeto perceptiveness of fairnessandcontributeto validityandreliabilityof thewholeprocess.

Thevalidityandreliabilityofa structuredinterviewarepeggedon thefactthatallprospectiveemployeesareaccordedsimilartreatment,are assessedby a panelof interviewers thatlowers subjectivity andbias,andallquestionsusedin theintervieware directlyrelatedto thejobbehavior(Armstrong,2007). Thesestandardfeatureslowerthechancesof includingirrelevantquestionsandprovidea standardmeansof evaluatingcandidatesthatprovideimportantdata that is essentialin theselectionprocess.

JobAnalysis

Humanresourcepersonnelshould spendampletimeidentifyingthedecisiveknowledge,abilitiesandskillsrequiredfora particularpost.In thisprocess,theinterviewer should makeout thecrucialcompetencies that are considerednecessaryto be successfulin thepostin question.Someof thecrucialcompetencies thata humanresourcemanagermay findworthwhileto reviewincludeproblemsolving,communicationskills,technicalskills,flexibility,self-management skillsandinterpersonal effectiveness (Armstrong,2007).

Nomatterthemethodusedin jobanalysisallthequestionsaskedshould bepeggedon theskills,knowledge,andabilitiesrequisite forthepostin question.Nonetheless,onlyaspectsthat can bededucedthrough questionsshould be incorporatedin thequestionsheet(Gomez-Mejia,Balkin &amp Cardy, 2010). Thismeansthattheinterviewwillhavea directconnectionto therequisiteknowledge,skillsandabilities(KSA) neededfora particularjob.Thevalidityof thecontent of theinterviewbothstructured andpersonalisdictatedby thelinkbetween thejobrequirementandtheknowledge,skillsandabilitiesneededforthatpost.TheKSAs forpoststhat requiredhighlyskilledpersonnelshould be formulatedby subject-matter expertssothatthequestionsare relatedto jobrequirementsandtasks.Agoodjobanalysisaugments theacceptability of an interviewandbooststhevalidityof thewholeprocess.Humanresourcemanagershould makesurethatall theinterviewers are includedinthe preparationof thejobanalysisto achievetheaforementioned goals(Natasha&ampOscar, 2001).

DevelopQuestionsin Advance

Researchin thefieldof managementindicatesthatexperienceandperformanceare thefinestpredictors of thefutureexpectations (Natasha&ampOscar, 2001). Thismeansthatwhenthehumanresourcemanageris preparingquestionsforprospectiveemployeesheorsheshould accordmoreweightto questionsthat revolvearound thebehavioral aspectof thecandidate.Suchtypesof questionscalluponthecandidateto illustratedetailedactions,situationsandoutcomefrom pastexperiences(Armstrong,2007). Excellentquestionsare thosethat are connectedto theabilities,knowledgeandskillsof aparticularpostin question.Aperfectinterviewshould enablethehumanresourceto identifythecapabilityof thecandidatessothattheycan be ableto selectthemostfittingperson.Questionsthat are relatedto thepositionshould takepreferenceover otherquestionsthat are meantto helptheinterviewer to knowthecandidatebetter.An excellentinterviewisbasedon thepastexperienceandbehaviorsof thecandidatesandis jobrelated(Gomez-Mejia,Balkin &amp Cardy, 2010).

Aftertheprocessof jobanalysis,theinterviewer should createa setof questionsderivedfrom thebehavioridentifiedas vitalto theperformanceof thejob(Officeof Civil Service Personnel Mangement, 2006). Thereare four typesof questionsthat constitutean excellentinterview,andtheserelateto pastbehavior,situational elements,jobknowledgeandbackgroundof thecandidate.Questionsthat relateto thejobknowledgeshould callupon thecandidateto exhibitparticularskillsoroffercertification of professionknowledge.On theotherhand,situationalquestionspresentthecandidateswith supposedstatethat may transpirein theitineraryof performingtheir obligationin theorganizationandhowtheywould reactorsolvethesituation(Armstrong,2007). Useof situationqueriesispeggedon thebasicassumptionthatan individual’sintentionis correlatedto behaviorand,therefore,themannerin which a candidatereactandrespondto acertain hypothetical scenariocan illustratehowa candidatecan behavein a realsituation.Backgroundquestionsarecenteredon education,professionalqualificationandworkexperience.Pastbehaviorinquiriescallupon candidatesto exemplifyrolesof pastjobsthat are linkedto apostin questionforwhich theyare beinginterviewed(Armstrong,2007).

Excellentinterviewarecomposedof questionsthat are open-endedandthat providea candidatewith a chanceto revealmoreinformationabout their suitabilityfora givenpost.Nonethelessin circumstanceswhenthehumanresourcemanagerseeksto establishwhethertheshortlisted candidatesmeetdefinitejobrequirements,close-endedquestionare themostsuitable.Thetimeframeforconductingtheinterviewshould be aptsuchthatitallowstheinterviewer to derivealltheinformationtheyconsidernecessaryto be in a positionto ratethecandidate,andat thesametimesuccinctandbriefenoughto avoidconsumingmuchtime.Atimefactoris especiallyan importantelementwhenthenumberof candidatesis significantly higher.Whenitbecomesnecessaryto askquestionsthat demandlengthyresponses,thentheinterviewer should posefewerquestionssothatitdoesnot consumetoomuchtime.Aninterviewshould not takemorethan one hourotherwisetheprocesscan be cumbersome to boththeinterviewer andthecandidates(DeLuca, &amp DeLuca, 2004). Finally,thewordingof thequestionsshould be aptsuchthatitis easyforthecandidateto understandandcomprehend.Theuseof jargonsandacronyms should beavoidedsince theymay confusethecandidate.Thelanguageusedshould be relatedto thejob,concise, simpleandprecise.

