Theuse of new reproductive health is beneficial for the discovery anddevelopment of advanced and innovative approaches to reproductivehealth. New reproductive technologies have assisted the reproductivehealth in solving challenges that are related to fertility. Inaddition, the use of new reproductive technology has been significantin the development of research in reproductive health and otherfields of biomedical research. These advancements have enhanced theuse of three main technologies the sperm donation process, ovumdonation and embryo transfer.
Thesethree technologies are the main adoptions of the new techniques sincemost of all other technologies are based on them. The selection ofthese three technologies is because they are commonly used as part ofother reproductive health methods. Sperm donation allows donors toprovide mature sperms to fertilize the ovum of the needy woman. Thisis done through natural or technologically advanced methods ofartificial insemination. Through the use of the laboratory, thesperms can also be stored for future use.
Ovumdonation is also an important procedure that allows recipients toreceive mature ovum or ova from a recipient. Through the use ofreproductive technology, the ovum is fertilized outside the womb ofthe recipient. The process, however, involves the matching of thereproductive cycles of the recipient as well as the donor. Embryotransfer is therefore an important step and a technique that allowsthe implantation of a growing embryo to a mother-recipient’s womb.This is because the embryo is fertilized outside the womb of therecipient. This paper will explore these technologies and how theyprogress the use of assisted reproductive procedures and solve thediverse needs of parents.
Theuse of reproductive technology is gradually becoming an importantpart of the modern day reproduction health. The developments ofadvanced technology have been beneficial in all the fields thatrelate to health care. Being an important part of health care, theuse of new technology of reproductive health is important for thefield. Among the technologies used are sperm donation, embryotransfer, ovum donation, artificial insemination and surrogacy. Toexplore the impact and the use of the new technology, this paper willdiscuss these examples of technology. In the discussion, this paperwill explain their impact on reproductive health and thecircumstances under which they are appropriate for use.
Sperm donation is the technology based process of providing a spermby a man in order to impregnate a woman. The sperm donation takes themeaning when the man that donates the sperm is not the sexual ormarital partner of the woman who will receive the sperm. According toGardneret al (21),the sperm is used for the reproduction of the mother, meaning thatthe woman will bear a child with the pregnancy that she gets from thedonated sperm. The donation process of the sperm can be done directlyby a person known to the receiver or not. In addition, the donationcan be done through the sperm banks that are held by hospitals orfertility clinics.
Theprocess of inseminating the woman can take place in two ways. Thefirst is the use of natural insemination. This is the inseminationthrough sexual intercourse, which works through the normal way offertilizing the ovum with the egg. The second method is the use ofartificial insemination (Jongeand Barratt12).This is the introduction of the semen or the sperm into the vagina ofthe woman or the oviduct. This is the alternative to the naturalprocess of sexual intercourse, but purposed at the achievement of thesame biological result of a woman getting pregnant. The artificialinsemination is important for the process of sperm donation thatprovides the sperm.
Accordingto Gardner et al (21),the recipient of the sperm that is donated has the option ofselecting the features of the sperm being used for the insemination.The features are selected based on the color of the donor, looks,personality, race, academic and intellectual abilities among othercharacteristics. However, sperm banks have the right to withhold someinformation such as the identity of the donor as well as the numberof donations the donor has done. This will limit the recipient fromknowing deeper or comprehensive information about the donor. However,the situation is different when the recipient chooses her own spermprovider.
Spermdonors are naturally the biological fathers of the child beingreproduced by the recipient. However, there is no legal obligation orintention that the donor is recognized as the father. The process ofsperm donation is mostly described to be the third-partyreproduction. This is because the process of sperm donation has madea success through the use of the Assisted Reproductive Technology,the ART. The techniques used here are the artificial insemination,intrauterine insemination, intra-cervical insemination andintra-vaginal insemination. While the natural sperm donation involvesthe donor having sexual intercourse with the recipient woman, thetechnological sperm donation involves the use of these technologies.The adoption of these technologies makes sperm donation a part of thenew reproductive technology.
