Thestudy of motivation explains why individuals need what they need. Itadditionally discloses what people need truly, the content of humannature. The topic of motivation and emotional concerns what peopledesire for, yearning, needs, wants, and fear. It looks at inquiries,for instance, whether individuals are good or evil, naturally activeor passive, selfless or aggressive, charitable or egocentric, allowedto choose or controlled by natural and societal demands, and whetherindividuals harbor within themselves tendencies to develop and toself-actualize.
Theoriesof motivation disclose what is shared within the endeavors of allpeople by recognizing the common things among human beings fromdiverse cultures, different history, life experiences, period’sages, and genetic endowments. Every person harbors physiologicalneeds such as thirst, hunger, pain, and sex. Additionally, eachperson inherits a natural disposition such as neural circuits in thebrain and personality for satisfaction and hatred. Moreover, peopleshare a few central emotions, and every person feels these emotionsunder the same circumstances, such as feeling fear when threatenedand distress after losing someone a person values or somethingimportant. Each possesses the same constellation of needs, includingneeds for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Additionally, allpeople are hedonists. For instance, people seek pleasure and avoidpain. Additionally, people appear to be wishing even more forwell-being, enjoyment, and personal growth.
Inaddition, theories of motivation reveal that those motivations thatare acquired through experience and socially engineered throughcultural forces (and hence outside the realm of human nature). Forinstance, through our unique experiences, exposures to role models,and awareness of cultural expectations, we acquire differentattitudes, expectations, goals, values, performance expectations, andways of explaining our failures and successes, personal aspirations,a sense of self and so on. These ways of energizing and directing ourconduct arise from social, cultural, and environmental forces. Thestudy of motivation thus tells people what part of a desire and wantto originate from human nature, additionally, what part of a desireand wants to originate from social, cultural, and personal learning.Moreover, it discloses what part of motivation is general to allhuman beings and what part is acculturated.
Q.1The progression of the study of motivation, from its philosophicalorigins to the grand theory phase and to its transition tomini-theories and the new paradigm
Ahistorical analysis of motivation study allows the reader tounderstand how the idea of motivation became important, how itdeveloped and changed, how ideas were replaced and challenged, andfinally, how the field remarked and brought together a variety ofdisciplines within psychology. Motivational concepts havephilosophical origins. From the ancient Greeks through
ReadingsFor Further Study 45 the European Renaissance, motivation wasunderstood within the two themes of that which is rational, active,and immaterial (i.e., the will) and that which is biological,impulsive, and reactive (that is, bodily desires). The metaphysicalstudy of the will is shown to be a blind alley that explained littleregarding motivation, as it in reality raised more questions than itanswered. To explain the motivation, the new field of psychologypursued a physiological study of motivation by being concentrated onthe mechanistic, genetically endowed the concept of the instinct. Theappeal of the instinct doctrine was the ability to account forunlearned behavior that had the purpose and energy such as goal-aimedbiological impulses. The physiological examination of the instinctresulted to be an intellectual blind alley also, at least in terms ofits capacity to serve as a grand theory of motivation.
Motivation’sthird celebrated theory was driven. In drive theory, behavior wasjustified to the degree that it fulfilled the needs of the individualand restored a natural homeostasis. Like will and instinct, driveappeared to be full of promise, especially because it could do whatno motivation theory had ever done before—namely, predictmotivation before it occurred from antecedent conditions forinstance, hours of deprivation. Consequently, the theory enjoyed wideacceptance, especially as manifest in the theories of Freud and Hull.In the end, drive theory, too, verified itself to be very limited inrange, and its negative response came from the field’sdisappointment with grand theories overall though numerous grandmotivational principles came out with some success, including arousaland incentive.
Eventually,it became clear that if progress was to be made in understandingmotivation, the field had to step outside the boundaries of itsmagnificent theories and embrace the less ambitious, but morepromising. The mini-theories, three historical trends, explain thistransition. First, motivation study declined its commitment to asubmissive view of human nature and employed a more dynamic portrayalof human beings. Second, motivation turned humanistic and cognitive.
Third,the subject was focused on socially relevant and applied problems.The field’s changed focus toward mini-theories was separatedisaster and separate good fortune. As to disaster, motivation lostits comfortable status as psychology’s flagship discipline anddescended rapidly into a second-class status. In reaction, motivationresearchers dispersed into virtually all areas of psychology, forinstance, social, developmental, clinical, and forged alliances withother fields to share ideas, constructs, methodologies, andperspectives. This turned out to be motivation’s good fortunebecause the field’s scattering into a wide range of other fields ofstudy proved to be fertile ground to develop a host of enlighteningmini-theories.
Thetheme throughout this chapter is the case that motivation study hasundergone a constant developmental process. In retrospect, motivationstudy progressed from relatively simplistic conceptualizations ofmotivation to an ever-increasing collection of sophisticated andempirically defensible insights about the forces that energize anddirect behavior. With the turn of the new millennium, the fantastictheories have passed, and a new paradigm has emerged. In the 21stcentury, motivation study is full of multiple voices andperspectives. All of which adds a unique piece of the puzzle ofemotion and motivation study. This change has opened the intellectualfloodgates for the arrival of mini-theories of motivation and adifferent paradigm in which behavior is led and energized by amultitude of co-acting influences rather than by a single splendidcause.
Q.2 List at least one brain structure from each category
Alteredbrain structures, when stimulated, lead to specific motivationalstates. Stimulating one fraction of the hypothalamus, for instance,increases hunger, while inspiring a diverse part of the hypothalamusboosts satiety. Researchers have several ways of looking in the brainfrom inside to see what is going on during motivational and emotionalstates. On very oriented structures, Hypothalamus is involved inpleasurable feelings associated with drinking, feeding, mating.Additionally, Cerebral cortex (frontal lobes) is associated withformulating making plans, intentions, and setting goals.
Avoidance-OrientedStructures include right prefrontal cerebral cortex that is involvedin to withdraw emotional and motivational trends. Additionally,amygdala is associated with detecting and responding to danger andthreat (for instance, by the use of anger, anxiety, and fear).Arousal-Oriented Structure comprises the reticular arrangement thatis involved in arousal. Moreover, addictive drugs, such aspsychostimulants, are addictive because their repeated use produceshypersensitivity (or in other words of addiction) to dopaminestimulation.
Q.3 Explain how childhood emotional trauma and physiological factorscan impact addiction?
Inchildren, abnormal amounts of cortisol can disrupt cell separation,cell relocation, and basic parts of central nervous systemincorporation and working. Trauma influences essential administrativemethodologies in the cerebrum stem, the limbic mind (memory, feeling,regulation of influence and arousal), the neocortex (impression ofpersonality and the world), and in addition integrative workingcrosswise over different frameworks in the central nervous system.The traumatic encounters are laid away in the youngster`s body/personality, and fear, arousal, separation connected with the firsttrauma may proceed after the danger of risk, and arousal hassubsided.
Advancementof the ability to control the influence may be undermined ordisturbed by trauma, and children lay exposed to intense or incessanttrauma may demonstrate manifestations of temperament swings,impulsively, enthusiastic crabbiness, indignation and hostility,uneasiness, melancholy and separation. Early trauma, especiallytrauma because of a guardian, can particularly adjust a child`s viewof self depend on others and the impression of the world. Childrenwho experience intense early trauma frequently create aforeshortened sense of the future. They begin to anticipate that lifewill be dangerous that they may even die, and subsequently, theysurrender trust and desires for themselves that arrive at into whathas to come.