Question2. Politicalchanges during Jacksonian Era
JacksonianEra occurred in the period between 1820s and 1840s, where most of thestates in the United States stamped out requirements for property ofthe office-holding. During this era, most of the states opened upconvenient polling locations, eliminated voting through voice, andlessened residency voting requirements, for the purpose ofencouraging popular participation in American politics. Additionally,methods of directly electing presidential candidates, governors,county officials, and state judges substituted indirect methods.However, the suffrage of the white manhood was becoming real whilewomen and most of the Afro-Americans were deprived of their votingrights (John 75).
Equallysignificantly, there was an emergence of two-party system, consistingof the Whigs party and the Jacksonian Democrats party, which enjoyednationwide during Jacksonian Era. Andrew Jackson was the dominantfigure in the Era’s politics and helped in reshaping the Americanpolitical status of the time. Jackson instituted political nominationconvention throughout the nation and opened up Indian lands for thesettlement of the whites. Furthermore, Jackson defended the spoilssystem and helped in the re-chartering of the second’s UnitedStates Bank. When South Carolina attempted to nullify the federalgovernment’s tariffs, Jackson vowed not to let any state’sattempt to defy federal authority (John 76).
Moreover,there was a sudden rush of democratic fervor which swept the Americanpolitics in the period between 1820 and 1830. Many states in Americanneglected requirements of formal training to practice law for thepurpose of opening up legal profession. For example, a few stateseliminated training and licensing necessities for doctors. In NewYork State, from 1839 to 1843, tenant farmers and feathered andfeathered sheriffs were aggravated when new constitution of the statewas formed. Additionally, insurgents, in Rhode Island, attempted tocapture the state armory to force the state eliminate votingrestrictions (John 78).
TheCounty Election is the reliable document which reflected the natureof the elections in the Jacksonian Era. It outlined the people whowere supposed to participate and people who were not supposed toparticipate in the election rituals. The document illustrated howpolitical parties enticed voters to vote for their candidates in thefavor of the political parties. Additionally, they participated inpolite persuasion of the voters. A party cartoon of the agrarianworkingmen was about to be published during 1830 New York’spolitical campaign. The cartoon ironically depicted two forms ofpolitics in American, politics of the republican virtue corruptionand refurbishment of it (Paul 72).
Question3: Argumentsin favor of Western Expansion
UnitedStates grew hugely during the early 19th century, in geographicalsize and power. Many explorers were returning from the wildernesswith narratives of great stretches of fertile land that would beexploited for economic benefits. Therefore, some Americans settledwestward, although the nation was compelled to remain neutral in thepresence of France and Britain threats. After settling the landissues in 1812 war, United States focused on the issue of theexpansion. The United States` founding fathers had envisaged thenation as a mainstay of freedom that would possibly stretch all theway to the North American continent. Therefore, the descendants didnot forget this desire and called for the expansion into westernregions through laws and rhetoric (Allison 9).
Thepropensity of westward expansion was favored by the rise ofmanufacturing industries in New England and the ever-increasingmobility across the American land. The Americans moved to Midwestfacilitating in the development of infrastructure, connecting citiesand towns via system of roads, railroads and canals. Besides thedevelopment of new transportation methods, there was advancement inthe fields of medicine and agriculture, since new methods of diseasetreatment were discovered, and new machineries were invented.Moreover, American culture revolutionized because of the developmentof writing, painting, acting and rise of intellectuals (Allison 10).
However,the progress of expansion did not happen totally in the ambiance ofprogress. The rise of the political contention can be dated back tothe era of Jacksonian Democracy between the ruling party (Democrats)and the opposition party (Whigs). After maturation of the two-partysystem, political wrangles rose on the contentious issue of the slavetrade. Therefore, as the West slowly developed, the states were tornapart, as a social and economic divisions became highlighted as Southand North adhered to their customs and beliefs (Allison 10).
Bythe end of the Mexican War in 1818, the United States had gainedcomplete control of California, New Mexico and Texas territories. Asmore and more settlers settled in these regions, it was obvious thatthe western expansion would revolutionize the future of the slavetrade. However, South and North concentrated their efforts on thepursuit of political desire of the slave trade in the newly settledterrains of the West. Therefore, the famous Lincoln-Douglas Debateshad predicted the future of the slave trade in the West regions. Inspite of the reconciliation efforts, the 1850 Compromise, forexample, the Union was entangled into a civil war because of theissue of the slave trade in the period between 1861 and 1865.Therefore, the western expansion was hindered due to civil wars thatoriginate from the westward’s settlement (Allison 11).
Sneider,Allison L. Suffragistsin an Imperial Age: U.s. Expansion and the Woman Question, 1870-1929.New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Internet resource.
Geer,John G. PublicOpinion and Polling Around the World: A Historical Encyclopedia.Santa Barbara Calif.: ABC-Clio, 2004. Print.
Nagel,Paul C, and George C. Bingham. GeorgeCaleb Bingham: Missouri`s Famed Painter and Forgotten Politician.Columbia [Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 2005. Internet resource.