DevelopRatingScales

Aratingscaleis an integralcomponentof theinterview,anditis usedto assesstheresponsesof allcandidates.Thoughmostinterviewers createa ratingscaledepending on thenatureof theorganizationandwhatisperceivedas themostimperativefeaturesforcandidatesto possess,apoorratingscalecan leadto selectionof second-ratepersonsto fillposts(Stateof Oklahoma Office of Personnel Management). An excellentratingscaleshould be simpleandeasyto apply.Itshould havea narrativedescriptionof everyrank,suchas accomplishmentsandbehavior.Dependingon thenumberof jobapplicantspickedout fora specificpost,theleadinterviewer whoin mostcompaniesis thehumanresourcemanager,can decideto conductphoneinterviewsto identifythesuitabilityof candidatesbefore conductingeitherindividualorpanelinterviewforthegroupthewillbeselected.Inan organizationthat requirehumanresourceto possessspecificskillsandexpertise in orderto performcertainactivities,itis of paramountimportancethata multi-interviewer approachisapplied,In thisprocessthedepartmentheadorsupervisorinterviewsthecandidates,selectstheprospectiveemployeesandforwardthenamesto theinterviewingpanelto conductfurtherinterviewto identifywhoamongst theselectedonesfulfills all therequisiteconditionsandmeetthestandardsof thecompanies(Armstrong,2007).

TrainInterviewers

Itis of paramountimportancethattheinterviewingpanelismadeof competentandknowledgeableindividualswhoare wellversed with theproficiencyandexpertise requiredforthepost.Theinterviewers whowillhelpthehumanresourcemanagerto selectthemostaptcandidatesshould be ableto assessanswers,capacityto builda conduciverapportwith thecandidates,abilityto document responsesandsuccinctly applyingtheratingscales.Thehumanresourcemanagershould providetheinterviewingpanelwill all therequisitematerialsthat shall beusedin theinterviewingprocess(Armstrong,2007). Thepanelshould comeup with thequestionsthat willbe usedto appraisealljobapplicantsandtheratingscalethat is usedto gradetheparticipants.In addition,thepanelshould createa schedule.

Conclusion

Interviewsare an exceptionaltoolin theselectionandplacementprocesswhendoneappropriatelyandcan be problematicifnot donecorrectly.Interviewsin thecontextof recruitment andselectioninthe employmentprocessentailsexchangeof informationbetween theinterviewers andthecandidates.In thisprocesseverycandidateis offeredwith an opportunityto sellthemselves to theemployingorganization,andthemanagementwith a chanceto sellthepostswithin theorganization.Structuredinterviewshavebeenidentifiedas themostreliableandeffectivewayof jobselectionandplacement.

Humanresourcepersonnelshould spendampletimeidentifyingthedecisiveknowledge,abilitiesandskillsrequiredfora particularpost.In thisprocess,theinterviewer should makeout thecrucialcompetencies that are considerednecessaryto be successfulin thepostin question.Excellentquestionsare thosethat are connectedto theabilities,knowledgeandskillsof aparticularpostin question.Aperfectinterviewshould enablethehumanresourceto identifythecapabilityof thecandidatessothattheycan be ableto selectthemostfittingperson.

Excellentinterviewarecomposedof questionsthat are open-endedandthat providea candidatewith a chanceto revealmoreinformationabout their suitabilityfora givenpost.Aratingscaleis an integralcomponentof theinterview,anditis usedto assesstheresponsesof allthecandidate.An excellentratingscaleshould be simpleandeasyto apply.Itshould havea narrativedescriptionof everyrank,suchas accomplishmentsandbehavior

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References

Armstrong,M. (2007). Ahandbook of human resource management practice.London : Kogan Page.

Deb,T. (2006). Strategicapproach to human resource management: Concept, tools andapplication.New Delhi: Atlantic.

DeLuca,M. J., &amp DeLuca, N. F. (2004). 24hours to the perfect interview: Quick steps for planning, organizing&amp preparing for the interview that gets the job.New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gomez-Mejia,L. R., Balkin, D. B., &amp Cardy, R. L. (2010). Managinghuman resources.Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

http://www.ok.gov/opm/documents/structured%20interview%20manual.pdf

Natasha,K. R.and Oscar, B. J. (2001).Developingand Administering Structured Interviews.State of Oklahoma Office of Personnel Management: Oklahoma City,Oklahoma. Retrieved from:

Officeof Civil Service Personnel Management. (2006).ConductingEffective Structured Interviews Resource Guide for Hiring Managersand Supervisors.United States Department of State Bureau of Human Resources.Washington D.C.Retrieved fromhttp://www.state.gov/documents/organization/107843.pdf