The Questions are in the `Order Instructions` box.


TheQuestions are in the `Order Instructions` box.


Whatis the difference between gender and sex?

Sexrefers to biological composition of a person’s reproductivestructure while gender refers to how feminine or masculine a personfeels (Kornblum &amp Smith, 2011).

Whydo we say gender is a `social construction`?

Genderis socially constructed as it is determined by attributes, roles,activities, and behaviors deems fit for either men or women. Forexample, an individual’s dressing style can be described as eitherfeminine of masculine (Kornblum &amp Smith, 2011).

Inwhat ways are masculinity and femininity constructed in society?

Masculinityin a society is evidenced by possession of roles, qualities, andcharacteristics that commonly associated with male sex. Commonbehaviors that construct masculinity include self-reliance, pursuingsuccess and status, restricted emotions, refraining from femininity,aggression, and strength. On the other hand, femininity includeswomanhood attributes such as sensitivity, gentleness, and empathy.The environment and upbringing can influence it an individual’sgender construction irrespective of his or her sex.

Howdoes this link to the idea of a `patriarchal society` and what wascalled as contemporary `raunch culture` in a week`s lecture?

Patriarchalsocieties exist because masculinity is associated with power, pursuitfor achievement, wealth, leadership, and moral acquisition thereby,making men appear the nest authority figures than women. In suchsocieties, men control property, hold political leadership, controlsocial organization, and control children and women (Kornblum &ampSmith, 2011).

Onthe other hand, `raunch culture` involves sexually evocative orexplicit exposure that is deemed as beautiful for women. For example,pop music celebrities appear in videos wearing lingerie to attractmale attention (Kornblum &amp Smith, 2011).


a)What kinds of political participation are evident in our society?

Conventionaland unconventional political participation

b)How have developments in information and communication technology(e.g., social media) altered opportunities for political activism?

Theadvancement in technology and the daily expanding subscriptions toTwitter and Facebook has changed political activism opportunities aspolitical candidates can reach millions of people at a small cost.Initially, politicians were mainly wealthy persons since one requiredhigh cost for financing campaigns. This implies that even financiallyunstable persons can gain influence as political leaders, whilepeople outside the country can participate in elections through

e-polls,e-petitions, and donations through different sites (Kornblum &ampSmith, 2011).

Whatdo you think are the positives and negatives to this?

Onlinecampaigning reduces the cost of a politician selling his or hermanifesto as a leader. In addition, the number of voters increase asboth local and international voters can participate in the electionprocess.

Onthe contrary, human technology is subject to errors or interferenceby hackers. Malicious people can interfere with the accuracy ofonline voting. In addition, online voting process can fail on thevoting day, thereby hindering potential voters from achieving success(Kornblum &amp Smith, 2011).


Recentlythere has been a dramatic growth in online dating websites. What doyou think are the main reasons for this phenomenon?

  • Minimizes rejection fear

  • Cheap as some websites are free

  • Enhance partner compatibility as they offer customized search

  • An individual can choose from a wide variety of suitors

  • Time saving and convenient for people who work at home and other places they rarely interact with others

Howdoes this relate to Weber`s idea of `rationalization`?

Socialdating relates to Weber’s rationalization theory in that itfacilitates sociological inquiry. Prospective suitors dating onlinecan exchange ideas, preferences, and tastes regarding their preferredpartners. In turn, the couple will only get into a relationship ifthey can understand each other.

Whatare the possible pitfalls with online, intimate connections?

  • Some suitors may give false information such as name and background

  • Suitors are vulnerable to matching with scammers

  • whirlwind romance does not allow couples adequate time for dating

  • unknown suitors may abuse their partners and get away with the blame as they do not know each other

Whatare the possible opportunities with online, intimate connections?

  • Suitors can choose from a big collection of potential suitors

  • Prospective suitors describe their preferred partners, thereby making it easy for an individual to find a partner

  • One can find a partner from another country or location whom they had no chances of meeting in person

Indiscussing how the self is presented on Internet dating sites, somewriters (for example Illouz 1997) talk about the irony of howexpressions of `individuality` are, in fact, standardised. How doesthis happen?

Internetdating sites standardize individuality expression through assumingthat an individual’s choice is a constant and invariable state ofmind that influences choosing a preferred mate.

Doyou agree?

Iobject the standardization criteria since the current ecology ofchoice has changed significantly. The form of beauty or attractionthat may attract one person may differ significantly with thepreferences that would appeal to another person. Potential suitorsrequire differentiating between rational and emotional requirements.


Theidea of `taste` within sociological literature goes beyond theeveryday idea of taste in relation to food. What do sociologists meanwhen they talk about a taste culture?

Insociology, taste is an individual’s preference and tendency ofderiving distinctions concerning various things such as consumergoods, styles and manners.

Istaste an individual thing or is it something beyond personal choice?

Tasteis something beyond an individual’s control as it is influenced byfactors such as social background and education.

Canwe talk about class taste?

Classtaste does exist, especially depending on economic statuses. The richtend to have similar tendencies that significantly differ from themost frequent choices for the poor persons.


Ethnictastes may occur based on language (dialect), ancestry, homeland,ideology, religion and


Gendertaste may occur in terms of colors. Pink is a feminine color whileblack is a masculine color.

Also,if taste is not just personal or individual, how would we researchit?

Sincetaste is not a personal issue, it is best researched at communitylevel. Researchers should investigate the cultural preferences of asociety in order to develop a comprehensive understanding ofindividual preferences (Kornblum &amp Smith, 2011).


Kornblum,W., &amp Smith, C. D. (2011). Sociologyin a changing world.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.