Thisis the process of transferring an already fertilized and growingembryo to the uterus of a female to start a pregnancy. The process oftransferring the embryo is a closely associated with the technique ofthe invitro fertilization, the IVF. Embryos can be transferred in freshform that is just from fertilized egg cells, in the same menstrualcycle or in frozen form. The frozen form involves the transfer ofembryos that were generated from a different menstrual cycle or thathave undergone the process of embryo cryopreservation(Chianand Quinn 7). According to Chian and Quinn (2), the use of thecryopreservation is the most common and is considered to havepositive outcomes. However, the chance of pregnancy when using eitherof the two methods is considered to be the same.
Beforethe embryo is transferred into the uterus, there are processes ofpreparing the uterine for the pregnancy. The embryo transfer takesplace in the luteal phase in a natural cycle case (Erickson85).However, the process may be challenged by the underdevelopment of theuterus and the uterine wall to receive the embryo and sustainpregnancy. Therefore, as part of the preparation process, the womanmay be given doses of estrogen, to prepare her for pregnancy. In sucha case, the hormone is given for about two weeks then a combinationof both the progesterone and the estrogen is given. This prepares thelining of r the pregnancy by making them more receptive to theupcoming transfer of the embryo.
Theuse of invitro fertilization is a technology where the egg is fertilizedoutside the body of a woman. It is a major treatment or alternativeto the challenge of infertilitywhen other methods such as the assisted reproductive technology areunsuccessful. The process of IVF involves monitoring and stimulatingthe process of evolution of a woman and then removing the mature ovumor ova (Jongeand Barratt22).The removed ovum is then fertilized by a sperm in the laboratory in afluid. The fertilized egg is then preserved in the laboratory in aculture medium for two to six days for growth. The growing embryo isthen transferred to the mother’s uterus with the purpose ofdeveloping a pregnancy.
Theuse of the IVF is a common type of technology that is applied in thetest tube babies that result of natural cycles. Through the use ofIVF, there is no need for the use of simulation in the terms of thesperm and ovum used in the process (Erickson86).The process of embryo transfer becomes an important aspect of all thetechnologies that are used for reproductive treatments and solvingchallenges of infertility. The technology involved gets thedefinition of embryo transfer when the embryo is fertilized outsidethe womb and not inside the womb and then implanted in the uterus.
Thisis an assisted reproductive technology where a woman provides amature ovum for fertilization and pregnancy by another woman. Theovum can also be donated for the purposes of research. To use theovum for the purpose of assisted reproduction, the donation of theegg is done through IVF (Erickson86).The donated eggs are fertilized for the use by the parents in needwhere the process of embryo transfer is used for the completion ofthe reproductive process. The donated eggs that were not used for thereproductive process at the time are stored for future use throughthe freezing technology (Gardneret al 21).Egg donation is a step towards the achievement of the third partyreproduction as it is a constituent technology of the ART. Thedonation is done under controlled environments where the donor iskeenly monitored and screened to comply with the needed requirements.The donor is selected under the consent and as per the featuresrequired.
Afterthe donor is screened, she is required to undertake a legal contractof consent that allows the use of the ovum or ova. The process ofretrieving the ovum is lengthy since the procedure must match withthe reproductive cycle of both the donor and the recipient. Accordingto Gardneret al (21),process may also use the assistance of birth control pills thatcontrolling the two cycles to match. The use of the technology is notonly a solution to the infertility challenge of parents, but also asolution to the biomedical research needs of mature ova.
Theuse of technology in the reproductive health is important for thesolution of challenges in the reproductive health such asinfertility. Adoption of new reproductive technology is important forthe provision of such solutions and allowing people to experienceparenthood despite their reproductive health. Sperm donation helpsdonors to assist recipients with mature male gametes while ovumdonation allows recipients to have a pregnancy with ova from donors.The process of embryo transfer is therefore an important technologysince it helps the recipients to successfully hold pregnancies. Theseare reproductive technologies that have not only helped thereproductive process, but also biomedical research.
Chian,Cheng and Quinn Patrick. FertilityCryopreservation. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2010, Print
Erickson,Theresa.Surrogacyand Embryo, Sperm, & Egg Donation: What Were You Thinking?:Considering IVF & Third-Party Reproduction.Bloomington: iUniverse Publishing, 2010, Print
Gardner,David, Rizk, Bostros, & Falcone, Tommaso. HumanAssisted Reproductive Technology: Future Trends in Laboratory andClinical Practice.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, Print
Jonge,Christopher and Barratt,Christopher. AssistedReproductive Technology: Accomplishmentsand New Horizons.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2002, Print