Summer 2014

SUMMER 2014 6

Summer2014

Shortanswer questions

Question1

OlympicGames are global sporting events that bring people together worldwideto participate in different sports. The first Olympic Games were heldin Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, Greece in 1896. The opening andclosing ceremony were held on 6th April and 15th April 1896respectively. This was the first international tournament being heldin a modern era. There was need to revive the manner in which thegames were conducted because the ancient Olympics were a form ofpraising their gods while the modern Olympics were a form ofappreciating the talents of athletics. Mr. Pierre de Coubertin had anidea on how to revive the games, and he led the International OlympicCommittee to revive the games.

Question2

Ambushmarketing is a situation where those advertising associate themselveswith a particular event and thus gains at no cost. Host states dependon sponsors to stage those games. The Olympic Delivery Authorityprotects them from ambush marketers. An example of ambush marketingwas evidenced in Japan, 2002 world cup. Nike managed to get twentyfour best world footballers in a caged pitch inside a ship playingthree a side. Also, the use of beats electronics is a quickillustration of ambush marketing.

Question3

In1968 Olympics, Detroit lost the bid to Mexico City. ” Detroit cityon the move” was the promotional message with views of highways,diverse population and economic decline in Detroit city.

Question4

Thesignificant challenges that host nations of winter games face includemeasures to protect the spectators from the weather conditions anddangerous areas in the mountains. High winds and the risk ofavalanches are also a major problem to these events.

Question5

TheOlympics held in Lillehammer 1994 and Sydney 2000 were considered asthe best Olympics. The atmosphere was favorable. In Lillehammer, theskies remained clear all through till the end. In Sydney spectatorspurchased more than 92 % game tickets available. Projects wereenvironmentally friendly, and all were done systematically. Inaddition, energy conserving materials, public transport and highwayswere promoted.

Question6

TheBerlin Olympics in 1936 were the most controversial in the modernOlympic Games. The games were well organized, and several inventionswere implemented. For instance, the introduction of the torch relayfrom Athens Greece all the way to Berlin for the promotion of thegame. The government change and propaganda were, however, the mainagendas. It was largely believed that the government had used theevent as means gaining political favors from the populace.

Question7

LosAngeles changed the way other countries managed their games byadopting different techniques. For instance, they used sponsors ingame venues and also encourage the use of commercial orientationtechnique that covered the costs incurred. They also reused the pastvenues and media marketing, which enabled them to manage the gameseffectively.

Question8

Boycottin Olympics is a situation where a country is not represented by itsathletes in the Olympic Games. During the 1980 Olympics in Moscow,United states and other countries boycotted the Olympics due toRussia intervention to Afghanistan. The impacts of these reduced thenumber of competing nations. Also in 1984, the boycott in Los Angeleswas seen as a revenge for the Moscow boycotts.

Question9

DuringOlympics, professionals are prevented from participating in thesports for so long so that everyone is given a fair chance tocompete. The government is encouraged to support their athletes sothat they present their best in the playing grounds.

Question10

Brandingis an essential part for the hosting cities. This gives those nationsholding the Olympics an opportunity to portray an industrial imagehence attracting tourists and expanding the business. The country hasan opportunity to show the world its culture, industries and theirhistory.

Question11

TheInternational Olympic Committee has developed measures to reduce theuse of performance enhancing drugs by athletes. In 1999, thiscommittee established the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) thatensures that athletes are tested for drugs for any Olympic. Further,due to an increase in new drugs, this committee also ensures that itincreases its testing standards and the procedures. Some of theissues raised are that some athletes are allowed to use these drugsin order to maintain the breaking record performances.

Question12

Pierrede Coubertin came up with the idea of the Olympic flag. This was thefirst Olympic element to be used. The flag had five rings at themiddle to represent the five continents. This symbol is recognizedworldwide. Later there was the introduction of the fire and torchrelay which was followed by the motto that helped athletes to givetheir best. The anthems and oaths are the latest elements ofOlympics.

Question13

Duringpast world cups, it was evidenced that the economies of the hostnations tend to grow in the long run. This is achieved through theinfrastructure developments and the increase in tourism and foreigninvestment.

Question14

RobertRydell argues that world fairs were influenced politically to promoteracial dominance, as well as educational events. People attend theseevents to learn the different world cultures. World fairs can beapplied to Olympics where people globally meet in sporting activitiesand exhibit their talents.

Question15

IfI could participate in any given international sporting, I wouldalways go for the world cup. It is believed that football is the mostinfluential game in the world that brings people across the globetogether.

Essayquestions

Question16

Olympicsare associated with politics as a tool of economic advancement,prestige and investment. The International Olympic faces numerousdilemmas. For instance, on 26th August 1960, the death of KnudJensen, a cyclist competing in Rome Olympic Games, triggered a debateon his use of performance enhancing drugs. Research has indicatedthat this was connected to the issues of political relations. On theother hand, due to the costs involved in testing of the drugs, thegovernments become more involved during the cold war. TheInternational Olympic committee has tried to eliminate doping, aswell as reducing government interference. It is also believed thatthe successful Olympic games are backed by a strong government thatfinances it.

Question17

Brazilhosts the 2014 world cup games. Mostly, the costs involved were forrenovating and building new stadiums, improvement of ports, as wellas improving subway systems. As a result of the enormous investmentsthat Brazil injected for the preparations of the world cup, numerousbenefits are expected for both the country and its residents. Forinstance, the electricity and construction industries are expected tobe the largest beneficiaries. The tourism sector and hotels will alsogain during the main events. In addition, the information technology,transportation and telecommunications sectors will benefit immenselythrough the creation of jobs. However, the residents have sufferedimmensely through relocations where the stadiums have been built. Inaddition, the residents have also been forced to pay extra taxes inorder to facilitate the preparations for the world cup.