Statistics and Nursing Research

Statisticsand Nursing Research

Statisticsand Nursing Research


  1. Introduction/Abstract

  2. Article 1

  1. Effects of yoga on stress management

  1. Article 2

  1. Effect of yoga on young and mid-age women

  1. Article 3

  1. Yoga based life style

  1. Article 4

  1. Yoga interventions

  1. References


Yogais a type of exercise that involves movements of body parts intovarious positions in order to become more flexible, fit, to improvebreathing, as well as improve one’s mind. Yoga is a philosophy thatwas first developed in India. Indians believed that physicalexercises such as yoga, helped people to become calmer and unitedthem with God. This paper discusses the literature reviews of fourdifferent articles that relate yoga to a method of medication. Itprimarily focuses on the analysis, weakness, and strengths of variousarticles on yoga.

Article1: Effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults: asystematic review

The“Effects of Yoga on Stress Management in Healthy Adults: ASystematic Review” article is written by the Cecilia et al. Theauthors wrote the article in 2011 with the aim of highlighting theimpacts of using yoga as a means to minimising stress. Although thereare many proposed theories to reduce stress, this article only focuson the Yoga exercise.

Theauthors performed a systematic literature with an aim ofinvestigating the clinical controlled trials (CCTs) and trials thatare randomly controlled (RCTs). They primarily focused on healthyadults between the age of eighteen and sixty-five years old withoutany significant health problems ((Chong,Tsunaka,Tsang,Chan,and Cheung,2011). The study consisted of two researches conducted independently.The data was collected through five electronic databases: psycINFO,cochrane, Medline, CINAHL, and social science citation index. Later,the assessment of its quality was done using Public Health Research,Education, and Development (PHRED). Out of the five databases, 862studies were considered, but only 33 of them were used in this study.The participants were from the local community, college students, andemployees from one particular company.

Fromthe article, the authors classify the study based on the duration,outcome measures, invention, and results. Further, they qualitativelyassessed the finding depending on the development standards and thepublic health research (Chonget al., 2011). They also based the systematic review based on theeight CCTs and RCTs to indicate the positive impacts of yoga inreducing stress symptoms and stress level.

Thestrength of this study is that it is useful in studying a typical anda rare behaviour. For instance, the study helps to developunderstanding and the knowledge of benefits of yoga. By studying atypical behaviour, the study is extremely useful in providing andimproving treatment and therapies of people with stress. Therefore,the study was successful. It reviewed the positive impacts of yoga onreducing stress among the healthy young adults population.

Unfortunately,the study has some shorting comings and weakness. Firstly, theresults of the research are not 100% accurate. Therefore, one shouldbe keen while interpreting the data. This is because a small samplewas considered, which also had its own methodological problems.Further, one study reported a negative results (Chong,2011).This was due to the significance increase in anxiety among thecollege students. The post yoga assessments concurred with thecollege examination hence, creating anxiety amongst collegeparticipants.

Article2: The Prevalence and Characteristics of Young and Mid-Age Women whouse Yoga and Meditation: Results of the Nationally RepresentativeSurvey of 19,209 Australian Women.

Sibbrittet al wrote this article in 2011. The main purpose of the article isto find out the features of yoga. In addition, the article analysesthe outcome of yoga on meditation users and non-users among mid-agedand the young women living in Austria (Sibbritt,Adams, &amp van der Riet, 2011).Further, the study investigates multiple factors that affect thewell-being and the health of women above twenty years.

Theparticipants were divided into three groups: young, mid-age, and theold group. The younger group comprised of women between 18 to 23years, the mid-aged group comprised of women between 45-50 years,while the older group comprised of women between 70 and 75 years. Thesample was randomly selected the national Medicare database. Thesample comprised of 14,779 young women and 14,099 mid-aged women.Participants gave their current educational qualification and theirmarital status. Women also gave their area of residence either as anurban or rural. The data was later analysed though analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) and a statistical program (SAS).

Thestudy estimated that 35% of the young Australian women and 27% of themid-aged Australian women uses meditation or yoga. The study showedthat younger women suffering from back pain and allergies have morepossibility of using meditation or yoga, while those with headachesand migraines were less likely to use meditation or yoga. On theother hand, the study showed that mid-aged women with bowel problemsand low irons have a high possibility of using meditation or yoga,while those with hypertension have less possibility of usingmeditation or yoga (Sibbrittet al., 2011).Further, the study significantly predicated the women from the ruralareas have less possibility of using meditation or yoga compared tourban women. Similarly, married women and women in relationships areless likely to use meditation or yoga compared to the single women.Finally, educated women also have less possibility of usingmeditation or yoga compared to the uneducated women.

Thestrengths of this study are that it provides detailed qualitativeinformation and an insight for further research. The study givesother researchers the possibilities to continue with theinvestigation. Given that most females who uses medication or yogaregularly are positively associated with good physical and mentalhealth hence, this provides future need to research the potentialbenefits of the mind-body practises in women. Further, the studypermits investigation of impractical situations. Occasionally, suchstudies are only used in exploratory studies. Hence, this study helpsin generating other ideas that might also be tested using othermethods. Nevertheless, the study has some weaknesses and limitations.The process of collecting data is time and money consuming. Theresearchers had to move from one point to the other to collect datafrom women.

