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June18, 2014.



Peopletake water resources for granted all over people use water withoutconsidering that sometimes water becomes scarce. When people faceimminent water shortage, they become worried and start struggling tosave water when it is too late. However, there are various waysthrough which individuals can use to ensure that they conserve waterbefore the reservoirs are out. The first and most important way ofwater conservation is through assessing water usage at work, home orSchool.

Wateraudit is an essential aspect that helps one to keep watch againstunnecessary water wastage. Water is usage varies from day to day invarious places. Therefore, the right water audit could be done aftera series of few days to determine the accurate average water usageper day. The cost of water and wastewater services keeps rising eachday. Water audit is important as it helps one to engage in savingpractices thereby reducing overall costs and meeting the resourcesustainability even when there is scarcity. Water saving enhancesmore saving on energy energy used in pumping water and heating(Vickers, 2001).

ConductingWater audit at Home

Inorder to audit water use at home, one can decide to carry out theaudit process for in a number different of days depending on thehousehold capacity. Meter reading is done in the morning and eveningFor instance in week one, Monday morning the meter reading is 3.576and in the evening the meter reading is 3.765. Theweekly tabulation could be as follows.

Week one


Water meter reading in cubic meters
























Listof equipments and areas of water use

  • Garden irrigation faucets/landscaping

  • Shower heads, toilets and urinal flushers/brushing teethes

  • Kitchen taps/dish washing/drinking/cooking

  • Washing clothes taps/washbasins

Gardenirrigation faucets/landscaping

Theirrigation garden faucet is turned on for two hours each day thismeans that it uses approximately 50liters of water each day. Thesprinkler uses an overhead ‘spray like’ faucet which means somepumping energy is required. Overall, the garden sprinkler usesapproximately 350liters of water every week.

Showerheads, toilets and urinal flushers/brushing teethes

Thereare two bathrooms with shower heads and two toilets with a flushingunit. The house has four members of the family who utilizes thesefacilities. To calculate the amount of water use in each case theshower faucet is turned on for one-minute and the water collected ina bucket. The same process is repeated with the bathroom taps andtoilets. Afterwards, the collected water in each case is measured.The quantity is then multiplied by approximate ten minutes one usesthe bathroom this will give liters of water used in the separatefacilities in case the quantity per one minute is 2 liters. For thetoilet flush, the quantity of water is marked in the tank before andafter usage, and the value is recorded, let’s say in my case is1liters. Each day the toilet is used by four people for at least twotimes a day for each this translates to ten liters per day for thetoilets. The bathroom when used by four people each day for tenminutes each consumes approximately 80 liters each day. Water usagefrom the bathroom and the toilet accounts for 90 liters of water eachday.


Everydaywater from the kitchen tap is used for dishwashing, cooking anddrinking. The tap is used three times a day for one hour. The kitchentap is not turned on continuously and, therefore, in one-hour watercollected from the kitchen tap is approximately ten liters. Thismeans that approximately 30 liters of water are used each day fromthe kitchen tap.

Washingclothes taps/washbasins

Thewashing tap is rarely used during the week compared to weekends. Onweekends, the tap is turned on for four hours on Saturday and twohours on Sunday. The tap is turned on continuously with few turnoffs this means that in one hour 50 liters of water flows from thetap, therefore in four hours 200 liters are collected. The same caseapplies to Sundays where approximate 100liters of water are used whenthe washing tap is turned on for two hours. The overall usage ofwater on weekends together with occasional weekly use translates to500liters per week or in average 71 liters per day.


Inan average, each person at home utilizes 60 liters of water each daythis entails indoor and outdoor water usage at home. Although wateris in constant supply, there is a reservoir that has been built tocollect rainwater that is used to subsidize garden irrigation andtoilet flush water. In addition, all washing water is collected andtreated for use in the toilets to avoid excess usage of fresh waterfrom the taps.

Recommendationsfor water usage and conservation

Checkfor leaks

Inmost homes and workplaces, much water is lost through leaking pipes.Leakages are common in bathrooms and toilets areas and other hiddenwater pipes. In order to effectively assess leakages, one can closeall taps and then read the meter number. Then after some hours, themeter number is read, and the figure noted to compare with theinitial figure. A change in meter reading indicates water leakagethat need to be identified and fixed. Leaking pipes are easilynoticed whether they are in the open or underground wet concrete,walls, ceilings and garden grounds could give leads to a leaking pipethat need to be changed.

Flushingtoilets accounts for the largest percentage of leaking water eitherduring flushing or when not in use (Vickers, 2001). Regular checksand fixing of tank valves is important to seal all the silent leaks.In addition, all faucets whether in bathroom, kitchen, open yard ortoilets should be regularly assessed to seal any silent drips.Repairs of drips may be done by replacing all washers that are torn,repacking or tightening the faucet (Dziegielewski, 2000).

Replacingand fixing all equipments and appliances

Inaddition to checking leaks and drips, it is necessary to assess theefficiency of the appliances used to convey water. This is importantfor faucets, bathroom showerheads, garden sprinklers and the washingappliances (Vickers, 2001). The idea should be replacing allappliances that do not allow for water conservation for instance,retrofitting the faucet washers, showerheads, toilet flushers andtaps with an aerator.

Theaerator saves water by reducing the flow and speed thereby reducingthe intensity and volume of water flowing from the appliance. Inaddition, it is necessary to seek expert opinion when buying somewater appliances some appliances are more efficient in use, qualityand durability for instance, buying a low-volume shower head andimproved version of toilet tanks and flushers, as well as,dishwashers or cloth washers. Furthermore, the garden landscape couldbe designed in a way that less water is used by using a water sensesprinklers (California Urban Water Conservation Council, 2003).

Modifyinghabits as a way of water conservation

Theleast expensive and yet mostly ignored water conservation measure isthrough personal habit modification in the use of water. Effectivewater audit does not end at the appliance level it is important toassess the way different family members use water (Vickers, 2001).Common habits that can conserve water involve

  • Turning off water as you brush or shave

  • Turning off water after the required level is attained in dishwashing or clothes washing.

  • Taking shorter time in showers

  • Avoid watering the garden plants when the day is cool.

  • Use sink plugs to close the drainage of the sink when still washing.


CaliforniaUrban Water Conservation Council. (March 2003). H2OUSEWater Saver Home.http://www.h2ouse.org/

Dziegielewski(2000). Commercialand Institutional End Uses of Water.AmericanWater Works Association Research Foundation.

Vickers,Amy. (2001). Water Use and Conservation. WaterPlow Press.Amherst, MA. 446 p.