World’s fairs




Theinitial World’s fair was held in London in year 1851 as a mean forBritain to display its political and economic power. The title was“TheGreat Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations.” This fair was an innovativeness of the Queen Victoria’s group,Prince Albert.


CounterHegemony perspective demonstrates how certain groups were managed touse fairs in expression of their views. For instance, NativeAmericans through the Wild West prowess shows, or the year 1893Women’s pavilion held in Chicago.


Centralbuildings of world fair were glass-enclosed space, which were labeledthe ‘Crystal Palace,’ and became the mutual name for the events. The Crystal Palace also developed the concept of signature building,which became an icon for the fair.


WhiteCity stood out because of its lighting, which used new electricallight Edison bulbs, and because it contrasted a grimy polluted cityin subsequent door. White City was viewed as the beacon of urbanorder as well as beauty during the period of industrialization formajority of urban poverty as well as hardship.


NativeAmerican groups saw the fair as a chance to display achievements aswell as skills, but other groups saw the fair as exploitation. Thearticle deliberates Geronimo’s role the three fairs while theprisoner-of-war. Geronimo sported military uniform to displaycivilizing effect of the citizenship.


Certainly,women were more prosperous than minorities in attainment of a placein the fairs, while the role was regularly controversial. The groupsformed by women were divided over how achievements should berepresented, as well as whether specialized pavilions work for theirinterests.


AndrewWood presented a case study of Woman’s Building at year 1893Chicago fair as a sample of groups looking for representation atChicago fair, and how the voices can be changed to serve interests ofthe fair organizers.


Midwaywas a famous feature of world fair, with supporter dancer Sally Randattaining arrest, dishonor, as well as continuing with the custom ofmature entertainment to appeal visitors to fairs. The Pikeentertainment district for world fair was a familiar part of world’sfair formula.


Introductionof machinery of industrial revolution at world fairs of 19th century,hamburger and ice cream cone brought popularization of television aswell as automobile and a pavilion-by-pavilion cold war battle inBrussels in the year 1958.


SinceSpokane 1974, the world fairs feature technology as well as newproducts, but still the events have shifted attention to environmentas well as harmony in the post-cold war environment.



Middlingresponds to the main narrative conflict between the minority anddominant groups by positioning minority group between the opposingnarratives of the secondary narrative conflict. Instead of puttingminority group beyond bounds of dominant narrative, the middlingplaces a minority group as the social safety controller betweenopposing ideologies of the less threatening conflict. AmericanIndians who attended world fairs represented different tribes,Navajos and Pueblos from Southwest, Indians from Northwest, ApacheIndians from the San Carlos, as well as Plains Indians.

Theinfamous Apache leader called Geronimo, had aroused fury of theArizona newspaper when he terrorized citizens, by cutting the swaththrough Arizona as well as New Mexico territories. The “cold-bloodedscoundrel” evaded military forces of General Crook and GeneralMiles as Geronimo with a small band of followers, disappeared intotowering recesses of Sierra Madre Mountains. The year 1876Philadelphia fair was planned around race and its main goal was toencourage white racial dominance. The fair excludedAfrican-Americans as well as humiliated Native Americans to serveagendas of fair organizers.


Aftersuccess of previous a fairs, Chicago planned a special fair for itscentenary. Planning started before stock market crash, and continuedbecause the planners thought that the fair would be the source ofemployment during depression. Chicago special affair theme was ‘ACentury of Progress’met to celebrate developments in technology and science. The sitewas the strip of land alongside Lake Michigan near south of Loop.

RobertMoses controlled planning of the New York City whose activitiescreated both infrastructure and parks while at the similarlydemolishing neighborhoods to build freeways. Moses used world fair asa reason to develop the area, an opportunity that was not availablefor him in past. Moses was possibly the most influential publicofficial in that city, who seldom met confrontation, and who witnessthe event as the way of creating the massive park. He failed toachieve all he desired with World’s Fair event held in 1939, butlater used 1964 fair to finish his plan. A usual theme of the world’sfairs was future, and in depression, a promise of the better tomorrowwas common topic. The slogan of world fair was &quotScienceFinds, Industry Applies, and Man Conforms.” Thisviewpoint reflects technological determinism that perceivestechnology as a driver of social and economic value.


Forthe Futurama exhibition, General Motors formed a film called ToNew Horizonsto display how life in future would be. This film displays the pastand present in white and black but switches to other colors whendisplaying the future. The world fair held on 1939 closed with warbut it was reopened the subsequent year as the way to encourageeconomic activity. The United States was not part of this war, butthe mood of world fair changed dramatically. Instead of peacemessages as well as friendship, the emphasis was on patriotism andnationalism. The pavilions of occupied countries, such asCzechoslovakia and Poland, became outposts of the governments inexile.


Thefirst part of 20th century witnessed growing urbanization,industrialization, and international trade in context of persistentcolonialism. Countries were enthusiastic to use the world’s fairsto display their power, colonies, and wealth. After about fifty yearsof the European fame for world’s fairs, Chicago ColombianExposition made United States the host for main events In the UnitedStates, the fairs of early 20th century seized the increasing powerof the nation after it won Spanish-American War as well as increasingeconomic power and global influence. Themes of the racialsuperiority remained to be illustrated at world fairs during thisperiod. I would wish to attend United States fairs of 20th centurybecause they shifted from stress on colonial power as well as racialsuperiority to consumerism. Through these fairs, several constantsemerged first, the way these fairs serve as considerations of a timeas well as place second, the legacy involvement to buildenvironment and third tension between the high art and commonculture.