Q1: Comparing and contrasting models of communication
Informationtransfer is the use of communication channels to move messages thatcontain information from the source to the receiver. Informationtransfer is conceptualized using two basic assumptions. First, it isassumed that information transfer is a multi-way, but not a linearprocess. Secondly, the process of communication is persuasive wherethe communicating parties seek to get a desirable response frominformation that has been transferred. The model has one potentialproblem, which the assumption that information transfer is a perfectprocess and fails to take account of challenges, such as semanticnoise. The model is criticized on the grounds that it assumes thatcommunication process is persuasive, but in some cases communicatingparties may not be persuaded to seek for a response.
Thetransactional process model is a framework in which interactions thatoccur in two directions are considered jointly. The main assumptionof transactional model is that communication is made possible by abidirectional and reciprocal interaction between an individual andthe environment. The potential problem with this model is that itlacks the directionality in the interaction between the physicalworld and self. The model is criticized on the basis of itsassumption that the terms meaning and communication areinterchangeable and synonymous.
Strategiccontrol is a process that involves monitoring, tracking, andassessing the effectiveness of strategic plans that have already beenimplemented with the objective of making the necessary changes. Themodel of strategic control is based on the assumption that earlydiscovery of problems with strategic plans saves on the cost ofcorrecting the faults if they are discovered later. One potentialproblem of strategic control is that it over-simplifies the processof controlling the strategic plan. The model is criticized on thegrounds that it is confused with reality because the model ispresented in a simple to represent a sophisticated process.
Q.2: Communication as a primary social process
Communicationis a basic process, the foundation, and a fundamental human need inany social organization. Based on this fact, communication has threemajor benefits that are harnessed to establish, sustain, and manageorganizations. First, communication is an essential tool that is usedby organizational stakeholders to establish relations. Opencommunication creates an atmosphere that is safe for employees andmanagers to express their ideas, which is important for theestablishment and maintenance of organizations. Secondly,communication facilitates collaboration within the organization,which in turn improves efficiency in the management of theorganization as well as decision making. In addition, collaborationleads to the establishment of effective teams that increase theorganizational productivity. Third, open communication facilitatestransparency within the organization, which enhances trust amongemployees and other stakeholders. The sense of trust among theorganizational stakeholder reduces resentment, a feeling ofinsecurity, tension, and uncertainty, which creates a positiveworkplace environment. Lastly, open communication reduces ambiguityand confusion within the organization, which means that the roles aswell as the responsibilities of all the stakeholders are understoodwith clarity. In essence, communication facilitates the exchangeideas that are necessary for the establishment of organizations andcreates a working environment that is suitable for organizationalmanagement and maintenance of the organization.
Q3: The classical management theories
Theclassical management theories are characterized by two majorassumptions. First, communication is central to the survival of anyorganization. Secondly, the theory assumes that communication is acomplex process
Thetheorists used the metaphor of machines where organizations arelikened to industrial machines. Machines are composed of differentparts that must work coordinately to accomplish a certain goal.Similarly, organizations are composed of various departments andunits that should be properly coordinated to facilitate therealization of organizational goals.
Theclassical theory of management has three major benefits. First, thetheory facilitates planning and creation of a more participatoryenvironment. Secondly, it enhances the organization of humanrelations and communication. Third, the theory, especially the Taylortheory, facilitates organizational benchmarking.
Themajor drawbacks associated with this theory include underutilizationof creativity, an increase in worker satisfaction, a decline in taskcommitment, and communication effectiveness.
Q4: Contributions made by the system perspectives to theorganizational communication
Systemperspective is based on the notion that organizations are composed ofinteractive and interdependent elements that form the collectiveentity. These elements include symbolic, physical, or behavioralentities. These elements interact in different ways, includingmathematically, physically, or through the exchange of information.Some systems may be complex if they have a large number of elements,discontinuous, nonlinear, and large numbers of relationships. Thisdescription of a system applies to organizations that are made ofdifferent organizational departments, teams of workers, managerialstaff of varying levels, as well as non-human elements. Propercoordination of all these components of the organization througheffective communication facilitates the achievement of pre-determinedgoals.
Themajor challenge presented by the system perspective is the ability ofindividuals to comprehend the relationship between different elementsof the system. Failure to understand the relationships betweenelements (such as departments) may lead to a dysfunctionalorganization as a result of communication breakdown andmisunderstandings. However, this perspective presents greatopportunities for organizations that wish to study and analyze theirrelationships. For example, organizations can study the relationshipbetween different components of the physical production machine tounderstand behavioral relationships among members of staff.