World Cultures



Culturesof different communities have evolved over the years and underdifferent regimes. This paper will address the legacies of differentEgyptian Pharaohs, the Great Wall of China, Athenian Acropolis, andColosseum.

Legaciesof Egyptian Pharaohs

Khafrawas a king of the ancient Egypt who ruled in the fourth dynasty ofthe Old Kingdom. Historians have given negative evaluations of KingKhafra stating that he was a heretic and cruel leader. He isremembered to-date because he built the second pyramid on the GizaPlateau in Cairo (Dunn, 2014). Akhenaten ruled as the Pharaoh of theeighteenth dynasty. He is remembered for his courage andeffectiveness that helped him in establishing international relationswith the Eastern empires and setting up religious policies. Althoughall Egyptian kings left their own legacies, the life of QueenHatshepsut represents the true type of civilization. Hatshepsut wasthe fifth Pharaoh of Egypt and she is among the most active women whoever assumed the position of a Queen. She is remembered for herability to restore trade routes that had been disrupted in during thetime of the Second Intermediate period (Grimm, 2014). Her ability toinitiate and enhance civilization are demonstrated by hundreds ofconstruction projects (including the Speos Artemidos) shecommissioned in both Lower and Upper Egypt.

TheGreat Wall of China

Theconstruction of the Great Wall of China began some centuries beforeChrist. The two important aspects of the wall include the purpose ofits construction and the use of human labor. The wall was constructedby different empires and in different sections that were later joinedto compose what was later named as the Great Wall of China. The mainpurpose of constructing the wall was to protect the empire fromnomadic communities and other enemies from the north. Individualkings from different empires (including Qi, Wei, Yan, Qin, and Zhao)had constructed sections of the wall with the objective of defendingtheir own territories from external aggression (Mur, 2014). The wallwas constructed using human labor, which was composed of three groupsof people, including soldiers, common people, and criminals. It isestimated that about 1 million people died as a result of hard workand harsh working conditions during the construction. However, it isevident that the wall was constructed for a good purpose, to protectpeople from enemies and establish sustainable empires.

Althoughthe construction of walls to protect empires is an old strategy, itwas used a desperate measure to prevent the people of East Berlinfrom escaping to parts that were controlled by the Soviet Union. Theyconstructed the Berlin Wall in 1961 and its purpose is more or lesssimilar to that of the Great Wall of China, to protect the empire.


Theacropolis of Athens refers to a citadel that is located on the rockyoutcrop in the city of Athens. The citadel represents humancivilization and the classical spirit (UNESCO, 2014). The majoraspects of the Acropolis include the special design of the buildings(form) and the style of the buildings. The design of the buildings onthe rocky outcrops represents the culture and civilization of theEuropean communities. The style used to construct the buildingsrepresents a refinement and status of the ancient Greeks. The styleof construction was achieved by the use of simple techniques thatresulted in a profound balance. The Greek comedy is one of the mostintriguing features of the Greek theatre. The Greek comedy plays werestarted in the 6 th century BCE and followed some conventionalstructure. The comedians began with the chorus (also known asparados)and graced the comedy with impressive dresses and costumes. Mostinterestingly, all the Greek comedies had a theme and were performedon different occasions. Although comedies had different themes mostof them addressed the human aspect of human feelings and moods. Forexample, the comedy “Aristophanes’ Acharnians”addressedconditions (including depression) in human soul (Liveright,2014). Thisimplies that the ancient Greeks were more interested in the innerbeing more than mere entertainment. Although the content of modernfilms is highlycriticized, contemporary actors and actresses have managed to combineentertainment education. This means that even the modern filmscontain important themes on human behavior.


TheColosseum is an amphitheatre that is located in the center of Rome.It was the largest theatre of the Roman Empire and represents thegreatest engineering and architectural work of the ancient Romans.The building was constructed using concrete and stone. The buildingwas completed in 80 AD and it was estimated to hold approximately80,000 spectators (Hopkins, 2011). The fascinating building wasdesigned by an unknown artist who intended to come up with an arenaof 300 X 180 feet, which was the largest building of the time. Thetwo most interesting aspects of the Colosseum structure include thespecial design that catered for the safety of the spectators andconstruction design that facilitated the arrangement of spectators inthe hierarchy. According to Hopkins (2011) spectators went to theirseats through the numbered arches and the best seats were locatedbehind the podium that was raised for safety reasons. Similarly, themodern structures (including the entertainment halls and sportsgrounds) are constructed with the safety of spectators in mind.Secondly, the design of the staircases facilitated the arrangement ofclientele in separate social classes, where the front seats werereserved for special guests. This is similar to modern structuresthat are designed to accommodate individuals from different socialclasses, seating in different parts of the building.


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Hopkins,K. (2011). The Colosseum: Emblem of Rome. TheBBC.Retrieved July, 13, 2014, from

Liveright(2014). Scene: The Athenian ecclenian on the pnyx. Liveright.Retrieved July 13, 2014, from

Mur,K. (2014). The Great Wall of China. The Great Wall of China.Retrieved July 13, 2014, from

UNESCO(2014). Acropolis,Athens.Paris: UNESCO.