Sexuality

SEXUALITY 7

Youthsexuality is a significant topic since many young people spoil thefoundation of their lives through engaging in risky sexual behaviors. The youths are at risk of suffering from venereal diseases, physicalsexual abuse, or conceiving unplanned pregnancies. The objective ofthis study is evaluating possible causes of negative sexual outcomes,as well as methods that youths can use to refrain from engaging inrisky sexual behaviors. The focus of the topic will be teenagepregnancy among the teenage. The motivation for picking the topic isthe fact that teenage pregnancy and child bearing is very high in theUnited States.

AnnotatedBibliography

Sarantaki,&nbspA.&amp &nbspKoutelekos,&nbspI.&nbsp(2009). “Teenage Pregnancy.”HealthScience Journal.3(8). 11-17.

Thisstudy is based from teenage pregnancy data collected between 1985 and2002. The findings are reliable since the researchers considereddata in both the United Kingdom and United States. The trendindicated that teenage child bearing and unplanned pregnanciesreduced from 9% (1985) to 5.2% (2002). Furthermore, the study matchedthe findings from the previous studies that claimed thatsocioeconomic disadvantage and reduced opportunities for theteenagers were among key contributors to teen pregnancies. Moreover,the researchers identified poor communication between parents andchildren as another significant obstacle that could enhance the ageat which children begin engaging in sexual escapades. The resourceis also valuable since the authors evaluated the different strategiesboth the US and UK governments are using in the fight against teenpregnancy. The authors claim that both countries are encouragingabstinence, as well as educating the youths regarding safeapplication of contraceptives. The authors also investigatedaccessibility to reproductive health education in both the UnitedStates and the United Kingdom, as well as its efficiency incontrolling teen pregnancy. According to the researchers, teenpregnancy and childbearing can decrease further if the governmentscan develop multi-agencies working in collaboration with teenagehealth care agencies. The study was based on qualitative researchmethod, which provides efficient comparison for large data samples.

Santelli,J.S., Lindberg, L.D., Finer, L.B.&amp Singh, S. (2007). “ExplainingRecent Declines in Adolescent Pregnancy in the United States: TheContribution of Abstinence and Improved Contraceptive Use.” American Journal of Public Health.97(1): 150–156.

Thepurpose of this study was determining the relative efficiency betweenthe decreasing sexual activity and increasing contraceptive use withthe declining pregnancy rate in the US. The researchers usedqualitative research method so that they could examine a large amountof data. Besides, the research was restricted to the nationalgovernment data collected between 1995 and 2002 on teenagers aged 15to 19 years old. In addition, the researchers developed a couple ofindices that included overallpregnancy risk indexand contraceptiverisk index. The latter index investigated the level of contraceptive used amongthe teenagers while the former index determined the general pregnancyrisk among sexually active individuals. The researchers discoveredthat the overall group had a 34% index, but the figure rose to 46%among teenagers aged between 15-17 years. The study also observed themain contraceptive methods among teenagers, which included condoms,injections, withdrawal, and pills. The study is valuable in theresearch as it is directly associated to the teen pregnancy controlmethods. The research provides comprehensive details on the factorsthat have contributed to the latest decrease in teen pregnancy in theUnited States. Using the indices determined in the study, healthcareprofessionals and other parties interested in controlling adolescentpregnancies in the US would help the data crucial for developingefficient control solutions.

Rich-Edwards,J. (2002). “Teen pregnancy is not a public health crisis in theUnited States. It is time we made it one.” InternationalJournal of Epidemiology.31 (3): 555-556

Thisstudy will be significant in the research, as it will provideinformation regarding whether teen mothers do cause health carecrisis. Rich-Edwards used quantitative research approach in theevaluation of both private and public hospital records. To ensurehigh data accuracy, the researcher only used records that containedcomprehensive information regarding the patient. The study concludedthat several teenagers often live healthy life, and have access toreproduction facilities that give them healthy lifestyle that issimilar to that of older mothers. Furthermore, the researcherobserved that adolescent parenthood is not directly associated withjuvenile crime, childhood illnesses, infant mortality, and welfaredependence, as some people believe. The study eliminated the doubtsthat teen pregnancy does cause social risks and health deteriorationto adolescent parents. Instead, the researcher discovered that youngmothers have chances of bearing healthy children, and remaininghealthy as well as, their mature women. However, the researcher doesalso note that teen parents at a higher risk of becoming poor,specially, if they lack adequate parental or guardian support. Achild at adolescent can prevent a teenager from joining college orhigh school. In addition, many teenagers are often unemployed, andlack professional work experience that in turn makes them vulnerableto neglecting their children or relying on food stamps. Nevertheless,the study is has limitation since the information may not be 100%reliable. Recently, parents, policymakers, religious groups, andother stakeholders involved in the campaign for reducing teenpregnancy have been advocating for abstinence as the best method forpreventing teenage parenthood. This implies that most of theself-reported cases may involve under-reporting of coitus due to theemphasis on abstinence as a method of avoiding teenage pregnancies.On the other hand, teenagers may over-report using contraceptives asprofessionals have been emphasizing on family-planning methods asstrategies for reducing avoiding unwanted pregnancies.

Cocca,C. (2006). Adolescentsexuality: A historical handbook and guide.Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Thebook covers critical teenage sexuality topics ranging from thecolonial times to the present day. The long span of research helpsin developing a comprehensive overview concerning adolescent sexlives. The study analyzed how different parties, ranging fromparents, police, and policymakers have managed to intervene in thelives of adolescent parents. The combined effort of the here partnershave helped to reduce teen parenthood risks significantly. Theauthor discovered that police officers reduce teen pregnancy throughsubjecting recuing girls forced into sexuality, as well as punishingpersons who have developed a relationship with other children.Furthermore, the researcher compares the perspective of the past andmodern teen sexuality behavior and then gives suitable presentsolutions for controlling the menace.

Theauthor is a children health activist, thus he has access to plenty ofhealthcare records. The approach of the research is further extendedby the contribution of information from other sources such as theWomen`s Christian Temperance Union. The group provided theresearcher with valuable data such as Freud’s theories concerningsexuality, consent age, and present data on teenage sexuality, andimages used in sex education back in the twentieth century. Sincethe book is based on facts, it is a crucial resource for journalists,students, parents, educators, and youths searching for self-helpinformation.

Hass,A. (2009). Teenagesexuality: A survey of teenage sexual behavior.New York, London: Macmillan Collier Macmillan.

Theobjective of this study was developing comprehensive researchregarding the attitude of teenagers towards sexuality. Besides, theresearcher sought to understand how much teenagers were informedabout the consequences of teenage sex. The author is a seasonedresearcher and pediatrician specializing on general medicine.According to the study, majority of the sexually active teenagers hadnot sought professional assistance from a qualified counselor. Inaddition, they were not using any form of contraceptives. Theresearcher concluded that many teenagers were engaging in sex becauseof peer influence, or the media have misled them. Unfortunately, themedia offers little helpful information that would suit therequirements of the teenagers. However, the study also determinedother some of the strategies that teenagers apply as prevention forteenage pregnancies. Some of the uninformed methods the teenagers usefor family planning include homosexuality, masturbation, condom,withdrawal, and natural family planning. The researcher observes thatteenagers are afraid of seeking professional family planningassistance, or they cannot afford the service. Hass (2009) proposesthat special family planning units should be established in publichospitals for ensuring that adolescents seeking family planningadvice can conveniently access the information free andconfidentially. On the other hand, the author also recommendsintegration of sexuality education in the school curriculums in orderto raise a generation of well-informed youths on sexuality matters.