Article3: Efficacy of Yoga Based Life Style Modification Program onmedication Score and Lipid Profile in Types 2 Diabetes- A RandomisedControl Study.

Nagarathnaet al wrote this in 2012. The main objective is to investigate thecomparison between the Exercise Based-Life style modification program(ELSP) and Yoga-Based Life Style Modification Program (YLSP) in type2 diabetics. In addition, the study aims to investigate whether YLSPis better method to reduce diabetes compared to the ELSP.

Thestudy was conducted in five different zones (north, south, central,east, and west) in and around Bengaluru city in India. Severaltheories have been proposed to explain the benefits of yoga in type 2diabetics. However, the study focused on type 2 diabetics on bothmales and females above twenty-five years, the T2DM more than oneyear, the fasting venous blood glucose level below 120mg% duringdiagnosis, the numbers of patients who stabilize after three weeks onthe dosage of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents. The participantswere allocated either to an exercise-based life style modificationprogram or to a yoga-based life style modification program(Nagarathna,Usharani, Rao, Chaku, Kulkarni, &amp Nagendra, 2012).The data is analysed by the use of SPSS version 16 software. Out offive hundred and twenty participants, 277 were randomised into twogroups. After the whole course, there was a significant differencebetween participants who practised ELSP and YLSP.

Thekey strength of this study is its positive outcome. Firstly, thestudy proved there are benefits effects of using yoga are one way totreat diabetics. Nagarathnaet al.(2012), observed decrease in drug scores, bold pressure, sympatheticactivity, oxidant stress, and improvements in risk factors likecholesterol and glucose that are better subjective to the quality oflife to the diabetes patients. He also recorded a significantdecrease in glycosylated haemoglobin and postprandial blood glucoselevel after forty days of yoga exercise in type 2 diabetics.Therefore, they proved that yoga-based life style modificationprogram is better program than exercise based life style to reducethe amount of blood glucose and to decrease oral hypoglycaemicmedication, as well as increase HDL in type 2 diabetics. However,limitation of this study is that it did not report the body weight,calorie intake, and BMI before and after the invention due to the useof different instruments.

Article4: A Yoga Intervention for young Adults with Elevated Symptoms ofDepression

“AYoga Intervention for Young Adults with Elevated Symptoms ofDepression” article is written by Alison W., Hector M., Beth S.,Lonnie Z. Written in 2004. The chief purpose of the article is toscrutinize the effects of Iyengar yoga course on depressed youngadults’ mood (Woolery,Myers, Sternlieb, &amp Zeltzer, 2004).The research targeted college students between eighteen and twentynine years. The research was conducted on twenty-eight participantswho initially experienced mild levels of depression and without anysignificant experience in yoga.

Thesample was collected through plastic salivates. Participants attendedten sessions of iyengar yoga classes in five consecutive weeks(Wooleryet al., 2004).Participants were expected to provide three sample of saliva(pre-test, midcourse, and post-test). The cortisol level was measuredusing an immunoassay kit. At the end of the five weeks, all theParticipants demonstrated a significant decrease in trait anxiety andself-reported signs and symptoms of depression. The effects wereobserved in the middle up to the end of the course. In addition,there was noticeable acute change mood in participants whereby theyrecorded a decrease in levels of fatigue and negative moods.Correspondingly, a high level of morning cortisol was also observedtowards the yoga course. The study indicated that iyengar yoga haveseveral advantages to the people suffering from mild level ofdepression. Yoga improves acute mood and reduce anxiety anddepression.

Oneof the main strength of this article is its analytical nature in itsresults. This is because of its tightly controlled conditions and useof statistical probabilities. This makes it theoretically possiblefor a researcher to foretell the results of another experiment in asimilar setting without necessarily observing the changes. Similarly,it is also possible for a researcher to carry out a descriptive studyof a given population with the same interest. On the other hand, thelimitation of the study is due to the limited sample. The study wasonly conducted on twenty-eight participants out of hundred studentsin the collage. This sample is then used to make the conclusion ofthe whole population.


Chong,C. S., Tsunaka, M., Tsang, H. W., Chan, E. P., &amp Cheung, W. M.(2011). Effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults: Asystematic review.&nbspAlternativeTherapies in Health &amp Medicine,&nbsp17(1).

Nagarathna,R., Usharani, M. R., Rao, A. R., Chaku, R., Kulkarni, R., &ampNagendra, H. R. (2012). Efficacy of yoga based life stylemodification program on medication score and lipid profile in type 2diabetes—a randomized control study.&nbspInternationalJournal of Diabetes in Developing Countries,&nbsp32(3),122-130.

Sibbritt,D., Adams, J., &amp van der Riet, P. (2011). The prevalence andcharacteristics of young and mid-age women who use yoga andmeditation: results of a nationally representative survey of 19,209Australian women. Complementarytherapies in medicine,&nbsp19(2),71-77.

Woolery,A., Myers, H., Sternlieb, B., &amp Zeltzer, L. (2004). A yogaintervention for young adults with elevated symptoms ofdepression.&nbspAlternativetherapies in health and medicine,&nbsp10(2),60-63.